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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.28 2004/03/04 18:24:44 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.47 2005/12/16 07:43:40 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
8<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
11<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
12</author> 13</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 14<author title="Editor">
14<mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail> 15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
15</author> 16</author>
16<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
17<version>1.0.10</version> 26<version>1.0.24</version>
18<date>March 4, 2004</date> 27<date>2005-12-02</date>
28
19<!-- 29<!--
20
21Contents 30Contents
22 31
23I. Introduction 32I. Introduction
24II. Postfix Basics 33II. Postfix Basics
25III. Courier-imap 34III. Courier-imap
33XI. Squirrelmail 42XI. Squirrelmail
34XII. Mailman 43XII. Mailman
35XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
36XIV. Wrap Up 45XIV. Wrap Up
37XV. Troubleshooting 46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
38 48
39--><chapter> 49<chapter>
40<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
41<section> 51<section>
42<body> 52<body>
43<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 53
44<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 54<p>
45<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 55For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
46<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
47<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
48 58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
49 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
50<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 60</p>
51<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 61
52<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo> 62<p>
53<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
54<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
55<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128</impo>
129
130<note>
131It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136the squirrelmail section.
137</note>
138
56</body> 139</body>
57</section> 140</section>
58</chapter> 141</chapter>
59 142
60<chapter> 143<chapter>
61<title>Postfix Basics</title> 144<title>Postfix Basics</title>
62<section> 145<section>
63<body> 146<body>
64<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 147
148<pre caption="Install postfix">
149# <i>emerge postfix</i>
150</pre>
151
152<warn>
153Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155</warn>
156
157<p>
158After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
65</pre> 160</p>
66<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 161
67<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 162<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
69myhostname = $host.domain.name 163myhostname = $host.domain.name
70mydomain = $domain.name 164mydomain = $domain.name
71inet_interfaces = all 165inet_interfaces = all
72mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 166mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
73mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 167mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
74home_mailbox = .maildir/ 168home_mailbox = .maildir/
75local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 169local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
76default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 170default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171</pre>
172
173<p>
77<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 174Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175turn on verbose output for debugging:
176</p>
177
78<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 178<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
79# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 179# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
80# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 180# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
81# 181#
82========================================================================== 182==========================================================================
183<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
83smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 184smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185</pre>
84 186
85<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 187<p>
188Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
86</pre> 190</p>
87<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 191
88<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 192<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
89# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 193# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
90<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 194<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
91<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 195when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
92 196
93# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 197# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
94</pre> 198</pre>
95<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 199
96<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 200<p>
201Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204next step.
205</p>
206
207<note>
208I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210</note>
211
97</body> 212</body>
98</section> 213</section>
99</chapter> 214</chapter>
215
100<chapter> 216<chapter>
101<title>Courier-imap</title> 217<title>Courier-imap</title>
102<section> 218<section>
103<body> 219<body>
104<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 220
221<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
105</pre> 223</pre>
224
106<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 225<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
107# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 226# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
108<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 227<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
109<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 228you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
110<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 229This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
111 230
112# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 231# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
113# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 232# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
114<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 233<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
115 234
116# <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 235# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
117# <i>mkimapdcert</i> 236# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
118</pre> 237</pre>
238
119<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 239<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
120# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
121# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 241# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
122# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 242# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
123# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
124</pre> 244</pre>
125<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 245
246<p>
247Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251progressing.
252</p>
253
126</body> 254</body>
127</section> 255</section>
128</chapter> 256</chapter>
257
129<chapter> 258<chapter>
130<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 259<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131<section> 260<section>
132<body> 261<body>
133<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 262
134<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 263<p>
264Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269end anyway.
270</p>
271
135<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 272<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
136# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 273# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
137<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
138<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
139</pre> 274</pre>
275
276<p>
140<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p> 277Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278</p>
279
141<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 280<pre caption="Starting sasl">
142# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i> 281# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
143pwcheck_method: saslauthd 283pwcheck_method: saslauthd
144mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 284# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
145<codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote> 285SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
146<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 286SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
147# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 287# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
148</pre> 288</pre>
289
149</body> 290</body>
150</section> 291</section>
151</chapter> 292</chapter>
293
152<chapter> 294<chapter>
153<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 295<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
154<section> 296<section>
155<body> 297<body>
298
299<p>
156<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 300Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
157<pre> 301</p>
302
303<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
158# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 304# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
159# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 305# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
160 306
161<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 307<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
162countryName_default 308countryName_default
163stateOrProvinceName_default 309stateOrProvinceName_default
164localityName_default 310localityName_default
1650.organizationName_default 3110.organizationName_default
166commonName_default 312commonName_default
167emailAddress_default. 313emailAddress_default.
168 314
169<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 315<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
170
171 316
172# <i>cd misc</i> 317# <i>cd misc</i>
173# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 318# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
174<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote> 319<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
175<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote> 320#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
176<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote> 321certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
177<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote> 322reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
178 323
179# create a certificate 324# create a certificate
180system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;); 325system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
181 326
182# create a certificate request 327# create a certificate request
183system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;); 328system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
184 329
185# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 330# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
186# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 331# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
187# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 332# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
188# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 333# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
189# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 334# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
190# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 335# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
191<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 336<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
192 337
193# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 338# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
194# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 339# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
195# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 340# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
196<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 341<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
197<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 342We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
198</pre> 343</pre>
344
199</body> 345</body>
200</section> 346</section>
347
201</chapter> 348</chapter>
202<chapter> 349<chapter>
203<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 350<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
204<section> 351<section>
205<body> 352<body>
206<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 353
354<p>
355Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357will be easy to find.
358</p>
359
207<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 360<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
208# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 361# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
209 362
210smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 363smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
211smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 364smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
212smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 365smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
213broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 366broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
214smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 367smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
215 368
216<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 369<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
217<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 370are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
218<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 371Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
219<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 372smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
220<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 373smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
221<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 374mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
222 375
223smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 376smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
224 permit_sasl_authenticated, 377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
225 permit_mynetworks, 378 permit_mynetworks,
226 reject_unauth_destination 379 reject_unauth_destination
234smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 387smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
235smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 388smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
236smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 389smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
237tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 390tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
238 391
239<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 392<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
240<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 393You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
241 394
242# <i>postfix reload</i> 395# <i>postfix reload</i>
243</pre> 396</pre>
397
398<p>
244<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 399Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
400</p>
401
245<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 402<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
246# <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 403# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
247 404
248Trying 127.0.0.1... 405Trying 127.0.0.1...
249Connected to localhost. 406Connected to localhost.
250Escape character is '^]'. 407Escape character is '^]'.
261250-XVERP 418250-XVERP
262250 8BITMIME 419250 8BITMIME
263<i>^]</i> 420<i>^]</i>
264telnet> <i>quit</i> 421telnet> <i>quit</i>
265</pre> 422</pre>
266<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 423
424<p>
425Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
426install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
427sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
428unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
429and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
267 </p> 430</p>
431
268</body> 432</body>
269</section> 433</section>
270</chapter> 434</chapter>
435
271<chapter> 436<chapter>
272<title>MySQL</title> 437<title>MySQL</title>
273<section> 438<section>
274<body> 439<body>
275<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 440
441<p>
442Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
443link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
444dumpfile for this step.
445</p>
446
276<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 447<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
277# <i>emerge mysql</i> 448# <i>emerge mysql</i>
278 449
279# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 450# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
280<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 451<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
281<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 452for adding a root password with mysql,
282<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 453not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
283 454
284# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 455# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
285# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 456# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
286# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 457# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
287 458
288# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 459# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
289mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 460mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
290 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 461 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
291 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 462 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
292 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 463 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
464Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
293 465
294 -> <i>quit</i> 466mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
467Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
468
469mysql> <i>quit</i>
295<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 470<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
296 471
297# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 472# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
298</pre> 473</pre>
474
475<p>
299<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 476Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
477following tables are included:
478</p>
479
300 <ul> 480<ul>
301<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 481 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
302<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 482 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
483 <li>
303<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 484 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
485 hosting
486 </li>
304<li>users - all user account information</li> 487 <li>users - all user account information</li>
305<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 488 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
306</ul> 489</ul>
307</p> 490
308<pre caption="alias table sample" > 491<pre caption="alias table sample">
309id alias destination 492id alias destination
3101 root foo@bar.com 4931 root foo@bar.com
3112 postmaster foo@bar.com 4942 postmaster foo@bar.com
312</pre> 495</pre>
496
313<pre caption="user table sample" > 497<pre caption="user table sample">
314<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote> 498<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
315id email clear name uid gid homedir \ 499id email clear name uid gid homedir \
316 maildir quota postfix 500 maildir quota postfix
31710 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \ 50110 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
318 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 502 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
31913 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \ 50313 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
320 /home/foo/.maildir/ y 504 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
321</pre> 505</pre>
506
507<p>
508The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
509user and group.
510</p>
511
322<pre caption="transport table sample" > 512<pre caption="transport table sample">
323id domain destination 513id domain destination
3241 bar.com local: 5141 bar.com local:
3252 virt-bar.org virtual: 5152 virt-bar.org virtual:
326</pre> 516</pre>
517
327<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 518<pre caption="virtual table sample">
328id email destination 519id email destination
3293 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5203 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
330</pre> 521</pre>
522
331</body> 523</body>
332</section> 524</section>
333</chapter> 525</chapter>
526
334<chapter> 527<chapter>
335<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 528<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
336<section> 529<section>
337<body> 530<body>
531
532<p>
338<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 533Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
534more easily.
535</p>
536
339<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 537<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
340# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i> 538# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
341</pre> 539</pre>
342<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p> 540
343<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 541<p>
542There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
543this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
544numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
545problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
546not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
547with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
548phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
549index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
550phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
551however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
552including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
553</p>
554
555<p>
556Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
557Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
558</p>
559
344 <ul> 560<ul>
345<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 561 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
346<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 562 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
347</ul> 563</ul>
348</p> 564
349<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 565<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
350# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 566# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
351# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 567# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
352# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 568# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
569
353<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 570<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
354 571
355ServerName host.domain.name 572ServerName host.domain.name
356ServerAdmin your@email.address 573ServerAdmin your@email.address
357SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 574SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
358SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 575SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
359 576
360# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 577# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
361</pre> 578</pre>
362<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 579
580<note>
581If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
582server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
583apache restarted successfully.
584</note>
585
586<p>
363<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 587Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
588</p>
589
364<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 590<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
365# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 591# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
366<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 592<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
367 593
368$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 594$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
369$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 595$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
370 // (this user must have read-only 596 // (this user must have read-only
371$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 597$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
372 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 598 // and "mysql/db" tables)
373$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 599$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
374$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
375</pre> 601</pre>
376<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 602
603<p>
604Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
605local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
606transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
607supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
608go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
609accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
610correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
611automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
612general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
613after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
614</p>
615
377</body> 616</body>
378</section> 617</section>
379</chapter> 618</chapter>
619
380<chapter> 620<chapter>
381<title>The vmail user</title> 621<title>The vmail user</title>
382<section> 622<section>
383<body> 623<body>
384<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 624
625<p>
626At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
627mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
628</p>
629
385<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 630<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
386# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 631# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
387# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 632# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
388# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 633# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
389# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 634# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
390# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 635# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
636</pre>
637
638<p>
639So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
640homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
641homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
642haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
391</pre> 643</p>
392<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 644
393</body> 645</body>
394</section> 646</section>
395</chapter> 647</chapter>
648
396<chapter> 649<chapter>
397<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 650<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
398<section> 651<section>
399<body> 652<body>
400<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 653
401<pre> 654<p>
402# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i> 655Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
403# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 656courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
404<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 657<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
405
406#auth required pam_nologin.so
407#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
408#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
409#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
410
411auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
412 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
413account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
414 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
415
416# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
417# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
418<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
419</pre> 658</p>
420<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 659
421<pre> 660<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
422# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 661# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
423authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 662authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
424 663
425# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
426AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
427
428# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 664# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
429MYSQL_SERVER localhost 665MYSQL_SERVER localhost
430MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 666MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
431MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 667MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
432MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 668MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
433MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 669MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
434#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 670<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
671#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
435MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 672MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
436MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 673MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
437MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 674MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
438MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 675MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
439MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 676MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
440MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 677MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
441MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 678MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
442 679
443# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 680# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
444# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 681# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
445</pre> 682</pre>
446<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 683
684<p>
685We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
686for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
687</p>
688
447<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 689<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
448# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 690# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
449# mysql-aliases.cf 691# mysql-aliases.cf
450 692
451user = mailsql 693user = mailsql
452password = $password 694password = $password
454table = alias 696table = alias
455select_field = destination 697select_field = destination
456where_field = alias 698where_field = alias
457hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 699hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
458</pre> 700</pre>
701
459<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 702<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
460# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 703# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
461# mysql-relocated.cf 704# mysql-relocated.cf
462 705
463user = mailsql 706user = mailsql
464password = $password 707password = $password
466table = relocated 709table = relocated
467select_field = destination 710select_field = destination
468where_field = email 711where_field = email
469hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 712hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470</pre> 713</pre>
714
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 715<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
472# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 716# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
473# mysql-transport.cf 717# mysql-transport.cf
474 718
475user = mailsql 719user = mailsql
476password = $password 720password = $password
478table = transport 722table = transport
479select_field = destination 723select_field = destination
480where_field = domain 724where_field = domain
481hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 725hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
482</pre> 726</pre>
727
483<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 728<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
484# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 729# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
485#myql-virtual-gid.cf 730#myql-virtual-gid.cf
486 731
487user = mailsql 732user = mailsql
488password = $password 733password = $password
491select_field = gid 736select_field = gid
492where_field = email 737where_field = email
493additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 738additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
494hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 739hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
495</pre> 740</pre>
741
496<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 742<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
497# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 743# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
498#myql-virtual-maps.cf 744#myql-virtual-maps.cf
499 745
500user = mailsql 746user = mailsql
501password = $password 747password = $password
504select_field = maildir 750select_field = maildir
505where_field = email 751where_field = email
506additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 752additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
507hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 753hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508</pre> 754</pre>
755
509<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 756<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
510# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 757# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
511# mysql-virtual-uid.cf 758# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
512 759
513user = mailsql 760user = mailsql
514password = $password 761password = $password
517select_field = uid 764select_field = uid
518where_field = email 765where_field = email
519additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 766additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
520hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 767hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
521</pre> 768</pre>
769
522<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 770<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
523# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 771# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
524# mysql-virtual.cf 772# mysql-virtual.cf
525 773
526user = mailsql 774user = mailsql
527password = $password 775password = $password
529table = virtual 777table = virtual
530select_field = destination 778select_field = destination
531where_field = email 779where_field = email
532hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 780hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
533</pre> 781</pre>
782
783<p>
534<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 784Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
785</p>
786
535<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 787<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
536# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 788# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
537alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 789alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
538relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 790relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
539 791
540local_transport = local 792local_transport = local
562<pre caption="Changing file permission"> 814<pre caption="Changing file permission">
563# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i> 815# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
564# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i> 816# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
565</pre> 817</pre>
566 818
567<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 819<p>
820As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
821release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
822longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
823</p>
824
825<note>
568<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 826It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
827for more information.
828</note>
829
830<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
569<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 831# <i>postfix reload</i>
832</pre>
833
834<p>
835Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
836able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
837for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
838everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
839things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
840troubleshooting section of this howto.
570</pre> 841</p>
571<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 842
572</body> 843</body>
573</section> 844</section>
574</chapter> 845</chapter>
846
575<chapter> 847<chapter>
576<title>Squirrelmail</title> 848<title>Squirrelmail</title>
577<section> 849<section>
578<body> 850<body>
579<pre> 851
852<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
580# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 853# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
581<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 854<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
855(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
582 856
583# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i> 857# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
584# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 858# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
585# <i>./conf.pl</i> 859# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
586<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 860<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
587<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 861Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
588<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 862and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
589</pre> 863</pre>
864
590</body> 865</body>
591</section> 866</section>
592</chapter> 867</chapter>
868
593<chapter> 869<chapter>
594<title>Mailman</title> 870<title>Mailman</title>
595<section> 871<section>
596<body> 872<body>
597<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 873
598<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 874<p>
599<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 875Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
600# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 876support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
601MAILGID="280" 877get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
602<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 878to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
603<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 879documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
880here.
604</pre> 881</p>
882
605<pre> 883<p>
884One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
885you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
886overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
887</p>
888
889<pre caption="Install mailman">
606# <i>emerge mailman</i> 890# <i>emerge mailman</i>
607<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 891<comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
608<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 892emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
609<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote> 893in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
610<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote> 894We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
611 895
612# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 896# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
613</pre> 897</pre>
898
614<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 899<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
615# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 900# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
616<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 901<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
617DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 902DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
618DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 903DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
619</pre> 904</pre>
905
620<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 906<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
621# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 907# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
622MTA = "Postfix" 908MTA = "Postfix"
623POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 909POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
624add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 910add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
625add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 911add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
626<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 912<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
627</pre>
628<pre> 913</pre>
914
915<pre caption="And last but not least">
629<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 916<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
630 917
631# <i>su mailman</i> 918# <i>su mailman</i>
632# <i>cd ~</i> 919# <i>cd ~</i>
633# <i>bin/newlist test</i> 920# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
634Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 921Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
635Initial test password: 922Initial test password:
636Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 923Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
637<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 924<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
638<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 925list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
639# <i>bin/genaliases</i> 926# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
640<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 927<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
641<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 928verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
642 929
643# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 930# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
644# STANZA START: test 931# STANZA START: test
645# CREATED: 932# CREATED:
646test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 933test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
655test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 942test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
656# STANZA END: test 943# STANZA END: test
657 944
658# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 945# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
659# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 946# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
660<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 947<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
661</pre> 948</pre>
662 949
663<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 950<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
664# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 951# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
665owner_request_special = no 952owner_request_special = no
666recipient_delimiter = + 953recipient_delimiter = +
667<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 954<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
668 955
669alias_maps = 956alias_maps =
670 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 957 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
671 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 958 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
672 959
673virtual_alias_maps = 960virtual_alias_maps =
674 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 961 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
675 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 962 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
676<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 963<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
677<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 964You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
678<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 965but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
679<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 966using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
680<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 967to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
968</pre>
969
970<p>
971You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
972note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
973mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
974Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
975lists.
681</pre> 976</p>
682<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 977
683</body> 978</body>
684</section> 979</section>
685</chapter> 980</chapter>
981
686<chapter> 982<chapter>
687<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 983<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
688<section> 984<section>
689<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 985<body>
986
987<p>
988For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
989link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
990</p>
991
992</body>
690</section> 993</section>
691</chapter> 994</chapter>
995
692<chapter> 996<chapter>
693<title>Wrap Up</title> 997<title>Wrap Up</title>
694<section> 998<section>
695<body> 999<body>
696<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 1000
1001<p>
1002Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1003verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1004to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1005sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1006courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1007up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1008the services enabled.
1009</p>
1010
697<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1011<pre caption="Wrap up">
698# <i>postfix reload</i> 1012# <i>postfix reload</i>
699# <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1013# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
700</pre> 1014</pre>
1015
701<p> 1016<p>
702<e>Have fun!</e> 1017<e>Have fun!</e>
703</p> 1018</p>
1019
704</body> 1020</body>
705</section> 1021</section>
706</chapter> 1022</chapter>
1023
707<chapter> 1024<chapter>
708<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1025<title>Troubleshooting</title>
709<section> 1026<section>
710<title>Introduction</title> 1027<title>Introduction</title>
711<body> 1028<body>
712<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1029
1030<p>
1031Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1032detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1033you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1034it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1035that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1036from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1037work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1038</p>
1039
713</body> 1040</body>
714</section>
715<section> 1041</section>
1042<section>
716<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1043<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
717<body> 1044<body>
718<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1045
719<pre> 1046<p>
1047Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1048your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1049if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1050it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1051make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1052</p>
1053
1054<pre caption="How to restart a service">
720# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1055# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
721</pre> 1056</pre>
1057
722</body> 1058</body>
723</section> 1059</section>
724<section> 1060<section>
725<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1061<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
726<body> 1062<body>
727<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1063
728<pre> 1064<p>
1065If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1066running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1067Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1068component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1069process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1070awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1071out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1072</p>
1073
1074<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
729# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1075# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
730# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1076# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
731</pre> 1077</pre>
1078
732</body> 1079</body>
733</section> 1080</section>
734<section> 1081<section>
735<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1082<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
736<body> 1083<body>
737<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1084
738<pre> 1085<p>
1086If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1087sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1088current config's to you, like postfix.
1089</p>
1090
1091<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
739# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1092# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
740# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1093# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
741# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1094# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
742# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1095# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
743</pre> 1096</pre>
1097
744</body> 1098</body>
745</section>
746<section> 1099</section>
1100<section>
747<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1101<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
748<body> 1102<body>
749<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1103
750<pre> 1104<p>
1105Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1106logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1107logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1108logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1109in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1110figure out which component is having the problem.
1111</p>
1112
1113<pre caption="Checking the logs">
751# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1114# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
752# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1115# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
753# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1116# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
754# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1117# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
755</pre> 1118</pre>
756<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1119
1120<p>
1121You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1122will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1123</p>
1124
757<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1125<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
758# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1126# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
759debug_peer_level = 5 1127debug_peer_level = 5
760debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1128debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
761<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1129<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
762<codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1130commands as well.)</comment>
763</pre> 1131</pre>
1132
764</body> 1133</body>
765</section>
766<section> 1134</section>
1135<section>
767<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1136<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
768<body> 1137<body>
769<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1138
770<pre> 1139<p>
1140SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1141we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1142to the service itself and see what's happening.
1143</p>
1144
1145<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
771# <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1146# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
772<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1147<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
773<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1148letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
774 1149
775Trying 127.0.0.1... 1150Trying 127.0.0.1...
776Connected to localhost. 1151Connected to localhost.
777Escape character is '^]'. 1152Escape character is '^]'.
778* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. 1153* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
779</pre> 1154</pre>
1155
780</body> 1156</body>
781</section>
782<section> 1157</section>
1158<section>
783<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1159<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
784<body> 1160<body>
785<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1161
786<pre> 1162<p>
1163You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1164software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1165all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1166information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1167transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1168</p>
1169
1170<pre caption="Using strace">
787# <i>emerge strace</i> 1171# <i>emerge strace</i>
788# <i>strace $command</i> 1172# <i>strace $command</i>
789# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1173# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
790</pre> 1174</pre>
1175
791</body> 1176</body>
792</section> 1177</section>
793<section> 1178<section>
794<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1179<title>Step 7: Research</title>
795<body> 1180<body>
796<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1181
1182<p>
1183Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1184If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1185help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1186already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1187which contains some great debugging ideas.
797<p> 1188</p>
1189
798<ul> 1190<ul>
799<li>
800<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1191 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
801<li> 1192 <li>
802<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1193 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
803<li> 1194 to look for specific errors
1195 </li>
804<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1196 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
805<li> 1197 <li>
806<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1198 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1199 lists - searchable
1200 </li>
807<li> 1201 <li>
808<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1202 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1203 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1204 </li>
809<li> 1205 <li>
810<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1206 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1207 google, which has never failed me
1208 </li>
1209 <li>
811<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1210 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1211 place to go for help.
1212 </li>
812</ul> 1213</ul>
813</p> 1214
814</body> 1215</body>
815</section> 1216</section>
816</chapter> 1217</chapter>
817</guide> 1218</guide>
818

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