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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.56 2007/07/20 09:09:04 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
25This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
26postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
27</abstract>
28
12<version>1.0</version> 29<version>1.4</version>
13<date>07 Jan 2003</date> 30<date>2007-07-20</date>
31
14<!-- 32<!--
15
16Contents 33Contents
17 34
18I. Introduction 35I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 36II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 37III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 45XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 46XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 47XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 48XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 49XV. Troubleshooting
50-->
33 51
34--><chapter> 52<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 53<title>Introduction</title>
54<section>
55<body>
56
57<p>
58For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
59you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
60Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
61need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
62system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
63</p>
64
65<p>
66A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
67with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
68that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
69domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
70smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
71system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
72the system? How do you manage it all?
73</p>
74
75<p>
76This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
77mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
78users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
79authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
80utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
81mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
82central and easy mysql database.
83</p>
84
85<p>
86There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
87system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
88needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
89<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
90</p>
91
92<p>
93The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
94postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
95mailman.
96</p>
97
98<p>
99Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
100before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
101sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
102get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
103turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
104</p>
105
106<impo>
107You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
108for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
109advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
110</impo>
111
112<impo>
113Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
114your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
115<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
116<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
117<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
118</impo>
119
120<note>
121It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
122with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
123any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
124Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
125flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
126the squirrelmail section.
127</note>
128
36<body> 129</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 130</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 131</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 132
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p> 133<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 134<title>Postfix Basics</title>
135<section>
136<body>
137
138<pre caption="Install postfix">
139# <i>emerge postfix</i>
140</pre>
141
142<warn>
143Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
144netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
145</warn>
146
147<p>
148After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
149options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
150<c>$variables</c> with your own names.
151</p>
152
153<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
154myhostname = $host.domain.name
155mydomain = $domain.name
156inet_interfaces = all
157mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
158mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
159home_mailbox = .maildir/
160local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
161default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
162</pre>
163
164<p>
165Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
166turn on verbose output for debugging:
167</p>
168
169<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
170# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
171# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
172#
173==========================================================================
174<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
175smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
176</pre>
177
178<p>
179Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
180should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
181</p>
182
183<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
184# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
185<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
186when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 187
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is reccommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
49</body>
50</chapter>
51<chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title>
53<body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
55</pre>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name
60 mydomain = $domain.name
61 inet_interfaces = all
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
71 #
72 ==========================================================================
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
74
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 188# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
189</pre>
190
191<p>
192Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
193yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
194postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
195next step.
84</pre> 196</p>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 197
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 198<note>
199I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
200before you progress to the next step of the howto.
201</note>
202
87</body> 203</body>
204</section>
88</chapter> 205</chapter>
206
89<chapter> 207<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title> 208<title>Courier-imap</title>
209<section>
91<body> 210<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 211
212<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
213# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
93</pre> 214</pre>
215
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 216<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 217# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 218<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 219you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 220This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
99 221
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 222# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 223# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 224<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
103 225
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 226# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i> 227# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre> 228</pre>
229
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 230<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 231# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 232# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 233# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 234# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
235</pre>
236
237<p>
238Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
239started work for receiving and sending mail. Of course, you won't be able to log
240on to any of the services because authentication hasn't been configured yet, but
241it is wise to check if the connections themselves work or not.
112</pre> 242</p>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 243
244<p>
245Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to
246get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've
247installed already works before progressing.
248</p>
249
114</body> 250</body>
251</section>
115</chapter> 252</chapter>
253
116<chapter> 254<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 255<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
256<section>
118<body> 257<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 258
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 259<p>
121<p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p> 260Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
261actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
262information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
263not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
264a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
265end anyway.
266</p>
267
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 268<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
123 # <i>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</i> 269# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124 # <i>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</i>
125<codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
126
127 econf \
128 --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
129 --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
130 --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
131 --with-openssl \
132 --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
133 --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
134 --with-des \
135 --with-rc4 \
136 --disable-krb4 \
137 --with-gnu-ld \
138 --enable-shared \
139 --disable-sample \
140 --enable-login \
141 --disable-cram \
142 --disable-digest \
143 ${myconf} || die &quot;bad ./configure&quot;
144
145 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
146<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
147<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
148</pre> 270</pre>
271
272<p>
149<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 273Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
274</p>
275
150<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 276<pre caption="Starting sasl">
151 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 277# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
278mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
152 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 279pwcheck_method: saslauthd
280# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
281SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
282SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
283# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
284</pre>
285
286</body>
287</section>
288</chapter>
289
290<chapter>
291<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
292<section>
293<body>
294
295<p>
296Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
297</p>
298
299<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
300# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
301# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
302
303<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
304countryName_default
305stateOrProvinceName_default
306localityName_default
3070.organizationName_default
308commonName_default
309emailAddress_default.
310
311<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
312
313# <i>cd misc</i>
314# <i>./CA.pl -newreq-nodes</i>
315# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
316# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
317# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
318# <i>cp newkey.pem /etc/postfix</i>
319# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
320<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
321
322# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
323# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
324# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
325<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
326We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
327</pre>
328
329</body>
330</section>
331
332</chapter>
333<chapter>
334<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
335<section>
336<body>
337
338<p>
339Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
340capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
341will be easy to find.
342</p>
343
344<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
345# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
346
347smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
348smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
349smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
350broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
351smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
352
353<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
354are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
355Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
356smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
357smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
358mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
359
360smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
361 permit_sasl_authenticated,
362 permit_mynetworks,
363 reject_unauth_destination
153 364
154 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
155</pre>
156</body>
157</chapter>
158<chapter>
159<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
160<body>
161<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
162<pre>
163 # <i>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</i>
164 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
165<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
166
167 countryName_default
168 stateOrProvinceName_default
169 localityName_default
170 0.organizationName_default
171 commonName_default
172 emailAddress_default.
173
174 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
175 365
176 366<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
177 # <i>cd misc</i> 367smtp_use_tls = yes
178 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 368smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
179<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
180<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
181<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
182<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
183
184 # create a certificate
185 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
186
187 # create a certificate request
188 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
189
190 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
191 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
192 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
193 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
194 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
195 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
196<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
197
198
199 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
200 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
201 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
202<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
203<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
204</pre>
205</body>
206</chapter>
207<chapter>
208<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
209<body>
210<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
211<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
212 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
213
214 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
215 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
216 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
217 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
218 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
219
220 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
221<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
222<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
223<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
224<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
225<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
226
227 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
228 permit_sasl_authenticated,
229 permit_mynetworks,
230 reject_unath_destination
231
232
233 smtpd_use_tls = yes 369smtpd_use_tls = yes
234 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 370#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
235 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 371smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newkey.pem
236 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 372smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
237 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 373smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
238 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 374smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
239 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 375smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
240 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 376smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
241 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 377tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
242 378
243 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 379<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
244<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 380You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
245 381
246 # <i>postfix reload</i> 382# <i>postfix reload</i>
247</pre> 383</pre>
384
385<p>
248<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 386Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
387</p>
388
249<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 389<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
250 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 390# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
251 391
252 Trying 127.0.0.1... 392Trying 127.0.0.1...
253 Connected to localhost. 393Connected to localhost.
254 Escape character is '^]'. 394Escape character is '^]'.
255 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 395220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
256 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 396<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
257 250-mail.domain.com 397250-mail.domain.com
258 250-PIPELINING 398250-PIPELINING
259 250-SIZE 10240000 399250-SIZE 10240000
260 250-VRFY 400250-VRFY
261 250-ETRN 401250-ETRN
262 250-STARTTLS 402250-STARTTLS
263 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP 403250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
264 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP 404250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
265 250-XVERP 405250-XVERP
266 250 8BITMIME 406250 8BITMIME
267 <i>^]</i> 407<i>^]</i>
268 telnet> <i>quit</i> 408telnet> <i>quit</i>
409</pre>
410
411<p>
412Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
413install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
414sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
415unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
416and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
269</pre> 417</p>
270<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 418
271 </p>
272</body> 419</body>
420</section>
273</chapter> 421</chapter>
422
274<chapter> 423<chapter>
275<title>MySQL</title> 424<title>MySQL</title>
425<section>
276<body> 426<body>
277<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 427
428<p>
429Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
430link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
431dumpfile for this step.
432</p>
433
278<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 434<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
279 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 435# <i>emerge mysql</i>
280 436
281 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 437# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
282<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 438<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
283<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 439for adding a root password with mysql,
284<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 440not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
285 441
286 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 442# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
287 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 443# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
288 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 444# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
289 445
290 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 446# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
291 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 447mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
292 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 448 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
293 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 449 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
294 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 450 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
451Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
295 452
296 -> <i>quit</i> 453mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
454Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
455
456mysql> <i>quit</i>
297<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 457<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
298 458
299 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 459# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
300</pre> 460</pre>
461
462<p>
301<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 463Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
464following tables are included:
465</p>
466
302 <ul> 467<ul>
303<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 468 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
304<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 469 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
470 <li>
305<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 471 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
472 hosting
473 </li>
306<li>users - all user account information</li> 474 <li>users - all user account information</li>
307<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 475 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
308</ul> 476</ul>
309</p> 477
310<pre caption="alias table sample" > 478<pre caption="alias table sample">
311 id alias destination 479id alias destination
312 1 root foo@bar.com 4801 root foo@bar.com
313 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4812 postmaster foo@bar.com
314 </pre> 482</pre>
483
315<pre caption="user table sample" > 484<pre caption="user table sample">
316 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 485<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
317 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 486id email clear name uid gid homedir \
318 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 487 maildir quota postfix
48810 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
489 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
49013 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
491 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
319 </pre> 492</pre>
493
494<p>
495The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
496user and group.
497</p>
498
320<pre caption="transport table sample" > 499<pre caption="transport table sample">
321 id domain destination 500id domain destination
322 1 bar.com local: 5011 bar.com local:
323 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5022 virt-bar.org virtual:
324 </pre> 503</pre>
504
325<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 505<pre caption="virtual table sample">
326 id email destination 506id email destination
327 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5073 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
328 </pre> 508</pre>
509
329</body> 510</body>
511</section>
330</chapter> 512</chapter>
513
331<chapter> 514<chapter>
332<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 515<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
516<section>
333<body> 517<body>
518
519<p>
334<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 520Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
521more easily.
522</p>
523
335<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 524<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
336 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 525# <i>emerge apache phpmyadmin</i>
526</pre>
527
528<p>
529There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php,
530including guides provided by the <uri link="/proj/en/php/">Gentoo PHP
531Project</uri>. There are also numerous posts on
532<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the
533installation. So, that said, we're not going to cover it here. Set up the
534apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the
535wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this,
536search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean
537that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be
538able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There
539are many howtos on this including:
540<uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
337</pre> 541</p>
338<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 542
339<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 543<p>
544Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
545Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
546</p>
547
340 <ul> 548<ul>
341<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 549 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
342<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 550 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
343</ul> 551</ul>
344</p> 552
345<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 553<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
346 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 554# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
347 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 555# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
348 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 556# <i>cd /etc/apache2/vhosts.d</i>
557<comment>(Check if you have an ssl-vhost template already.
558 Copy that one instead of the default_vhost if that is the case)</comment>
559# <i>cp 00_default_vhost.conf ssl-vhost.conf</i>
560# <i>nano -w ssl-vhost.conf</i>
561
349<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 562<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
350 563NameVirtualHost host.domain.name:443
564
565&lt;VirtualHost host.domain.name:443&gt;
351 ServerName host.domain.name 566 ServerName host.domain.name
352 ServerAdmin your@email.address 567 ServerAdmin your@email.address
568
569 DocumentRoot "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin";
570 &lt;Directory "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin"&gt;
571 ...
572 &lt;/Directory&gt;
573
353 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 574 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.cert
354 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 575 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.key
355 576 SSLEngine on
577 ...
578&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
579
580# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/apache2</i>
581<comment>(Add -D SSL -D PHP5 to the APACHE2_OPTS)</comment>
582
356 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 583# <i>/etc/init.d/apache2 restart</i>
357</pre> 584</pre>
358<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 585
586<p>
359<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 587Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
588</p>
589
360<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 590<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
361 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 591# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin</i>
592# <i>cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php</i>
593# <i>nano -w config.inc.php</i>
362<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 594<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
363 595$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = 'someverysecretpassphraze';
596
364 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 597$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
365 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 598$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
366 // (this user must have read-only 599 // (this user must have read-only
367 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
368 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 601 // and "mysql/db" tables)
369 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 602$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
370 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 603$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
371 </pre> 604</pre>
372<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 605
606<p>
607Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
608local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
609transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
610supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
611go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
612accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
613correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
614automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
615general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
616setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
617</p>
618
373</body> 619</body>
620</section>
374</chapter> 621</chapter>
622
375<chapter> 623<chapter>
376<title>The vmail user</title> 624<title>The vmail user</title>
625<section>
377<body> 626<body>
378<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 627
628<p>
629At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
630mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
631</p>
632
379<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 633<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
380 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 634# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false -m vmail</i>
381 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 635</pre>
382 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 636
383 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 637<p>
384 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 638So now you've set up the vmail account. You can create multiple accounts if you
639want (to keep some structure in your set of virtual mail accounts). The user id,
640group id and home dirs are referenced in the MySQL tables.
385</pre> 641</p>
386<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 642
387</body> 643</body>
644</section>
388</chapter> 645</chapter>
646
389<chapter> 647<chapter>
390<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 648<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
649<section>
391<body> 650<body>
392<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 651
393<pre> 652<p>
394 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 653Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
395<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 654courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
396<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 655<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
397<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
398
399 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
400<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
401
402 #auth required pam_nologin.so
403 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
404 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
405 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
406
407 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
408 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
409 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
410 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
411
412 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
413 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
414<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
415</pre> 656</p>
416<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 657
417<pre> 658<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
418 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 659# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
419 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 660authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
420 661
421 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
422 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
423
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 662# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
425 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 663MYSQL_SERVER localhost
426 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 664MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
427 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 665MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
428 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 666MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
429 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 667MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
430 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 668<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
669#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
431 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 670MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
432 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 671MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
433 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 672MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
434 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 673MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
435 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 674MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
436 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 675MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
437 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 676MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
438 677
439 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 678# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
440 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 679# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
680</pre>
681
682<p>
683We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
684for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
685Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
686password, alias, email address, and so on.
441</pre> 687</p>
442<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 688
443<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 689<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
444 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 690# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
445 # mysql-aliases.cf 691# mysql-aliases.cf
446 692
447 user = mailsql 693user = mailsql
448 password = $password 694password = $password
449 dbname = mailsql 695dbname = mailsql
450 table = alias 696table = alias
451 select_field = destination 697select_field = destination
452 where_field = alias 698where_field = alias
453 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 699hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
454 </pre> 700</pre>
701
455<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 702<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
456 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 703# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
457 # mysql-relocated.cf 704# mysql-relocated.cf
458 705
459 user = mailsql 706user = mailsql
460 password = $password 707password = $password
461 dbname = mailsql 708dbname = mailsql
462 table = relocated 709table = relocated
463 select_field = destination 710select_field = destination
464 where_field = email 711where_field = email
465 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 712hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
466 </pre> 713</pre>
714
467<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 715<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
468 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 716# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
469 # mysql-transport.cf 717# mysql-transport.cf
470 718
471 user = mailsql 719user = mailsql
472 password = $password 720password = $password
473 dbname = mailsql 721dbname = mailsql
474 table = transport 722table = transport
475 select_field = destination 723select_field = destination
476 where_field = domain 724where_field = domain
477 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 725hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
478 </pre> 726</pre>
727
479<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 728<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
480 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 729# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
481 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 730# mysql-virtual-gid.cf
482 731
483 user = mailsql 732user = mailsql
484 password = $password 733password = $password
485 dbname = mailsql 734dbname = mailsql
486 table = users 735table = users
487 select_field = gid 736select_field = gid
488 where_field = email 737where_field = email
489 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 738additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
490 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 739hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
491 </pre> 740</pre>
741
492<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 742<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
493 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 743# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
494 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 744#myql-virtual-maps.cf
495 745
496 user = mailsql 746user = mailsql
497 password = $password 747password = $password
498 dbname = mailsql 748dbname = mailsql
499 table = users 749table = users
500 select_field = maildir 750select_field = maildir
501 where_field = email 751where_field = email
502 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 752additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
503 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 753hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
504 </pre> 754</pre>
755
505<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 756<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
506 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 757# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
507 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 758# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
508 759
509 user = mailsql 760user = mailsql
510 password = $password 761password = $password
511 dbname = mailsql 762dbname = mailsql
512 table = users 763table = users
513 select_field = uid 764select_field = uid
514 where_field = email 765where_field = email
515 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 766additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
516 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 767hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
517 </pre> 768</pre>
769
518<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 770<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
519 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 771# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
520 # mysql-virtual.cf 772# mysql-virtual.cf
521 773
522 user = mailsql 774user = mailsql
523 password = $password 775password = $password
524 dbname = mailsql 776dbname = mailsql
525 table = virtual 777table = virtual
526 select_field = destination 778select_field = destination
527 where_field = email 779where_field = email
528 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 780hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
529 </pre> 781</pre>
782
783<p>
530<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 784Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
785</p>
786
531<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 787<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
532 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 788# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
789<comment>(Ensure that there are no other alias_maps definitions)</comment>
533 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 790alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
534 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 791relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
535 792
536 local_transport = local 793local_transport = local
537 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 794local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
538 795
539 virtual_transport = virtual 796virtual_transport = virtual
540 virtual_mailbox_domains = 797<comment>(The domains listed by the mydestination should not be listed in
541 virt-bar.com, 798 the virtual_mailbox_domains parameter)</comment>
542 $other-virtual-domain.com 799virtual_mailbox_domains = virt-bar.com, $other-virtual-domain.com
543 800
544 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 801virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
802<comment>(Substitute $vmail-gid with the GID of the vmail group)</comment>
545 virtual_gid_maps = static: $vmail-gid 803virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
546 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 804virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
547 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 805virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
806<comment>(Substitute $vmail-uid with the UID of the vmail user)</comment>
548 virtual_uid_maps = static: $vmail-uid 807virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
549 virtual_mailbox_base = / 808virtual_mailbox_base = /
550 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 809#virtual_mailbox_limit =
551 </pre> 810</pre>
552<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 811
812<p>
813For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
814<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
815</p>
816
817<pre caption="Changing file permission">
818# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
820</pre>
821
822<p>
823As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
824release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
825longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
826</p>
827
828<note>
553<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 829It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
830for more information.
831</note>
832
833<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
554<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 834# <i>postfix reload</i>
835</pre>
836
837<p>
838Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
839able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
840for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
841everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
842things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
843troubleshooting section of this howto.
555</pre> 844</p>
556<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 845
557</body> 846</body>
847</section>
558</chapter> 848</chapter>
849
559<chapter> 850<chapter>
560<title>Squirrelmail</title> 851<title>Squirrelmail</title>
852<section>
561<body> 853<body>
562<pre> 854
855<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
563 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 856# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
564<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 857<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
858(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
565 859
566 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 860# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
567 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 861# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
568 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 862# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
569<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 863<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
570<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 864Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
571<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 865and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
572</pre> 866</pre>
867
573</body> 868</body>
869</section>
574</chapter> 870</chapter>
871
575<chapter> 872<chapter>
576<title>Mailman</title> 873<title>Mailman</title>
874<section>
577<body> 875<body>
578<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correclty for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really reccommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 876
579<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 877<p>
580 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 878Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
581 MAILGID="280" 879support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
582 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 880get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
583 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 881to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
882documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
883here.
584</pre> 884</p>
585<pre> 885
886<pre caption="Install mailman">
586 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 887# <i>emerge mailman</i>
587<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
588<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
589<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote>
590
591 # <i>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
592</pre> 888</pre>
889
890<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
891# <i> nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
892<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
893DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
894DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
895</pre>
896
593<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 897<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
594 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 898# <i>nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
595 MTA = "Postfix" 899MTA = "Postfix"
596 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 900POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
597 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 901add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
598 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 902add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
599<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 903<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
600</pre>
601<pre> 904</pre>
905
906<pre caption="And last but not least">
602<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 907<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
603 908
604 # <i>su mailman</i> 909# <i>su mailman</i>
605 # <i>cd ~</i> 910# <i>cd ~</i>
606 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 911# <i>./bin/newlist test</i>
607 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 912Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
608 Initial test password: 913Initial test password:
609 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 914Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
610 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 915<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
611 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 916list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
612 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 917# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
613 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 918<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
614 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 919verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
615 920
616 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 921# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
617 # STANZA START: test 922# STANZA START: test
618 # CREATED: 923# CREATED:
619 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 924test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
620 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 925test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
621 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 926test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
622 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 927test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
623 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 928test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
624 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 929test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
625 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 930test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
626 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 931test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
627 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 932test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
628 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 933test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
629 # STANZA END: test 934# STANZA END: test
630 935
936<comment>(Create the required mailman list)</comment>
937# <i>./bin/newlist mailman</i>
938# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
939
940<comment>(Return to the root user)</comment>
941# <i>exit</i>
942
631 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 943# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
632 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 944# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
633 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 945<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
634</pre> 946</pre>
635 947
636<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 948<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
637 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 949# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
638 owner_request_special = no 950owner_request_special = no
639 recipient_delimiter = + 951recipient_delimiter = +
640 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 952<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
641 953
642 alias_maps = 954alias_maps =
643 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 955 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/aliases,
644 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 956 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
645 957
646 virtual_alias_maps = 958virtual_alias_maps =
647 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 959 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
648 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 960 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
649 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 961<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
650 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 962You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
651 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 963but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
964using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
965to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
966</pre>
967
968<p>
969You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
970note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
971mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
972Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
973lists.
652</pre> 974</p>
653<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 975
654</body> 976</body>
977</section>
655</chapter> 978</chapter>
979
656<chapter> 980<chapter>
657<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 981<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
658<body><p>Coming soon...</p></body> 982<section>
983<body>
984
985<p>
986For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
987link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
988</p>
989
990</body>
991</section>
659</chapter> 992</chapter>
993
660<chapter> 994<chapter>
661<title>Wrap Up</title> 995<title>Wrap Up</title>
996<section>
662<body> 997<body>
663<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 998
999<p>
1000Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1001verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1002to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1003sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1004courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1005up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1006the services enabled.
1007</p>
1008
664<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1009<pre caption="Wrap up">
665 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1010# <i>postfix reload</i>
666 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1011# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
667</pre> 1012</pre>
1013
668<p> 1014<p>
669<e>Have fun!</e> 1015<e>Have fun!</e>
670</p> 1016</p>
1017
671</body> 1018</body>
1019</section>
672</chapter> 1020</chapter>
1021
673<chapter> 1022<chapter>
674<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1023<title>Troubleshooting</title>
675<section> 1024<section>
676<title>Introduction</title> 1025<title>Introduction</title>
677<body> 1026<body>
678<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1027
1028<p>
1029Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1030detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1031you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1032it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1033that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1034from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1035work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1036</p>
1037
679</body> 1038</body>
680</section>
681<section> 1039</section>
1040<section>
682<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1041<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
683<body> 1042<body>
684<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1043
685<pre> 1044<p>
1045Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1046your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1047if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1048it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1049make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1050</p>
1051
1052<pre caption="How to restart a service">
686 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1053# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
687</pre> 1054</pre>
1055
688</body> 1056</body>
689</section> 1057</section>
690<section> 1058<section>
691<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1059<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
692<body> 1060<body>
693<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1061
694<pre> 1062<p>
1063If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1064running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1065Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1066component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1067process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1068awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1069out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1070</p>
1071
1072<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
695 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1073# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
696 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1074# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
697</pre> 1075</pre>
1076
698</body> 1077</body>
699</section> 1078</section>
700<section> 1079<section>
701<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1080<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
702<body> 1081<body>
703<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1082
704<pre> 1083<p>
1084If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1085sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1086current config's to you, like postfix.
1087</p>
1088
1089<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
705 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1090# <i>apache2ctl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
706 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1091# <i>apache2ctl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
707 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1092# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
708 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1093# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
709</pre> 1094</pre>
1095
710</body> 1096</body>
711</section>
712<section> 1097</section>
1098<section>
713<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1099<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
714<body> 1100<body>
715<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1101
716<pre> 1102<p>
1103Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1104logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1105logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1106logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1107in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1108figure out which component is having the problem.
1109</p>
1110
1111<pre caption="Checking the logs">
717 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1112# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
718 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1113# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
719 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1114# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
720 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1115# <i>tail /var/log/apache2/error_log</i>
1116</pre>
1117
1118<p>
1119You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1120will increase log output over just verbose mode.
721</pre> 1121</p>
722<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1122
723<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1123<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
724 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1124# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
725 debug_peer_level = 5 1125debug_peer_level = 5
726 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1126debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
727 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1127<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
728 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1128commands as well.)</comment>
729</pre> 1129</pre>
1130
730</body> 1131</body>
731</section>
732<section> 1132</section>
1133<section>
733<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1134<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
734<body> 1135<body>
735<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1136
736<pre> 1137<p>
1138SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1139we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1140to the service itself and see what's happening.
1141</p>
1142
1143<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
737 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1144# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
738<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1145<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
739<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1146letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
740 1147
741 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1148Trying 127.0.0.1...
742 Connected to localhost. 1149Connected to localhost.
743 Escape character is '^]'. 1150Escape character is '^]'.
744 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1151* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
745 </pre> 1152</pre>
1153
746</body> 1154</body>
747</section>
748<section> 1155</section>
1156<section>
749<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1157<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
750<body> 1158<body>
751<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1159
752<pre> 1160<p>
1161You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1162software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1163all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1164information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1165transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1166</p>
1167
1168<pre caption="Using strace">
753 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1169# <i>emerge strace</i>
754 # <i>strace $command</i> 1170# <i>strace $command</i>
755 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1171# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
756</pre> 1172</pre>
1173
757</body> 1174</body>
758</section> 1175</section>
759<section> 1176<section>
760<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1177<title>Step 7: Research</title>
761<body> 1178<body>
762<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1179
1180<p>
1181Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1182If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1183help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1184already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1185which contains some great debugging ideas.
763<p> 1186</p>
1187
764<ul> 1188<ul>
765<li>
766<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1189 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
767<li> 1190 <li>
768<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1191 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
769<li> 1192 to look for specific errors
1193 </li>
770<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1194 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
771<li> 1195 <li>
772<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1196 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1197 lists - searchable
1198 </li>
773<li> 1199 <li>
774<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1200 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1201 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1202 </li>
775<li> 1203 <li>
776<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1204 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1205 google, which has never failed me
1206 </li>
1207 <li>
777<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1208 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1209 place to go for help.
1210 </li>
778</ul> 1211</ul>
779</p> 1212
780</body> 1213</body>
781</section> 1214</section>
782</chapter> 1215</chapter>
783</guide> 1216</guide>
784

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