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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.41 2005/02/05 15:24:39 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17
18<abstract>
19This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
20postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
21</abstract>
22
12<version>1.0</version> 23<version>1.0.18</version>
13<date>07 Jan 2003</date> 24<date>2005-02-05</date>
25
14<!-- 26<!--
15
16Contents 27Contents
17 28
18I. Introduction 29I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 30II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 31III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 39XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 40XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 41XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 42XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 43XV. Troubleshooting
44-->
33 45
34--><chapter> 46<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>Introduction</title>
48<section>
49<body>
50
51<p>
52For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
53you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
54Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
55need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
56system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
57</p>
58
59<p>
60A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
61with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
62that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
63domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
64smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
65system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
66the system? How do you manage it all?
67</p>
68
69<p>
70This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
71mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
72users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
73authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
74utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
75mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
76central and easy mysql database.
77</p>
78
79<p>
80There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
81system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
82needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
83<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
84</p>
85
86<p>
87The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql,
88postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
89mailman.
90</p>
91
92<p>
93Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
94before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir
95sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
96get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
97turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
98</p>
99
100<impo>
101This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
102of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
103upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
104well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
105run into issues with this.
106</impo>
107
108<impo>
109This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
110However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
111support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1121.3.x version.
113</impo>
114
115<impo>
116You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
117for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
118advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
119</impo>
120
121<impo>
122Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
123server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
124verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
125</impo>
126
127<note>
128It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
129with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
130any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
131Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
132flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
133the squirrelmail section.
134</note>
135
36<body> 136</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 137</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 138</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 139
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p> 140<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 141<title>Postfix Basics</title>
142<section>
143<body>
144
145<pre caption="Install postfix">
146# <i>emerge postfix</i>
147</pre>
148
149<warn>
150Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
151qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
152</warn>
153
154<p>
155After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
156options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
160myhostname = $host.domain.name
161mydomain = $domain.name
162inet_interfaces = all
163mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
164mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
165home_mailbox = .maildir/
166local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
167default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
172turn on verbose output for debugging:
173</p>
174
175<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
176# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
177# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
178#
179==========================================================================
180<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
181smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
182</pre>
183
184<p>
185Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
186should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
187</p>
188
189<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
190# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
191<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
192when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 193
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 194# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 195</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is reccommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 196
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 197<p>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 198Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 199yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
200postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
201next step.
202</p>
203
204<note>
205I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
206before you progress to the next step of the howto.
207</note>
208
49</body> 209</body>
50</chapter> 210</section>
51<chapter> 211</chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 212
213<chapter>
214<title>Courier-imap</title>
215<section>
216<body>
217
218<pre caption="Install courier-imap">
219# <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
220</pre>
221
222<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
223# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
224<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
225you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
226This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
227
228# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
229# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
230<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
231
232# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
233# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
234</pre>
235
236<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
237# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
238# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
239# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
241</pre>
242
243<p>
244Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
245started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
246going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
247running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
248progressing.
249</p>
250
53<body> 251</body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 252</section>
253</chapter>
254
255<chapter>
256<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
257<section>
258<body>
259
260<p>
261Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
262actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that
263information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
264not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
265a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
266end anyway.
55</pre> 267</p>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 268
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 269<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 270# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 271</pre>
60 mydomain = $domain.name 272
61 inet_interfaces = all 273<p>
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 274Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 275</p>
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 276
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 277<pre caption="Starting sasl">
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 278# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 279mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 280pwcheck_method: saslauthd
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 281# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 282SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a pam -r"
71 # 283# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
72 ========================================================================== 284</pre>
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 285
286</body>
287</section>
288</chapter>
289
290<chapter>
291<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
292<section>
293<body>
294
295<p>
296Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
297</p>
298
299<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
300# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
301# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
302
303<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
304countryName_default
305stateOrProvinceName_default
306localityName_default
3070.organizationName_default
308commonName_default
309emailAddress_default.
310
311<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
312
313# <i>cd misc</i>
314# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
315<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
316#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
317certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
318reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
319
320# create a certificate
321system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
322
323# create a certificate request
324system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
74 325
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 326# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
327# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
328# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
329# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
330# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
331# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
332<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
333
334# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
335# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
336# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
337<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
338We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
76</pre> 339</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 340
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body> 341</body>
88</chapter> 342</section>
343
89<chapter> 344</chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body>
115</chapter> 345<chapter>
116<chapter> 346<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 347<section>
118<body> 348<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 349
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 350<p>
121<p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p> 351Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 352capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
123 # <i>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</i> 353will be easy to find.
124 # <i>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</i>
125<codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
126
127 econf \
128 --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
129 --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
130 --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
131 --with-openssl \
132 --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
133 --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
134 --with-des \
135 --with-rc4 \
136 --disable-krb4 \
137 --with-gnu-ld \
138 --enable-shared \
139 --disable-sample \
140 --enable-login \
141 --disable-cram \
142 --disable-digest \
143 ${myconf} || die &quot;bad ./configure&quot;
144
145 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
146<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
147<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
148</pre> 354</p>
149<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 355
150<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 356<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
151 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 357# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
152 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 358
359smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
360smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
361smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
362broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
363smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
364
365<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
366are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
367Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
368smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
369smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
370mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
371
372smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
373 permit_sasl_authenticated,
374 permit_mynetworks,
375 reject_unauth_destination
153 376
154 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
155</pre>
156</body>
157</chapter>
158<chapter>
159<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
160<body>
161<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
162<pre>
163 # <i>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</i>
164 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
165<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
166
167 countryName_default
168 stateOrProvinceName_default
169 localityName_default
170 0.organizationName_default
171 commonName_default
172 emailAddress_default.
173
174 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
175 377
176
177 # <i>cd misc</i>
178 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
179<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
180<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
181<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
182<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
183
184 # create a certificate
185 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
186
187 # create a certificate request
188 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
189
190 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
191 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
192 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
193 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
194 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
195 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
196<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
197
198
199 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
200 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
201 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
202<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
203<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
204</pre>
205</body>
206</chapter>
207<chapter>
208<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
209<body>
210<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
211<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
212 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
213
214 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
215 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
216 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
217 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
218 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
219
220 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
221<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
222<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
223<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
224<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
225<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
226
227 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
228 permit_sasl_authenticated,
229 permit_mynetworks,
230 reject_unath_destination
231
232
233 smtpd_use_tls = yes 378smtpd_use_tls = yes
234 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 379#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
235 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 380smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
236 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 381smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
237 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 382smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
238 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 383smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
239 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 384smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
240 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 385smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
241 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 386tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
242 387
243 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 388<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
244<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 389You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
245 390
246 # <i>postfix reload</i> 391# <i>postfix reload</i>
247</pre> 392</pre>
393
394<p>
248<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 395Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
396</p>
397
249<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 398<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
250 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 399# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
251 400
252 Trying 127.0.0.1... 401Trying 127.0.0.1...
253 Connected to localhost. 402Connected to localhost.
254 Escape character is '^]'. 403Escape character is '^]'.
255 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 404220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
256 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 405<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
257 250-mail.domain.com 406250-mail.domain.com
258 250-PIPELINING 407250-PIPELINING
259 250-SIZE 10240000 408250-SIZE 10240000
260 250-VRFY 409250-VRFY
261 250-ETRN 410250-ETRN
262 250-STARTTLS 411250-STARTTLS
263 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP 412250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
264 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP 413250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
265 250-XVERP 414250-XVERP
266 250 8BITMIME 415250 8BITMIME
267 <i>^]</i> 416<i>^]</i>
268 telnet> <i>quit</i> 417telnet> <i>quit</i>
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
422install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
423sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
424unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
425and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
269</pre> 426</p>
270<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 427
271 </p>
272</body> 428</body>
429</section>
273</chapter> 430</chapter>
431
274<chapter> 432<chapter>
275<title>MySQL</title> 433<title>MySQL</title>
434<section>
276<body> 435<body>
277<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 436
437<p>
438Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
439link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
440dumpfile for this step.
441</p>
442
278<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 443<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
279 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 444# <i>emerge mysql</i>
280 445
281 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 446# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
282<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 447<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
283<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 448for adding a root password with mysql,
284<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 449not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
285 450
286 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 451# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
287 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 452# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
288 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 453# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
289 454
290 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 455# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
291 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 456mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
292 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 457 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
293 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 458 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
294 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 459 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
295 460
296 -> <i>quit</i> 461 -> <i>quit</i>
297<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 462<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
298 463
299 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 464# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
300</pre> 465</pre>
466
467<p>
301<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 468Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
469following tables are included:
470</p>
471
302 <ul> 472<ul>
303<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 473 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
304<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 474 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
475 <li>
305<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 476 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
477 hosting
478 </li>
306<li>users - all user account information</li> 479 <li>users - all user account information</li>
307<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 480 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
308</ul> 481</ul>
309</p> 482
310<pre caption="alias table sample" > 483<pre caption="alias table sample">
311 id alias destination 484id alias destination
312 1 root foo@bar.com 4851 root foo@bar.com
313 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4862 postmaster foo@bar.com
314 </pre> 487</pre>
488
315<pre caption="user table sample" > 489<pre caption="user table sample">
316 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 490<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
317 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 491id email clear name uid gid homedir \
318 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 492 maildir quota postfix
49310 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
494 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
49513 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
496 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
319 </pre> 497</pre>
498
499<p>
500The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
501user and group.
502</p>
503
320<pre caption="transport table sample" > 504<pre caption="transport table sample">
321 id domain destination 505id domain destination
322 1 bar.com local: 5061 bar.com local:
323 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5072 virt-bar.org virtual:
324 </pre> 508</pre>
509
325<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 510<pre caption="virtual table sample">
326 id email destination 511id email destination
327 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5123 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
328 </pre> 513</pre>
514
329</body> 515</body>
516</section>
330</chapter> 517</chapter>
518
331<chapter> 519<chapter>
332<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 520<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
521<section>
333<body> 522<body>
523
524<p>
334<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 525Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
526more easily.
527</p>
528
335<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 529<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
336 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 530# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
531</pre>
532
533<p>
534There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
535this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
536numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
537problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
538not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
539with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
540phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
541index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
542phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
543however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
544including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
337</pre> 545</p>
338<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 546
339<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 547<p>
548Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
549Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
550</p>
551
340 <ul> 552<ul>
341<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 553 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
342<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 554 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
343</ul> 555</ul>
344</p> 556
345<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 557<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
346 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 558# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
347 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 559# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
348 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 560# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
561
349<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 562<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
350 563
351 ServerName host.domain.name 564ServerName host.domain.name
352 ServerAdmin your@email.address 565ServerAdmin your@email.address
353 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 566SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
354 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 567SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
355 568
356 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 569# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
357</pre> 570</pre>
358<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 571
572<note>
573If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
574server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
575apache restarted successfully.
576</note>
577
578<p>
359<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 579Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
580</p>
581
360<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 582<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
361 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 583# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
362<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 584<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
363 585
364 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 586$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
365 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 587$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
366 // (this user must have read-only 588 // (this user must have read-only
367 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 589$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
368 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 590 // and "mysql/db" tables)
369 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 591$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
370 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 592$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
371 </pre> 593</pre>
372<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 594
595<p>
596Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
597local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
598transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
599supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
600go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
601accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
602correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
603automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
604general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
605after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
606</p>
607
373</body> 608</body>
609</section>
374</chapter> 610</chapter>
611
375<chapter> 612<chapter>
376<title>The vmail user</title> 613<title>The vmail user</title>
614<section>
377<body> 615<body>
378<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 616
617<p>
618At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
619mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
620</p>
621
379<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 622<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
380 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 623# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
381 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 624# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
382 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 625# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
383 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 626# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
384 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 627# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
628</pre>
629
630<p>
631So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
632homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
633homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
634haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
385</pre> 635</p>
386<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 636
387</body> 637</body>
638</section>
388</chapter> 639</chapter>
640
389<chapter> 641<chapter>
390<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 642<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
643<section>
391<body> 644<body>
392<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 645
393<pre> 646<p>
394 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 647Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
395<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 648courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
396<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 649<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
397<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote> 650</p>
398 651
652<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
653# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
399 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 654# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
400<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 655<comment>(Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.)</comment>
401 656
402 #auth required pam_nologin.so 657#auth required pam_nologin.so
403 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 658#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
404 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 659#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
405 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 660#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
406 661
407 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 662auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
408 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 663 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
409 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 664account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
410 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 665 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
411 666
412 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 667# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
413 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 668# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
414<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 669<comment>(Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files.)</comment>
415</pre> 670</pre>
671
672<p>
416<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 673Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.
417<pre> 674</p>
675
676<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
418 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 677# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
419 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 678authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
420 679
421 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 680# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
422 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 681AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
423 682
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 683# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
425 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 684MYSQL_SERVER localhost
426 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 685MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
427 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 686MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
428 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 687MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
429 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 688MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
430 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 689<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
690#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
431 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 691MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
432 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 692MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
433 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 693MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
434 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 694MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
435 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 695MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
436 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 696MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
437 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 697MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
438 698
439 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 699# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
440 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 700# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
701</pre>
702
703<p>
704We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
705for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
441</pre> 706</p>
442<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 707
443<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 708<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
444 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 709# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
445 # mysql-aliases.cf 710# mysql-aliases.cf
446 711
447 user = mailsql 712user = mailsql
448 password = $password 713password = $password
449 dbname = mailsql 714dbname = mailsql
450 table = alias 715table = alias
451 select_field = destination 716select_field = destination
452 where_field = alias 717where_field = alias
453 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 718hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
454 </pre> 719</pre>
720
455<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 721<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
456 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 722# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
457 # mysql-relocated.cf 723# mysql-relocated.cf
458 724
459 user = mailsql 725user = mailsql
460 password = $password 726password = $password
461 dbname = mailsql 727dbname = mailsql
462 table = relocated 728table = relocated
463 select_field = destination 729select_field = destination
464 where_field = email 730where_field = email
465 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 731hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
466 </pre> 732</pre>
733
467<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 734<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
468 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 735# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
469 # mysql-transport.cf 736# mysql-transport.cf
470 737
471 user = mailsql 738user = mailsql
472 password = $password 739password = $password
473 dbname = mailsql 740dbname = mailsql
474 table = transport 741table = transport
475 select_field = destination 742select_field = destination
476 where_field = domain 743where_field = domain
477 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 744hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
478 </pre> 745</pre>
746
479<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 747<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
480 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 748# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
481 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 749#myql-virtual-gid.cf
482 750
483 user = mailsql 751user = mailsql
484 password = $password 752password = $password
485 dbname = mailsql 753dbname = mailsql
486 table = users 754table = users
487 select_field = gid 755select_field = gid
488 where_field = email 756where_field = email
489 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 757additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
490 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 758hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
491 </pre> 759</pre>
760
492<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 761<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
493 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 762# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
494 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 763#myql-virtual-maps.cf
495 764
496 user = mailsql 765user = mailsql
497 password = $password 766password = $password
498 dbname = mailsql 767dbname = mailsql
499 table = users 768table = users
500 select_field = maildir 769select_field = maildir
501 where_field = email 770where_field = email
502 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 771additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
503 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 772hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
504 </pre> 773</pre>
774
505<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 775<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
506 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 776# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
507 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 777# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
508 778
509 user = mailsql 779user = mailsql
510 password = $password 780password = $password
511 dbname = mailsql 781dbname = mailsql
512 table = users 782table = users
513 select_field = uid 783select_field = uid
514 where_field = email 784where_field = email
515 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 785additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
516 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 786hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
517 </pre> 787</pre>
788
518<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 789<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
519 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 790# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
520 # mysql-virtual.cf 791# mysql-virtual.cf
521 792
522 user = mailsql 793user = mailsql
523 password = $password 794password = $password
524 dbname = mailsql 795dbname = mailsql
525 table = virtual 796table = virtual
526 select_field = destination 797select_field = destination
527 where_field = email 798where_field = email
528 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 799hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
529 </pre> 800</pre>
801
802<p>
530<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 803Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
804</p>
805
531<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 806<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
532 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 807# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
533 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 808alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
534 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 809relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
535 810
536 local_transport = local 811local_transport = local
537 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 812local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
538 813
539 virtual_transport = virtual 814virtual_transport = virtual
540 virtual_mailbox_domains = 815virtual_mailbox_domains =
541 virt-bar.com, 816 virt-bar.com,
542 $other-virtual-domain.com 817 $other-virtual-domain.com
543 818
544 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 819virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
545 virtual_gid_maps = static: $vmail-gid 820virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
546 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 821virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
547 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 822virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
548 virtual_uid_maps = static: $vmail-uid 823virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
549 virtual_mailbox_base = / 824virtual_mailbox_base = /
550 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 825#virtual_mailbox_limit =
551 </pre> 826</pre>
552<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 827
828<p>
829For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
830<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
831</p>
832
833<pre caption="Changing file permission">
834# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
835# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
836</pre>
837
838<p>
839As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
840release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
841longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
842</p>
843
844<note>
553<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 845It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
846for more information.
847</note>
848
849<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
554<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 850# <i>postfix reload</i>
851</pre>
852
853<p>
854Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
855able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
856for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
857everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
858things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
859troubleshooting section of this howto.
555</pre> 860</p>
556<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 861
557</body> 862</body>
863</section>
558</chapter> 864</chapter>
865
559<chapter> 866<chapter>
560<title>Squirrelmail</title> 867<title>Squirrelmail</title>
868<section>
561<body> 869<body>
562<pre> 870
871<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
563 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 872# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
564<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 873<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
874(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
565 875
566 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 876# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
567 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 877# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
568 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 878# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
569<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 879<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
570<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 880Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
571<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 881and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
572</pre> 882</pre>
883
573</body> 884</body>
885</section>
574</chapter> 886</chapter>
887
575<chapter> 888<chapter>
576<title>Mailman</title> 889<title>Mailman</title>
890<section>
577<body> 891<body>
578<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correclty for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really reccommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 892
893<p>
894Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
895support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
896get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
897to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
898documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
899here.
900</p>
901
902<p>
903One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
904you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
905overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
906</p>
907
579<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 908<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
580 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 909# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
581 MAILGID="280" 910MAILGID="280"
582 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 911<comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
583 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 912This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
584</pre>
585<pre> 913</pre>
914
915<pre caption="Install mailman">
586 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 916# <i>emerge mailman</i>
587<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 917<comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
588<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 918emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
589<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote> 919in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
920We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
590 921
591 # <i>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 922# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
592</pre> 923</pre>
924
925<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
926# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
927<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
928DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
929DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
930</pre>
931
593<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 932<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
594 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 933# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
595 MTA = "Postfix" 934MTA = "Postfix"
596 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 935POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
597 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 936add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
598 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 937add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
599<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 938<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
600</pre>
601<pre> 939</pre>
940
941<pre caption="And last but not least">
602<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 942<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
603 943
604 # <i>su mailman</i> 944# <i>su mailman</i>
605 # <i>cd ~</i> 945# <i>cd ~</i>
606 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 946# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
607 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 947Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
608 Initial test password: 948Initial test password:
609 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 949Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
610 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 950<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
611 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 951list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
612 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 952# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
613 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 953<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
614 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 954verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
615 955
616 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 956# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
617 # STANZA START: test 957# STANZA START: test
618 # CREATED: 958# CREATED:
619 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 959test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
620 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 960test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
621 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 961test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
622 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 962test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
623 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 963test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
624 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 964test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
625 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 965test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
626 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 966test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
627 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 967test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
628 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 968test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
629 # STANZA END: test 969# STANZA END: test
630 970
631 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 971# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
632 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 972# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
633 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 973<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
634</pre> 974</pre>
635 975
636<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 976<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
637 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 977# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
638 owner_request_special = no 978owner_request_special = no
639 recipient_delimiter = + 979recipient_delimiter = +
640 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 980<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
641 981
642 alias_maps = 982alias_maps =
643 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 983 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
644 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 984 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
645 985
646 virtual_alias_maps = 986virtual_alias_maps =
647 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 987 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
648 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 988 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
649 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 989<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
650 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 990You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
651 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 991but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
992using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
993to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
994</pre>
995
996<p>
997You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
998note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
999mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
1000Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
1001lists.
652</pre> 1002</p>
653<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 1003
654</body> 1004</body>
1005</section>
655</chapter> 1006</chapter>
1007
656<chapter> 1008<chapter>
657<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 1009<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
658<body><p>Coming soon...</p></body> 1010<section>
1011<body>
1012
1013<p>
1014Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to
1015make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.
1016</p>
1017
1018</body>
1019</section>
659</chapter> 1020</chapter>
1021
660<chapter> 1022<chapter>
661<title>Wrap Up</title> 1023<title>Wrap Up</title>
1024<section>
662<body> 1025<body>
663<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 1026
1027<p>
1028Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1029verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1030to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1031sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1032courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1033up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1034the services enabled.
1035</p>
1036
664<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1037<pre caption="Wrap up">
665 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1038# <i>postfix reload</i>
666 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1039# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
667</pre> 1040</pre>
1041
668<p> 1042<p>
669<e>Have fun!</e> 1043<e>Have fun!</e>
670</p> 1044</p>
1045
671</body> 1046</body>
1047</section>
672</chapter> 1048</chapter>
1049
673<chapter> 1050<chapter>
674<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1051<title>Troubleshooting</title>
675<section> 1052<section>
676<title>Introduction</title> 1053<title>Introduction</title>
677<body> 1054<body>
678<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1055
1056<p>
1057Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1058detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1059you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1060it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1061that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1062from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1063work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1064</p>
1065
679</body> 1066</body>
680</section>
681<section> 1067</section>
1068<section>
682<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1069<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
683<body> 1070<body>
684<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1071
685<pre> 1072<p>
1073Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1074your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1075if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1076it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1077make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1078</p>
1079
1080<pre caption="How to restart a service">
686 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1081# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
687</pre> 1082</pre>
1083
688</body> 1084</body>
689</section> 1085</section>
690<section> 1086<section>
691<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1087<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
692<body> 1088<body>
693<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1089
694<pre> 1090<p>
1091If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1092running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1093Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1094component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1095process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1096awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1097out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1098</p>
1099
1100<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
695 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1101# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
696 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1102# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
697</pre> 1103</pre>
1104
698</body> 1105</body>
699</section> 1106</section>
700<section> 1107<section>
701<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1108<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
702<body> 1109<body>
703<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1110
704<pre> 1111<p>
1112If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1113sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1114current config's to you, like postfix.
1115</p>
1116
1117<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
705 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1118# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
706 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1119# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
707 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1120# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
708 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1121# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
709</pre> 1122</pre>
1123
710</body> 1124</body>
711</section>
712<section> 1125</section>
1126<section>
713<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1127<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
714<body> 1128<body>
715<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1129
716<pre> 1130<p>
1131Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1132logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1133logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1134logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1135in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1136figure out which component is having the problem.
1137</p>
1138
1139<pre caption="Checking the logs">
717 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1140# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
718 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1141# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
719 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1142# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
720 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1143# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1144</pre>
1145
1146<p>
1147You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1148will increase log output over just verbose mode.
721</pre> 1149</p>
722<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1150
723<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1151<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
724 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1152# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
725 debug_peer_level = 5 1153debug_peer_level = 5
726 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1154debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
727 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1155<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
728 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1156commands as well.)</comment>
729</pre> 1157</pre>
1158
730</body> 1159</body>
731</section>
732<section> 1160</section>
1161<section>
733<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1162<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
734<body> 1163<body>
735<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1164
736<pre> 1165<p>
1166SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1167we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1168to the service itself and see what's happening.
1169</p>
1170
1171<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
737 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1172# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
738<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1173<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
739<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1174letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
740 1175
741 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1176Trying 127.0.0.1...
742 Connected to localhost. 1177Connected to localhost.
743 Escape character is '^]'. 1178Escape character is '^]'.
744 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1179* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
745 </pre> 1180</pre>
1181
746</body> 1182</body>
747</section>
748<section> 1183</section>
1184<section>
749<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1185<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
750<body> 1186<body>
751<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1187
752<pre> 1188<p>
1189You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1190software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1191all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1192information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1193transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1194</p>
1195
1196<pre caption="Using strace">
753 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1197# <i>emerge strace</i>
754 # <i>strace $command</i> 1198# <i>strace $command</i>
755 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1199# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
756</pre> 1200</pre>
1201
757</body> 1202</body>
758</section> 1203</section>
759<section> 1204<section>
760<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1205<title>Step 7: Research</title>
761<body> 1206<body>
762<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1207
1208<p>
1209Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1210If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1211help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1212already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1213which contains some great debugging ideas.
763<p> 1214</p>
1215
764<ul> 1216<ul>
765<li>
766<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1217 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
767<li> 1218 <li>
768<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1219 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
769<li> 1220 to look for specific errors
1221 </li>
770<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1222 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
771<li> 1223 <li>
772<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1224 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1225 lists - searchable
1226 </li>
773<li> 1227 <li>
774<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1228 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1229 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1230 </li>
775<li> 1231 <li>
776<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1232 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1233 google, which has never failed me
1234 </li>
1235 <li>
777<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1236 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1237 place to go for help.
1238 </li>
778</ul> 1239</ul>
779</p> 1240
780</body> 1241</body>
781</section> 1242</section>
782</chapter> 1243</chapter>
783</guide> 1244</guide>
784

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