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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.21 2003/12/07 18:21:26 pylon Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.64 2012/07/24 12:12:51 swift Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide>
6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
8<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
11<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
12</author> 13</author>
13<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23<author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
25</author>
26
27<abstract>
28This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
29postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
30</abstract>
31
14<version>1.0.6</version> 32<version>4</version>
15<date>December 7, 2003</date> 33<date>2012-07-24</date>
16<!--
17 34
18Contents
19
20I. Introduction
21II. Postfix Basics
22III. Courier-imap
23IV. Cyrus-sasl
24V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
25VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
26VII. MySQL
27VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
28IX. The vmail user
29X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
30XI. Squirrelmail
31XII. Mailman
32XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
33XIV. Wrap Up
34XV. Troubleshooting
35
36--><chapter> 35<chapter>
37<title>Introduction</title> 36<title>Introduction</title>
38<body> 37<section>
39<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
40<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
41<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
42<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
43<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
44
45 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
46<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
47<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
48<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
49<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
50<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
51<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
52</body> 38<body>
39
40<p>
41For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
42you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
43Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
44need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
45system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
46</p>
47
48<p>
49A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
50with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
51that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
52domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
53smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
54system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
55the system? How do you manage it all?
56</p>
57
58<p>
59This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
60mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
61users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
62authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
63utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
64mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
65central and easy mysql database.
66</p>
67
68<p>
69There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
70system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
71needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
72<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
73</p>
74
75<p>
76The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap,
77courier-authlib postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql,
78php, and mailman.
79</p>
80
81<p>
82Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>
83before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
84sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
85get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
86turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
87</p>
88
89<impo>
90You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
91for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
92advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
93</impo>
94
95<impo>
96Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
97your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
98<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
99<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
100<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
101</impo>
102
103<note>
104It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
105with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
106any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
107Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
108flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
109the squirrelmail section.
110</note>
111
112</body>
113</section>
53</chapter> 114</chapter>
115
54<chapter> 116<chapter>
55<title>Postfix Basics</title> 117<title>Postfix Basics</title>
118<section>
56<body> 119<body>
57<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 120
121<pre caption="Install postfix">
122# <i>emerge postfix</i>
123</pre>
124
125<warn>
126Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
127netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
128</warn>
129
130<p>
131After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
132options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
133<c>$variables</c> with your own names.
58</pre> 134</p>
59<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 135
60<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
61<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 136<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
62myhostname = $host.domain.name 137myhostname = $host.domain.name
63mydomain = $domain.name 138mydomain = $domain.name
64inet_interfaces = all 139inet_interfaces = all
65mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 140mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
66mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 141mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
67home_mailbox = .maildir/ 142home_mailbox = .maildir/
68local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 143local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
69default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 144default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
145</pre>
146
147<p>
70<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 148Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
149turn on verbose output for debugging:
150</p>
151
71<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 152<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
72# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 153# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
73# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 154# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
74# 155#
75========================================================================== 156==========================================================================
157<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
76smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 158smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
159</pre>
77 160
78<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 161<p>
162Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
163should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
79</pre> 164</p>
80<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 165
81<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 166<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
82# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 167# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
83<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 168<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
84<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 169when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
85 170
86# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 171# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
87</pre> 172</pre>
88<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 173
89<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 174<p>
175Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
176yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
177postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
178next step.
179</p>
180
181<note>
182I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
183before you progress to the next step of the howto.
184</note>
185
90</body> 186</body>
187</section>
91</chapter> 188</chapter>
189
92<chapter> 190<chapter>
93<title>Courier-imap</title> 191<title>Courier-imap</title>
192<section>
94<body> 193<body>
95<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 194
195<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
196# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
96</pre> 197</pre>
198
97<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 199<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
98# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 200# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
99<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 201<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
100<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 202you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
101<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 203This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
102 204
103# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 205# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
104# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 206# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
105<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 207<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
106 208
107# <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 209# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
108# <i>mkimapdcert</i> 210# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
109</pre> 211</pre>
212
110<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 213<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 214# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 215# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
113# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 216# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
114# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 217# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
115</pre> 218</pre>
116<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 219
220<p>
221Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
222started work for receiving and sending mail. Of course, you won't be able to log
223on to any of the services because authentication hasn't been configured yet, but
224it is wise to check if the connections themselves work or not.
225</p>
226
227<p>
228Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to
229get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've
230installed already works before progressing.
231</p>
232
117</body> 233</body>
234</section>
118</chapter> 235</chapter>
236
119<chapter> 237<chapter>
120<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 238<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
239<section>
121<body> 240<body>
122<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 241
123<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 242<p>
243Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
244actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass
245that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto,
246we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and
247contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against
248mysql in the end anyway.
249</p>
250
124<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 251<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
125# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 252# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
126<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
127<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
128</pre> 253</pre>
254
255<p>
129<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 256Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
257</p>
258
130<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 259<pre caption="Starting sasl">
131# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 260# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
261mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
132pwcheck_method: saslauthd 262pwcheck_method: saslauthd
133mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 263# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
134<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 264SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
135<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 265SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
136# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 266# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
137</pre> 267</pre>
268
138</body> 269</body>
270</section>
139</chapter> 271</chapter>
272
140<chapter> 273<chapter>
141<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 274<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
275<section>
142<body> 276<body>
277
278<p>
143<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 279Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
144<pre> 280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
145# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 283# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
146# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 284# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
147 285
148<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 286<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
149countryName_default 287countryName_default
150stateOrProvinceName_default 288stateOrProvinceName_default
151localityName_default 289localityName_default
1520.organizationName_default 2900.organizationName_default
153commonName_default 291commonName_default
154emailAddress_default. 292emailAddress_default.
155 293
156<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 294<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
157
158 295
159# <i>cd misc</i> 296# <i>cd misc</i>
160# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 297# <i>./CA.pl -newreq-nodes</i>
161<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
162<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
163<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
164<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
165
166# create a certificate
167system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169# create a certificate request
170system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
171
172# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 298# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
173# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
174# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 299# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
175# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 300# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 301# <i>cp newkey.pem /etc/postfix</i>
177# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 302# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
178<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 303<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
179 304
180# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 305# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
181# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 306# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
182# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 307# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
183<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 308<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
184<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 309We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
185</pre> 310</pre>
311
186</body> 312</body>
313</section>
314
187</chapter> 315</chapter>
188<chapter> 316<chapter>
189<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 317<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
318<section>
190<body> 319<body>
191<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 320
321<p>
322Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
323capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
324will be easy to find.
325</p>
326
192<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 327<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
193# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 328# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
194 329
195smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 330smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
196smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
197smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 331smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
198broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 332broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
199smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 333smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
200 334
201<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 335<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
202<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 336are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
203<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 337Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
204<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 338smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
205<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 339smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
206<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 340mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
207 341
208smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 342smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
209 permit_sasl_authenticated, 343 permit_sasl_authenticated,
210 permit_mynetworks, 344 permit_mynetworks,
211 reject_unauth_destination 345 reject_unauth_destination
212
213 346
347<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
348smtp_use_tls = yes
349smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
214smtpd_use_tls = yes 350smtpd_use_tls = yes
215#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 351#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
216smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 352smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newkey.pem
217smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 353smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
218smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 354smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
219smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 355smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
220smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 356smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
221smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 357smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
222tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 358tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
223 359
224<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 360<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
225<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 361You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
226 362
227# <i>postfix reload</i> 363# <i>postfix reload</i>
228</pre> 364</pre>
365
366<p>
229<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 367Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
368For this we are going to use <c>telnet</c> (provided by for instance
369<c>net-misc/netkit-telnetd</c>) although you can also use <c>nc</c> (provided by
370<c>net-analyzer/netcat</c>):
371</p>
372
230<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 373<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
231# <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 374# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
232 375
233Trying 127.0.0.1... 376Trying 127.0.0.1...
234Connected to localhost. 377Connected to localhost.
235Escape character is '^]'. 378Escape character is '^]'.
246250-XVERP 389250-XVERP
247250 8BITMIME 390250 8BITMIME
248<i>^]</i> 391<i>^]</i>
249telnet> <i>quit</i> 392telnet> <i>quit</i>
250</pre> 393</pre>
251<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 394
395<p>
396Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
397install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
398sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
399unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
400and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
252 </p> 401</p>
402
253</body> 403</body>
404</section>
405</chapter>
406
254</chapter> 407<chapter>
408<title>The vmail user</title>
409<section>
410<body>
411
412<p>
413Before we set up our virtual mailhosting environment, we create a functional
414user under which the virtual mailboxes will be hosted. For clarity's sake we
415will call this <e>vmail</e>:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
419# <i>useradd -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false -m vmail</i>
420</pre>
421
422<p>
423So now you've set up the vmail account. You can create multiple accounts if you
424want (to keep some structure in your set of virtual mail accounts). The user id,
425group id and home dirs are referenced in the MySQL tables.
426</p>
427
428<p>
429Next to the user account we also need to create the location where the mailboxes
430will reside:
431</p>
432
433<pre caption="Creating mailboxes">
434# <i>mkdir -p /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo</i>
435# <i>chown -R vmail:vmail /home/vmail/virt-domain.com</i>
436# <i>maildirmake /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir</i>
437</pre>
438
439</body>
440</section>
441</chapter>
442
255<chapter> 443<chapter>
256<title>MySQL</title> 444<title>MySQL</title>
445<section>
257<body> 446<body>
258<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 447
448<p>
449Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
450link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
451dumpfile for this step.
452</p>
453
259<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 454<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
260# <i>emerge mysql</i> 455# <i>emerge mysql</i>
261 456
262# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 457# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
263<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 458<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
264<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 459for adding a root password with mysql, otherwise your db will
265<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 460be wide open.)</comment>
266 461
267# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 462# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
268# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 463# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
269# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 464# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
270
271# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 465# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
272mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 466mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
273 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 467 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
274 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 468 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
275 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 469 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
470Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
276 471
277 -> <i>quit</i> 472mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
473Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
474
475mysql> <i>quit</i>
278<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 476<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
279 477
280# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 478# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
281</pre> 479</pre>
480
481<p>
282<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 482Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
483following tables are included:
484</p>
485
283 <ul> 486<ul>
284<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 487 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
285<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 488 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
489 <li>
286<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 490 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
491 hosting
492 </li>
287<li>users - all user account information</li> 493 <li>users - all user account information</li>
288<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 494 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
289</ul> 495</ul>
290</p> 496
291<pre caption="alias table sample" > 497<pre caption="alias table sample">
292id alias destination 498id alias destination
2931 root foo@bar.com 4991 root foo@bar.com
2942 postmaster foo@bar.com 5002 postmaster foo@bar.com
295</pre> 501</pre>
502
296<pre caption="user table sample" > 503<pre caption="user table sample">
297<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote> 504<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
298id email clear name uid gid homedir \ 505id email clear name uid gid homedir \
299 maildir quota postfix 506 maildir quota postfix
30010 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \ 50710 foo@virt-domain.com $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
301 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 508 /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir/ y
30213 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \ 50913 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
303 /home/foo/.maildir/ y 510 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
511</pre>
512
513<p>
514The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
515user and group.
304</pre> 516</p>
517
305<pre caption="transport table sample" > 518<pre caption="transport table sample">
306id domain destination 519id domain destination
3071 bar.com local: 5201 bar.com local:
3082 virt-bar.org virtual: 5212 virt-domain.com virtual:
309</pre> 522</pre>
523
310<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 524<pre caption="virtual table sample">
311id email destination 525id email destination
3123 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5263 root@virt-domain.com other@email.address
313</pre> 527</pre>
528
314</body> 529</body>
530</section>
315</chapter> 531</chapter>
532
316<chapter> 533<chapter>
317<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 534<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
535<section>
318<body> 536<body>
537
538<p>
319<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 539Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
540more easily.
541</p>
542
320<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 543<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
321# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i> 544# <i>emerge apache phpmyadmin</i>
545</pre>
546
547<p>
548There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php,
549including guides provided by the <uri link="/proj/en/php/">Gentoo PHP
550Project</uri>. There are also numerous posts on
551<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the
552installation. So, that said, we're not going to cover it here. Set up the
553apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the
554wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this,
555search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean
556that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be
557able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There
558are many howtos on this including:
559<uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
322</pre> 560</p>
323<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 561
324<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 562<p>
563Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
564Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
565</p>
566
325 <ul> 567<ul>
326<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 568 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
327<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 569 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
328</ul> 570</ul>
329</p> 571
330<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 572<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
331# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 573# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
332# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 574# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
333# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 575# <i>cd /etc/apache2/vhosts.d</i>
576<comment>(Check if you have an ssl-vhost template already.
577 Copy that one instead of the default_vhost if that is the case)</comment>
578# <i>cp 00_default_vhost.conf ssl-vhost.conf</i>
579# <i>nano -w ssl-vhost.conf</i>
580
334<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 581<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
582NameVirtualHost host.domain.name:443
335 583
584&lt;VirtualHost host.domain.name:443&gt;
336ServerName host.domain.name 585 ServerName host.domain.name
337ServerAdmin your@email.address 586 ServerAdmin your@email.address
587
588 DocumentRoot "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin";
589 &lt;Directory "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin"&gt;
590 ...
591 &lt;/Directory&gt;
592
338SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 593 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.cert
339SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 594 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.key
595 SSLEngine on
596 ...
597&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
340 598
599# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/apache2</i>
600<comment>(Add -D SSL -D PHP5 to the APACHE2_OPTS)</comment>
601
341# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 602# <i>/etc/init.d/apache2 restart</i>
342</pre> 603</pre>
343<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 604
605<p>
344<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 606Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
607</p>
608
345<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 609<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
346# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 610# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin</i>
611# <i>cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php</i>
612# <i>nano -w config.inc.php</i>
347<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 613<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
614$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = 'someverysecretpassphraze';
348 615
349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 616$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
350$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 617$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
351 // (this user must have read-only 618 // (this user must have read-only
352$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 619$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
353 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 620 // and "mysql/db" tables)
354$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 621$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
355$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 622$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
356</pre> 623</pre>
357<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 624
625<p>
626Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
627local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
628transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
629supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
630go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
631accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
632correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
633automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
634general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
635setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
636</p>
637
358</body> 638</body>
359</chapter> 639</section>
360<chapter> 640</chapter>
361<title>The vmail user</title> 641
362<body>
363<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
364<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
365# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
366# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
367# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
368# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
369# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
370</pre>
371<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
372</body>
373</chapter>
374<chapter> 642<chapter>
375<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 643<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
644<section>
376<body> 645<body>
377<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 646
378<pre> 647<p>
379# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i> 648Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
380# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 649courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
381<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 650<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
382
383#auth required pam_nologin.so
384#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
387
388auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
391 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
392
393# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
394# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
395<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
396</pre> 651</p>
397<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 652
398<pre> 653<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
399# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 654# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
400authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 655authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
401 656
402# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
403AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
404
405# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 657# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
406MYSQL_SERVER localhost 658MYSQL_SERVER localhost
407MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 659MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
408MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 660MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
409MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 661MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
410MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 662MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
411#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 663<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
664#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
412MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 665MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
413MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 666MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
414MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 667MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
415MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 668MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
416MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 669MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
417MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 670MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
418MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 671MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
419 672
420# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 673# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
421# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 674# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
422</pre> 675</pre>
423<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 676
677<p>
678We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
679for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
680Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
681password, alias, email address, and so on.
682</p>
683
424<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 684<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
425# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 685# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
426# mysql-aliases.cf 686# mysql-aliases.cf
427 687
428user = mailsql 688user = mailsql
429password = $password 689password = $password
430dbname = mailsql 690dbname = mailsql
431table = alias 691table = alias
432select_field = destination 692select_field = destination
433where_field = alias 693where_field = alias
434hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 694hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
435</pre> 695</pre>
696
436<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 697<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 698# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
438# mysql-relocated.cf 699# mysql-relocated.cf
439 700
440user = mailsql 701user = mailsql
441password = $password 702password = $password
442dbname = mailsql 703dbname = mailsql
443table = relocated 704table = relocated
444select_field = destination 705select_field = destination
445where_field = email 706where_field = email
446hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 707hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
447</pre> 708</pre>
709
448<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 710<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
449# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 711# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
450# mysql-transport.cf 712# mysql-transport.cf
451 713
452user = mailsql 714user = mailsql
453password = $password 715password = $password
454dbname = mailsql 716dbname = mailsql
455table = transport 717table = transport
456select_field = destination 718select_field = destination
457where_field = domain 719where_field = domain
458hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 720hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
459</pre> 721</pre>
722
460<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 723<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
461# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 724# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
462#myql-virtual-gid.cf 725# mysql-virtual-gid.cf
463 726
464user = mailsql 727user = mailsql
465password = $password 728password = $password
466dbname = mailsql 729dbname = mailsql
467table = users 730table = users
468select_field = gid 731select_field = gid
469where_field = email 732where_field = email
470additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 733additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
471hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 734hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
472</pre> 735</pre>
736
473<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 737<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
474# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 738# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
475#myql-virtual-maps.cf 739# mysql-virtual-maps.cf
476 740
477user = mailsql 741user = mailsql
478password = $password 742password = $password
479dbname = mailsql 743dbname = mailsql
480table = users 744table = users
481select_field = maildir 745select_field = maildir
482where_field = email 746where_field = email
483additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 747additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
484hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 748hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
485</pre> 749</pre>
750
486<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 751<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 752# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
488# mysql-virtual-uid.cf 753# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
489 754
490user = mailsql 755user = mailsql
491password = $password 756password = $password
492dbname = mailsql 757dbname = mailsql
493table = users 758table = users
494select_field = uid 759select_field = uid
495where_field = email 760where_field = email
496additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 761additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
497hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 762hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
498</pre> 763</pre>
764
499<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 765<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
500# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 766# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
501# mysql-virtual.cf 767# mysql-virtual.cf
502 768
503user = mailsql 769user = mailsql
504password = $password 770password = $password
505dbname = mailsql 771dbname = mailsql
506table = virtual 772table = virtual
507select_field = destination 773select_field = destination
508where_field = email 774where_field = email
509hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 775hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
510</pre> 776</pre>
777
778<p>
511<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 779Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
780</p>
781
512<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 782<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 783# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
784<comment>(Ensure that there are no other alias_maps definitions)</comment>
514alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 785alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
515relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 786relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
516 787
517local_transport = local 788local_transport = local
518local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 789local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
519 790
520virtual_transport = virtual 791virtual_transport = virtual
521virtual_mailbox_domains = 792<comment>(The domains listed by the mydestination should not be listed in
522 virt-bar.com, 793 the virtual_mailbox_domains parameter)</comment>
523 $other-virtual-domain.com 794virtual_mailbox_domains = virt-domain.com, $other-virtual-domain.com
524 795
525virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 796virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
797<comment>(Substitute $vmail-gid with the GID of the vmail group)</comment>
526virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 798virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
527virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 799virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
528virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 800virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
801<comment>(Substitute $vmail-uid with the UID of the vmail user)</comment>
529virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 802virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
530virtual_mailbox_base = / 803virtual_mailbox_base = /
531#virtual_mailbox_limit = 804#virtual_mailbox_limit =
532</pre> 805</pre>
533<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 806
807<p>
808For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
809<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
810</p>
811
812<pre caption="Changing file permission">
813# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
814# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
815</pre>
816
817<p>
818As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
819release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
820longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
821</p>
822
823<note>
534<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 824It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
825for more information.
826</note>
827
828<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
535<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 829# <i>postfix reload</i>
830</pre>
831
832<p>
833Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
834able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
835for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
836everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
837things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
838troubleshooting section of this howto.
536</pre> 839</p>
537<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 840
538</body> 841</body>
842</section>
539</chapter> 843</chapter>
844
540<chapter> 845<chapter>
541<title>Squirrelmail</title> 846<title>Squirrelmail</title>
847<section>
542<body> 848<body>
543<pre> 849
850<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
544# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 851# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
545<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 852<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
853(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
546 854
547# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i> 855# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
548# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 856# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
549# <i>./conf.pl</i> 857# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
550<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 858<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
551<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 859Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
552<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 860and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
553</pre> 861</pre>
862
554</body> 863</body>
864</section>
555</chapter> 865</chapter>
866
556<chapter> 867<chapter>
557<title>Mailman</title> 868<title>Mailman</title>
869<section>
558<body> 870<body>
559<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 871
560<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 872<p>
561<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 873Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
562# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 874support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
563MAILGID="280" 875get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
564<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 876to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
565<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 877documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
878here.
566</pre> 879</p>
567<pre> 880
881<pre caption="Install mailman">
568# <i>emerge mailman</i> 882# <i>emerge mailman</i>
569<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
570<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
571<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
572<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
573
574# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
575</pre> 883</pre>
884
576<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 885<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
577# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 886# <i> nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
578<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 887<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
579DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 888DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
580DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 889DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
581</pre> 890</pre>
891
582<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 892<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
583# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 893# <i>nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
584MTA = "Postfix" 894MTA = "Postfix"
585POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 895POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
586add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 896add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
587add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 897add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
588<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 898<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
589</pre>
590<pre> 899</pre>
900
901<pre caption="And last but not least">
591<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 902<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
592 903
593# <i>su mailman</i> 904# <i>su mailman</i>
594# <i>cd ~</i> 905# <i>cd ~</i>
595# <i>bin/newlist test</i> 906# <i>./bin/newlist --urlhost='www.virt-domain.com' --emailhost='virt-domain.com' test</i>
596Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 907Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
597Initial test password: 908Initial test password:
598Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 909Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
599<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 910<comment>(Virtual domain lists may also be specified with
600<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 911list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
601# <i>bin/genaliases</i> 912# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
602<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 913<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
603<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 914verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
604 915
605# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 916# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
606# STANZA START: test 917# STANZA START: test
607# CREATED: 918# CREATED:
608test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 919test: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
609test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 920test-admin: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
610test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 921test-bounces: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
611test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 922test-confirm: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
612test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 923test-join: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
613test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 924test-leave: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
614test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 925test-owner: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
615test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 926test-request: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
616test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 927test-subscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
617test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 928test-unsubscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
618# STANZA END: test 929# STANZA END: test
930
931<comment>(Create the required mailman list)</comment>
932# <i>./bin/newlist mailman</i>
933# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
934
935<comment>(Return to the root user)</comment>
936# <i>exit</i>
619 937
620# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 938# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
621# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 939# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
622<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 940<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
623</pre> 941</pre>
624 942
625<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 943<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
626# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 944# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
627owner_request_special = no 945owner_request_special = no
628recipient_delimiter = + 946recipient_delimiter = +
629<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 947<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
630 948
631alias_maps = 949alias_maps =
632 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 950 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/aliases,
633 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 951 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
634 952
635virtual_alias_maps = 953virtual_alias_maps =
636 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 954 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
637 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 955 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
638<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 956<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
639<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 957You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
640<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 958but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
641<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 959using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
642<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 960to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
961</pre>
962
963<p>
964You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
965note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
966mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
967Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
968lists.
643</pre> 969</p>
644<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 970
645</body> 971</body>
972</section>
646</chapter> 973</chapter>
974
647<chapter> 975<chapter>
648<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 976<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
649<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 977<section>
978<body>
979
980<p>
981For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
982link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
983</p>
984
985</body>
986</section>
650</chapter> 987</chapter>
988
651<chapter> 989<chapter>
652<title>Wrap Up</title> 990<title>Wrap Up</title>
991<section>
653<body> 992<body>
654<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 993
994<p>
995Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
996verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
997to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
998sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
999courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1000up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1001the services enabled.
1002</p>
1003
655<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1004<pre caption="Wrap up">
656# <i>postfix reload</i> 1005# <i>postfix reload</i>
657# <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1006# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
658</pre> 1007</pre>
1008
659<p> 1009<p>
660<e>Have fun!</e> 1010<e>Have fun!</e>
661</p> 1011</p>
1012
662</body> 1013</body>
1014</section>
663</chapter> 1015</chapter>
1016
664<chapter> 1017<chapter>
665<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1018<title>Troubleshooting</title>
666<section> 1019<section>
667<title>Introduction</title> 1020<title>Introduction</title>
668<body> 1021<body>
669<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1022
1023<p>
1024Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1025detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1026you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1027it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1028that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1029from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1030work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1031</p>
1032
670</body> 1033</body>
671</section>
672<section> 1034</section>
1035<section>
673<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1036<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
674<body> 1037<body>
675<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1038
676<pre> 1039<p>
1040Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1041your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1042if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1043it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1044make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1045</p>
1046
1047<pre caption="How to restart a service">
677# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1048# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
678</pre> 1049</pre>
1050
679</body> 1051</body>
680</section> 1052</section>
681<section> 1053<section>
682<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1054<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
683<body> 1055<body>
684<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1056
685<pre> 1057<p>
1058If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1059running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1060Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1061component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1062process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1063awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1064out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1065</p>
1066
1067<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
686# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1068# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
687# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1069# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
688</pre> 1070</pre>
1071
689</body> 1072</body>
690</section> 1073</section>
691<section> 1074<section>
692<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1075<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
693<body> 1076<body>
694<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1077
695<pre> 1078<p>
1079If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1080sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1081current config's to you, like postfix.
1082</p>
1083
1084<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
696# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1085# <i>apache2ctl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
697# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1086# <i>apache2ctl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
698# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1087# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
699# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1088# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
700</pre> 1089</pre>
1090
701</body> 1091</body>
702</section>
703<section> 1092</section>
1093<section>
704<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1094<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
705<body> 1095<body>
706<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1096
707<pre> 1097<p>
1098Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1099logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1100logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1101logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1102in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1103figure out which component is having the problem.
1104</p>
1105
1106<pre caption="Checking the logs">
708# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1107# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
709# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1108# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
710# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1109# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
711# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1110# <i>tail /var/log/apache2/error_log</i>
1111</pre>
1112
1113<p>
1114You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1115will increase log output over just verbose mode.
712</pre> 1116</p>
713<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1117
714<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1118<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
715# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1119# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
716debug_peer_level = 5 1120debug_peer_level = 5
717debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1121debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
718<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1122<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
719<codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1123commands as well.)</comment>
720</pre> 1124</pre>
1125
721</body> 1126</body>
722</section>
723<section> 1127</section>
1128<section>
724<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1129<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
725<body> 1130<body>
726<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1131
727<pre> 1132<p>
1133SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1134we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1135to the service itself and see what's happening.
1136</p>
1137
1138<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
728# <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1139# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
729<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1140<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
730<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1141letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
731 1142
732Trying 127.0.0.1... 1143Trying 127.0.0.1...
733Connected to localhost. 1144Connected to localhost.
734Escape character is '^]'. 1145Escape character is '^]'.
735* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. 1146* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
736</pre> 1147</pre>
1148
737</body> 1149</body>
738</section>
739<section> 1150</section>
1151<section>
740<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1152<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
741<body> 1153<body>
742<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1154
743<pre> 1155<p>
1156You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1157software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1158all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1159information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1160transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1161</p>
1162
1163<pre caption="Using strace">
744# <i>emerge strace</i> 1164# <i>emerge strace</i>
745# <i>strace $command</i> 1165# <i>strace $command</i>
746# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1166# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
747</pre> 1167</pre>
1168
748</body> 1169</body>
749</section> 1170</section>
750<section> 1171<section>
751<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1172<title>Step 7: Research</title>
752<body> 1173<body>
753<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1174
1175<p>
1176Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1177If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1178help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1179already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1180which contains some great debugging ideas.
754<p> 1181</p>
1182
755<ul> 1183<ul>
756<li>
757<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1184 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
758<li> 1185 <li>
759<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1186 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
760<li> 1187 to look for specific errors
1188 </li>
761<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1189 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
762<li> 1190 <li>
763<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1191 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1192 lists - searchable
1193 </li>
764<li> 1194 <li>
765<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1195 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1196 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1197 </li>
766<li> 1198 <li>
767<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1199 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
768<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1200 google, which has never failed me
1201 </li>
1202 <li>
1203 I also spend a lot of time on <uri
1204 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>. IRC is a great place to go
1205 for help.
1206 </li>
769</ul> 1207</ul>
770</p> 1208
771</body> 1209</body>
772</section> 1210</section>
773</chapter> 1211</chapter>
774</guide> 1212</guide>
775

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