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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.37 2004/11/19 08:28:14 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
5<author title="Author" > 7<author title="Author" >
6<mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >Ken Nowack</mail> 8<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 9</author>
8<author title="Author" > 10<author title="Author" >
9<mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 11<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12</author>
13<author title="Editor">
14<mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail>
10</author> 15</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 16<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12<version>1.0</version> 17<version>1.0.15</version>
13<date>07 Jan 2003</date> 18<date>November 19, 2004</date>
14<!-- 19<!--
15 20
16Contents 21Contents
17 22
18I. Introduction 23I. Introduction
31XIV. Wrap Up 36XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 37XV. Troubleshooting
33 38
34--><chapter> 39--><chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 40<title>Introduction</title>
41<section>
36<body> 42<body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 43<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 44<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 45<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p> 46<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 47<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 48
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 49 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 50<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is reccommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 51<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
52<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 53<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 54<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 55<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
49</body> 56</body>
57</section>
50</chapter> 58</chapter>
59
51<chapter> 60<chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 61<title>Postfix Basics</title>
62<section>
53<body> 63<body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 64<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
55</pre> 65</pre>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 66<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 67<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 69myhostname = $host.domain.name
60 mydomain = $domain.name 70mydomain = $domain.name
61 inet_interfaces = all 71inet_interfaces = all
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 72mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 73mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 74home_mailbox = .maildir/
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 75local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 76default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 77<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 78<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 79# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 80# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
71 # 81#
72 ========================================================================== 82==========================================================================
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 83smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
74 84
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 85<codenote>Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre> 86</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 87<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 88<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 89# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 90<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 91<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82 92
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 93# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre> 94</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 95<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 96<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body> 97</body>
98</section>
88</chapter> 99</chapter>
89<chapter> 100<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title> 101<title>Courier-imap</title>
102<section>
91<body> 103<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 104<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre> 105</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 106<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 107# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 108<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 109<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 110<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99 111
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 112# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 113# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 114<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103 115
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 116# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i> 117# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre> 118</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 119<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 120# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 121# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 122# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 123# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre> 124</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 125<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body> 126</body>
127</section>
115</chapter> 128</chapter>
116<chapter> 129<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 130<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131<section>
118<body> 132<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 133<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 134<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121<p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p>
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 135<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123 # <i>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</i>
124 # <i>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</i>
125<codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
126
127 econf \
128 --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
129 --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
130 --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
131 --with-openssl \
132 --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
133 --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
134 --with-des \
135 --with-rc4 \
136 --disable-krb4 \
137 --with-gnu-ld \
138 --enable-shared \
139 --disable-sample \
140 --enable-login \
141 --disable-cram \
142 --disable-digest \
143 ${myconf} || die &quot;bad ./configure&quot;
144
145 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
146<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote> 136<comment>(We don't have ldap and we're using sasl's mysql capabilities
147<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote> 137 so we need to set the appropriate USE flags, but only if your USE flags
138 doesn't already contain the mysql USE flag and not the ldap one)</comment>
139# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
140# <i>echo "dev-libs/cyrus-sasl -ldap mysql" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
141# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
148</pre> 142</pre>
149<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 143<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p>
150<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 144<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
151 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 145# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
146pwcheck_method: auxprop
147auxprop_plugin: sql
148sql_engine: mysql
149sql_hostnames: localhost
150sql_user: mailsql
151sql_passwd: <comment>&lt;password&gt;</comment>
152sql_database: mailsql
153sql_select: select clear from users where email = '%u@%r'
154mech_list: plain login
152 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 155pwcheck_method: saslauthd
153 156mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
157<codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote>
158<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
154 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 159# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
155</pre> 160</pre>
156</body> 161</body>
162</section>
157</chapter> 163</chapter>
158<chapter> 164<chapter>
159<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 165<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
166<section>
160<body> 167<body>
161<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 168<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
162<pre> 169<pre>
163 # <i>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</i> 170# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
164 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 171# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
172
165<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 173<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
166
167 countryName_default 174countryName_default
168 stateOrProvinceName_default 175stateOrProvinceName_default
169 localityName_default 176localityName_default
170 0.organizationName_default 1770.organizationName_default
171 commonName_default 178commonName_default
172 emailAddress_default. 179emailAddress_default.
173 180
174 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 181<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
175 182
176 183
177 # <i>cd misc</i> 184# <i>cd misc</i>
178 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 185# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
179<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote> 186<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
180<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote> 187<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
181<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote> 188<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
182<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote> 189<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
190
191# create a certificate
192system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
193
194# create a certificate request
195system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
183 196
184 # create a certificate
185 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
186
187 # create a certificate request
188 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
189
190 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 197# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
191 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 198# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
192 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 199# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
193 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 200# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
194 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 201# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
195 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 202# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
196<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 203<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
197 204
198
199 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 205# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
200 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 206# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
201 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 207# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
202<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 208<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
203<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 209<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
204</pre> 210</pre>
205</body> 211</body>
212</section>
206</chapter> 213</chapter>
207<chapter> 214<chapter>
208<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 215<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
216<section>
209<body> 217<body>
210<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 218<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
211<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 219<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
212 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 220# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
213 221
214 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 222smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
215 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 223smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
216 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 224smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
217 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 225broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
218 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 226smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
219 227
220 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 228<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
221<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 229<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
222<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 230<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
223<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 231<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
224<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 232<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
225<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 233<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
226 234
227 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 235smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
228 permit_sasl_authenticated, 236 permit_sasl_authenticated,
229 permit_mynetworks, 237 permit_mynetworks,
230 reject_unath_destination 238 reject_unauth_destination
231 239
232 240
233 smtpd_use_tls = yes 241smtpd_use_tls = yes
234 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 242#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
235 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 243smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
236 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 244smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
237 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 245smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
238 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 246smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
239 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 247smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
240 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 248smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
241 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 249tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
242 250
243 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 251<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
244<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 252<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
245 253
246 # <i>postfix reload</i> 254# <i>postfix reload</i>
247</pre> 255</pre>
248<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 256<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
249<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 257<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
250 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 258# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
251 259
252 Trying 127.0.0.1... 260Trying 127.0.0.1...
253 Connected to localhost. 261Connected to localhost.
254 Escape character is '^]'. 262Escape character is '^]'.
255 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 263220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
256 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 264<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
257 250-mail.domain.com 265250-mail.domain.com
258 250-PIPELINING 266250-PIPELINING
259 250-SIZE 10240000 267250-SIZE 10240000
260 250-VRFY 268250-VRFY
261 250-ETRN 269250-ETRN
262 250-STARTTLS 270250-STARTTLS
263 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP 271250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
264 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP 272250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
265 250-XVERP 273250-XVERP
266 250 8BITMIME 274250 8BITMIME
267 <i>^]</i> 275<i>^]</i>
268 telnet> <i>quit</i> 276telnet> <i>quit</i>
269</pre> 277</pre>
270<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 278<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
271 </p> 279 </p>
272</body> 280</body>
281</section>
273</chapter> 282</chapter>
274<chapter> 283<chapter>
275<title>MySQL</title> 284<title>MySQL</title>
285<section>
276<body> 286<body>
277<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 287<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~spyderous/dotfiles/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
278<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 288<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
279 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 289# <i>emerge mysql</i>
280 290
281 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 291# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
282<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 292<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
283<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 293<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
284<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 294<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
285 295
286 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 296# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
287 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 297# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
288 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 298# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
289 299
290 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 300# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
291 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 301mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
292 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 302 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
293 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 303 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
294 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 304 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
295 305
296 -> <i>quit</i> 306 -> <i>quit</i>
297<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 307<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
298 308
299 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 309# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
300</pre> 310</pre>
311
312<p>
301<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 313Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
314</p>
315
302 <ul> 316<ul>
303<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 317<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
304<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 318<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
305<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 319<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
306<li>users - all user account information</li> 320<li>users - all user account information</li>
307<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 321<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
308</ul> 322</ul>
323
324<pre caption="alias table sample" >
325id alias destination
3261 root foo@bar.com
3272 postmaster foo@bar.com
328</pre>
329<pre caption="user table sample" >
330<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
331id email clear name uid gid homedir \
332 maildir quota postfix
33310 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
334 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
33513 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
336 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
337</pre>
338
339<p>
340The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
341user and group.
309</p> 342</p>
310<pre caption="alias table sample" > 343
311 id alias destination
312 1 root foo@bar.com
313 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
314 </pre>
315<pre caption="user table sample" >
316 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
317 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
318 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
319 </pre>
320<pre caption="transport table sample" > 344<pre caption="transport table sample" >
321 id domain destination 345id domain destination
322 1 bar.com local: 3461 bar.com local:
323 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 3472 virt-bar.org virtual:
324 </pre> 348</pre>
325<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 349<pre caption="virtual table sample" >
326 id email destination 350id email destination
327 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 3513 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
328 </pre> 352</pre>
329</body> 353</body>
354</section>
330</chapter> 355</chapter>
331<chapter> 356<chapter>
332<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 357<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
358<section>
333<body> 359<body>
334<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 360<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
335<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 361<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
336 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 362# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
337</pre> 363</pre>
338<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 364<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p>
365
366<p>
339<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 367Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
368</p>
369
340 <ul> 370<ul>
341<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 371<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
342<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 372<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
343</ul> 373</ul>
344</p> 374
345<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 375<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
346 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 376# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
347 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 377# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
348 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 378# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
349<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 379<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
350 380
351 ServerName host.domain.name 381ServerName host.domain.name
352 ServerAdmin your@email.address 382ServerAdmin your@email.address
353 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 383SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
354 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 384SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
355 385
356 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 386# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
357</pre> 387</pre>
358<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 388<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
359<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 389<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
360<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 390<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
361 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 391# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
362<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 392<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
363 393
364 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 394$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
365 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 395$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
366 // (this user must have read-only 396 // (this user must have read-only
367 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 397$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
368 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 398 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
369 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 399$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
370 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 400$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
371 </pre> 401</pre>
372<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 402<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
373</body> 403</body>
404</section>
374</chapter> 405</chapter>
375<chapter> 406<chapter>
376<title>The vmail user</title> 407<title>The vmail user</title>
408<section>
377<body> 409<body>
378<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 410<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
379<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 411<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
380 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 412# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
381 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 413# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
382 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 414# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
383 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 415# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
384 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 416# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
385</pre> 417</pre>
386<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 418<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
387</body> 419</body>
420</section>
388</chapter> 421</chapter>
389<chapter> 422<chapter>
390<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 423<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
424<section>
391<body> 425<body>
392<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 426<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
393<pre> 427<pre>
394 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 428# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
395<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
396<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
397<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
398
399 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 429# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
400<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 430<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
401 431
402 #auth required pam_nologin.so 432#auth required pam_nologin.so
403 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 433#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
404 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 434#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
405 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 435#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
406 436
407 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 437auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
408 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 438 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
409 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 439account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
410 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 440 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
411 441
412 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 442# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
413 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 443# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
414<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 444<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
415</pre> 445</pre>
416<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 446<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
417<pre> 447<pre>
418 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 448# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
419 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 449authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
420 450
421 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 451# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
422 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 452AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
423 453
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 454# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
425 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 455MYSQL_SERVER localhost
426 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 456MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
427 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 457MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
428 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 458MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
429 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 459MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
430 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 460#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
431 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 461MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
432 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 462MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
433 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 463MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
434 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 464MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
435 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 465MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
436 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 466MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
437 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 467MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
438 468
439 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 469# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
440 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 470# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
441</pre> 471</pre>
442<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 472<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
443<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 473<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
444 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 474# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
445 # mysql-aliases.cf 475# mysql-aliases.cf
446 476
447 user = mailsql 477user = mailsql
448 password = $password 478password = $password
449 dbname = mailsql 479dbname = mailsql
450 table = alias 480table = alias
451 select_field = destination 481select_field = destination
452 where_field = alias 482where_field = alias
453 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 483hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
454 </pre> 484</pre>
455<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 485<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
456 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 486# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
457 # mysql-relocated.cf 487# mysql-relocated.cf
458 488
459 user = mailsql 489user = mailsql
460 password = $password 490password = $password
461 dbname = mailsql 491dbname = mailsql
462 table = relocated 492table = relocated
463 select_field = destination 493select_field = destination
464 where_field = email 494where_field = email
465 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 495hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
466 </pre> 496</pre>
467<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
468 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 498# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
469 # mysql-transport.cf 499# mysql-transport.cf
470 500
471 user = mailsql 501user = mailsql
472 password = $password 502password = $password
473 dbname = mailsql 503dbname = mailsql
474 table = transport 504table = transport
475 select_field = destination 505select_field = destination
476 where_field = domain 506where_field = domain
477 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 507hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
478 </pre> 508</pre>
479<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 509<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
480 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 510# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
481 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 511#myql-virtual-gid.cf
482 512
483 user = mailsql 513user = mailsql
484 password = $password 514password = $password
485 dbname = mailsql 515dbname = mailsql
486 table = users 516table = users
487 select_field = gid 517select_field = gid
488 where_field = email 518where_field = email
489 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 519additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
490 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 520hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
491 </pre> 521</pre>
492<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 522<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
493 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 523# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
494 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 524#myql-virtual-maps.cf
495 525
496 user = mailsql 526user = mailsql
497 password = $password 527password = $password
498 dbname = mailsql 528dbname = mailsql
499 table = users 529table = users
500 select_field = maildir 530select_field = maildir
501 where_field = email 531where_field = email
502 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 532additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
503 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 533hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
504 </pre> 534</pre>
505<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 535<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
506 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 536# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
507 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 537# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
508 538
509 user = mailsql 539user = mailsql
510 password = $password 540password = $password
511 dbname = mailsql 541dbname = mailsql
512 table = users 542table = users
513 select_field = uid 543select_field = uid
514 where_field = email 544where_field = email
515 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 545additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
516 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 546hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
517 </pre> 547</pre>
518<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 548<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
519 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 549# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
520 # mysql-virtual.cf 550# mysql-virtual.cf
521 551
522 user = mailsql 552user = mailsql
523 password = $password 553password = $password
524 dbname = mailsql 554dbname = mailsql
525 table = virtual 555table = virtual
526 select_field = destination 556select_field = destination
527 where_field = email 557where_field = email
528 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 558hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
529 </pre> 559</pre>
530<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 560<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
531<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 561<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
532 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 562# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
533 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 563alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
534 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 564relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
535 565
536 local_transport = local 566local_transport = local
537 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 567local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
538 568
539 virtual_transport = virtual 569virtual_transport = virtual
540 virtual_mailbox_domains = 570virtual_mailbox_domains =
541 virt-bar.com, 571 virt-bar.com,
542 $other-virtual-domain.com 572 $other-virtual-domain.com
543 573
544 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 574virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
545 virtual_gid_maps = static: $vmail-gid 575virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
546 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 576virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
547 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 577virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
548 virtual_uid_maps = static: $vmail-uid 578virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
549 virtual_mailbox_base = / 579virtual_mailbox_base = /
550 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 580#virtual_mailbox_limit =
551 </pre> 581</pre>
582
583<p>
584For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
585<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
586</p>
587
588<pre caption="Changing file permission">
589# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
590# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
591</pre>
592
552<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 593<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
553<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 594<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
554<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 595<pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
555</pre> 596</pre>
556<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 597<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
557</body> 598</body>
599</section>
558</chapter> 600</chapter>
559<chapter> 601<chapter>
560<title>Squirrelmail</title> 602<title>Squirrelmail</title>
603<section>
561<body> 604<body>
562<pre> 605<pre>
563 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 606# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
564<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 607<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
565 608
566 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 609# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
567 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 610# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
568 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 611# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
569<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 612<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
570<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 613<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
571<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 614<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
572</pre> 615</pre>
573</body> 616</body>
617</section>
574</chapter> 618</chapter>
575<chapter> 619<chapter>
576<title>Mailman</title> 620<title>Mailman</title>
621<section>
577<body> 622<body>
578<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correclty for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really reccommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 623<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
624<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
579<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 625<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
580 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 626# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
581 MAILGID="280" 627MAILGID="280"
582 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 628<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
583 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 629<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
584</pre>
585<pre> 630</pre>
631<pre>
586 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 632# <i>emerge mailman</i>
587<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 633<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
588<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 634<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
589<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote> 635<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
636<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
590 637
591 # <i>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 638# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
639</pre>
640<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
641# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
642<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
643DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
644DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
592</pre> 645</pre>
593<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 646<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
594 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 647# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
595 MTA = "Postfix" 648MTA = "Postfix"
596 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 649POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
597 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 650add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
598 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 651add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
599<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 652<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
600</pre> 653</pre>
601<pre> 654<pre>
602<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 655<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
603 656
604 # <i>su mailman</i> 657# <i>su mailman</i>
605 # <i>cd ~</i> 658# <i>cd ~</i>
606 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 659# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
607 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 660Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
608 Initial test password: 661Initial test password:
609 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 662Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
610 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 663<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
611 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 664<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
612 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 665# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
613 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 666<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
614 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 667<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
615 668
616 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 669# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
617 # STANZA START: test 670# STANZA START: test
618 # CREATED: 671# CREATED:
619 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 672test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
620 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 673test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
621 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 674test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
622 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 675test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
623 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 676test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
624 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 677test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
625 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 678test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
626 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 679test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
627 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 680test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
628 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 681test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
629 # STANZA END: test 682# STANZA END: test
630 683
631 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 684# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
632 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 685# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
633 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 686<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
634</pre> 687</pre>
635 688
636<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 689<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
637 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 690# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
638 owner_request_special = no 691owner_request_special = no
639 recipient_delimiter = + 692recipient_delimiter = +
640 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 693<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
641 694
642 alias_maps = 695alias_maps =
643 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 696 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
644 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 697 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
645 698
646 virtual_alias_maps = 699virtual_alias_maps =
647 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 700 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
648 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 701 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
649 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 702<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
650 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 703<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
651 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 704<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
705<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
706<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
652</pre> 707</pre>
653<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 708<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
654</body> 709</body>
710</section>
655</chapter> 711</chapter>
656<chapter> 712<chapter>
657<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 713<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
658<body><p>Coming soon...</p></body> 714<section>
715<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
716</section>
659</chapter> 717</chapter>
660<chapter> 718<chapter>
661<title>Wrap Up</title> 719<title>Wrap Up</title>
720<section>
662<body> 721<body>
663<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 722<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
664<pre caption="Wrap up" > 723<pre caption="Wrap up" >
665 # <i>postfix reload</i> 724# <i>postfix reload</i>
666 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 725# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
667</pre> 726</pre>
668<p> 727<p>
669<e>Have fun!</e> 728<e>Have fun!</e>
670</p> 729</p>
671</body> 730</body>
731</section>
672</chapter> 732</chapter>
673<chapter> 733<chapter>
674<title>Troubleshooting</title> 734<title>Troubleshooting</title>
675<section> 735<section>
676<title>Introduction</title> 736<title>Introduction</title>
681<section> 741<section>
682<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 742<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
683<body> 743<body>
684<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 744<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
685<pre> 745<pre>
686 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 746# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
687</pre> 747</pre>
688</body> 748</body>
689</section> 749</section>
690<section> 750<section>
691<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 751<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
692<body> 752<body>
693<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 753<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
694<pre> 754<pre>
695 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 755# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
696 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 756# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
697</pre> 757</pre>
698</body> 758</body>
699</section> 759</section>
700<section> 760<section>
701<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 761<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
702<body> 762<body>
703<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 763<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
704<pre> 764<pre>
705 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 765# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
706 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 766# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
707 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 767# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
708 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 768# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
709</pre> 769</pre>
710</body> 770</body>
711</section> 771</section>
712<section> 772<section>
713<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 773<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
714<body> 774<body>
715<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 775<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
716<pre> 776<pre>
717 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 777# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
718 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 778# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
719 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 779# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
720 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 780# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
721</pre> 781</pre>
722<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 782<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
723<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 783<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
724 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 784# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
725 debug_peer_level = 5 785debug_peer_level = 5
726 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 786debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
727 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 787<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
728 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 788<codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
729</pre> 789</pre>
730</body> 790</body>
731</section> 791</section>
732<section> 792<section>
733<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 793<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
734<body> 794<body>
735<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 795<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
736<pre> 796<pre>
737 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 797# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
738<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 798<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
739<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 799<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
740 800
741 Trying 127.0.0.1... 801Trying 127.0.0.1...
742 Connected to localhost. 802Connected to localhost.
743 Escape character is '^]'. 803Escape character is '^]'.
744 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 804* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
745 </pre> 805</pre>
746</body> 806</body>
747</section> 807</section>
748<section> 808<section>
749<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 809<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
750<body> 810<body>
751<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 811<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
752<pre> 812<pre>
753 # <i>emerge strace</i> 813# <i>emerge strace</i>
754 # <i>strace $command</i> 814# <i>strace $command</i>
755 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 815# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
756</pre> 816</pre>
757</body> 817</body>
758</section> 818</section>
759<section> 819<section>
760<title>Step 7: Research</title> 820<title>Step 7: Research</title>
761<body> 821<body>
762<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 822<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
763<p> 823
764<ul> 824<ul>
765<li> 825<li>
766<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 826<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
767<li> 827<li>
768<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 828<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
774<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 834<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
775<li> 835<li>
776<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 836<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
777<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 837<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
778</ul> 838</ul>
779</p> 839
780</body> 840</body>
781</section> 841</section>
782</chapter> 842</chapter>
783</guide> 843</guide>
784 844

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