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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.50 2006/04/09 07:42:45 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
12<version>1.0</version> 26<version>1.0.27</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 27<date>2006-04-09</date>
28
14<!-- 29<!--
15
16Contents 30Contents
17 31
18I. Introduction 32I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 33II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 34III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 42XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 43XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 45XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
33 48
34--><chapter> 49<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
51<section>
52<body>
53
54<p>
55For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60</p>
61
62<p>
63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128</impo>
129
130<note>
131It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136the squirrelmail section.
137</note>
138
36<body> 139</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 140</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 141</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 142
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 143<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 144<title>Postfix Basics</title>
145<section>
146<body>
147
148<pre caption="Install postfix">
149# <i>emerge postfix</i>
150</pre>
151
152<warn>
153Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155</warn>
156
157<p>
158After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163myhostname = $host.domain.name
164mydomain = $domain.name
165inet_interfaces = all
166mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168home_mailbox = .maildir/
169local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171</pre>
172
173<p>
174Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175turn on verbose output for debugging:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181#
182==========================================================================
183<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190</p>
191
192<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 196
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 197# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 198</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 199
46<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo> 200<p>
47<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 201Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 202yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
49<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 203postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204next step.
205</p>
206
207<note>
208I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210</note>
211
50</body> 212</body>
51</chapter> 213</section>
52<chapter> 214</chapter>
53<title>Postfix Basics</title> 215
216<chapter>
217<title>Courier-imap</title>
218<section>
219<body>
220
221<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223</pre>
224
225<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237</pre>
238
239<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244</pre>
245
246<p>
247Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251progressing.
252</p>
253
54<body> 254</body>
55<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 255</section>
256</chapter>
257
258<chapter>
259<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260<section>
261<body>
262
263<p>
264Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269end anyway.
56</pre> 270</p>
57<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 271
58<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 272<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
59<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 273# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
60 myhostname = $host.domain.name 274</pre>
61 mydomain = $domain.name 275
62 inet_interfaces = all 276<p>
63 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 277Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
64 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 278</p>
65 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 279
66 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 280<pre caption="Starting sasl">
67 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 281# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
68<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 282mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
69<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 283pwcheck_method: saslauthd
70 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 284# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
71 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 285SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
72 # 286SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
73 ========================================================================== 287# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
74 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 288</pre>
289
290</body>
291</section>
292</chapter>
293
294<chapter>
295<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296<section>
297<body>
298
299<p>
300Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301</p>
302
303<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308countryName_default
309stateOrProvinceName_default
310localityName_default
3110.organizationName_default
312commonName_default
313emailAddress_default.
314
315<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317# <i>cd misc</i>
318# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324# create a certificate
325system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327# create a certificate request
328system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
75 329
76 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77</pre>
78<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
79<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
80 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
82<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
83
84 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85</pre>
86<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
87<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
88</body>
89</chapter>
90<chapter>
91<title>Courier-imap</title>
92<body>
93<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
94</pre>
95<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
96 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
98<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
99<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
100
101 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
104
105 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107</pre>
108<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113</pre>
114<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
115</body>
116</chapter>
117<chapter>
118<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
119<body>
120<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
121<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126</pre>
127<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
128<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
129 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
130 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
132<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
133<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
134 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135</pre>
136</body>
137</chapter>
138<chapter>
139<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
140<body>
141<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
142<pre>
143 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
145<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
146
147 countryName_default
148 stateOrProvinceName_default
149 localityName_default
150 0.organizationName_default
151 commonName_default
152 emailAddress_default.
153
154 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
155
156
157 # <i>cd misc</i>
158 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
159<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
163
164 # create a certificate
165 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166
167 # create a certificate request
168 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 330# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 331# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 332# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 333# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 334# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 335# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 336<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
177 337
178
179 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 338# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
180 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 339# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
181 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 340# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
182<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 341<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
183<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 342We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
184</pre> 343</pre>
344
185</body> 345</body>
346</section>
347
186</chapter> 348</chapter>
187<chapter> 349<chapter>
188<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 350<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351<section>
189<body> 352<body>
190<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 353
354<p>
355Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357will be easy to find.
358</p>
359
191<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 360<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
192 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 361# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
193 362
194 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 363smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 364smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
196 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 365smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
197 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 366broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
198 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 367smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
199 368
200 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 369<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
201<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 370are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
202<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 371Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
203<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 372smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
204<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 373smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
205<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 374mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
206 375
207 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 376smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
208 permit_sasl_authenticated, 377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
209 permit_mynetworks, 378 permit_mynetworks,
210 reject_unauth_destination 379 reject_unauth_destination
211 380
212 381
382<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
383smtp_use_tls = yes
384smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
213 smtpd_use_tls = yes 385smtpd_use_tls = yes
214 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 386#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
215 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 387smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
216 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 388smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 389smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
218 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 390smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
219 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 391smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
220 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 392smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
221 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 393tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
222 394
223 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 395<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
224<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 396You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
225 397
226 # <i>postfix reload</i> 398# <i>postfix reload</i>
227</pre> 399</pre>
400
401<p>
228<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 402Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
403</p>
404
229<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 405<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
230 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 406# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
231 407
232 Trying 127.0.0.1... 408Trying 127.0.0.1...
233 Connected to localhost. 409Connected to localhost.
234 Escape character is '^]'. 410Escape character is '^]'.
235 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 411220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
236 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 412<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
237 250-mail.domain.com 413250-mail.domain.com
238 250-PIPELINING 414250-PIPELINING
239 250-SIZE 10240000 415250-SIZE 10240000
240 250-VRFY 416250-VRFY
241 250-ETRN 417250-ETRN
242 250-STARTTLS 418250-STARTTLS
243 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 419250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 420250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
245 250-XVERP 421250-XVERP
246 250 8BITMIME 422250 8BITMIME
247 <i>^]</i> 423<i>^]</i>
248 telnet> <i>quit</i> 424telnet> <i>quit</i>
425</pre>
426
427<p>
428Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
429install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
430sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
431unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
432and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
249</pre> 433</p>
250<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 434
251 </p>
252</body> 435</body>
436</section>
253</chapter> 437</chapter>
438
254<chapter> 439<chapter>
255<title>MySQL</title> 440<title>MySQL</title>
441<section>
256<body> 442<body>
257<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 443
444<p>
445Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
446link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
447dumpfile for this step.
448</p>
449
258<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 450<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
259 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 451# <i>emerge mysql</i>
260 452
261 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 453# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
262<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 454<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
263<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 455for adding a root password with mysql,
264<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 456not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
265 457
266 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 458# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
267 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 459# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
268 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 460# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
269 461
270 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 462# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
271 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 463mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
272 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 464 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
273 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 465 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
274 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 466 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
467Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
275 468
276 -> <i>quit</i> 469mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
470Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
471
472mysql> <i>quit</i>
277<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 473<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
278 474
279 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 475# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
280</pre> 476</pre>
477
478<p>
281<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 479Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
480following tables are included:
481</p>
482
282 <ul> 483<ul>
283<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 484 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
284<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 485 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
486 <li>
285<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 487 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
488 hosting
489 </li>
286<li>users - all user account information</li> 490 <li>users - all user account information</li>
287<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 491 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
288</ul> 492</ul>
289</p> 493
290<pre caption="alias table sample" > 494<pre caption="alias table sample">
291 id alias destination 495id alias destination
292 1 root foo@bar.com 4961 root foo@bar.com
293 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4972 postmaster foo@bar.com
294 </pre> 498</pre>
499
295<pre caption="user table sample" > 500<pre caption="user table sample">
296 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 501<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
297 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 502id email clear name uid gid homedir \
298 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 503 maildir quota postfix
50410 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
505 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
50613 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
507 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
299 </pre> 508</pre>
509
510<p>
511The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
512user and group.
513</p>
514
300<pre caption="transport table sample" > 515<pre caption="transport table sample">
301 id domain destination 516id domain destination
302 1 bar.com local: 5171 bar.com local:
303 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5182 virt-bar.org virtual:
304 </pre> 519</pre>
520
305<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 521<pre caption="virtual table sample">
306 id email destination 522id email destination
307 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5233 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
308 </pre> 524</pre>
525
309</body> 526</body>
527</section>
310</chapter> 528</chapter>
529
311<chapter> 530<chapter>
312<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 531<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
532<section>
313<body> 533<body>
534
535<p>
314<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 536Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
537more easily.
538</p>
539
315<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 540<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
316 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 541# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
542</pre>
543
544<p>
545There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
546this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
547numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
548problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
549not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
550with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
551phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
552index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
553phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
554however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
555including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
317</pre> 556</p>
318<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 557
319<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 558<p>
559Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
560Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
561</p>
562
320 <ul> 563<ul>
321<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 564 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
322<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 565 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
323</ul> 566</ul>
324</p> 567
325<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 568<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
326 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 569# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 570# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
328 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 571# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
572
329<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 573<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
330 574
331 ServerName host.domain.name 575ServerName host.domain.name
332 ServerAdmin your@email.address 576ServerAdmin your@email.address
333 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 577SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
334 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 578SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
335 579
336 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 580# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
337</pre> 581</pre>
338<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 582
583<note>
584If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
585server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
586apache restarted successfully.
587</note>
588
589<p>
339<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 590Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
591</p>
592
340<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 593<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
341 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 594# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
342<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 595<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
343 596
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 597$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
345 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 598$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
346 // (this user must have read-only 599 // (this user must have read-only
347 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
348 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 601 // and "mysql/db" tables)
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 602$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
350 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 603$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
351 </pre> 604</pre>
352<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 605
606<p>
607Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
608local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
609transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
610supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
611go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
612accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
613correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
614automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
615general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
616after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
617</p>
618
353</body> 619</body>
620</section>
354</chapter> 621</chapter>
622
355<chapter> 623<chapter>
356<title>The vmail user</title> 624<title>The vmail user</title>
625<section>
357<body> 626<body>
358<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 627
628<p>
629At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
630mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
631</p>
632
359<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 633<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
360 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 634# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
361 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 635# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
362 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 636# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
363 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 637# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
364 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 638# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
639</pre>
640
641<p>
642So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
643homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
644homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
645haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
365</pre> 646</p>
366<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 647
367</body> 648</body>
649</section>
368</chapter> 650</chapter>
651
369<chapter> 652<chapter>
370<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 653<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
654<section>
371<body> 655<body>
372<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 656
373<pre> 657<p>
374 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 658Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
375<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 659courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
376<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 660<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
377<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
378
379 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
380<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
381
382 #auth required pam_nologin.so
383 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386
387 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
388 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
389 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
390 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
391
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
393 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
394<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
395</pre> 661</p>
396<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 662
397<pre> 663<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
398 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 664# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
399 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 665authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
400 666
401 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
402 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
403
404 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 667# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
405 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 668MYSQL_SERVER localhost
406 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 669MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
407 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 670MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
408 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 671MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
409 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 672MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
410 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 673<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
674#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
411 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 675MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
412 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 676MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
413 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 677MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
414 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 678MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
415 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 679MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
416 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 680MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
417 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 681MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
418 682
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 683# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
420 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 684# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
685</pre>
686
687<p>
688We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
689for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
421</pre> 690</p>
422<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 691
423<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 692<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 693# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
425 # mysql-aliases.cf 694# mysql-aliases.cf
426 695
427 user = mailsql 696user = mailsql
428 password = $password 697password = $password
429 dbname = mailsql 698dbname = mailsql
430 table = alias 699table = alias
431 select_field = destination 700select_field = destination
432 where_field = alias 701where_field = alias
433 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 702hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
434 </pre> 703</pre>
704
435<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 705<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
436 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 706# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
437 # mysql-relocated.cf 707# mysql-relocated.cf
438 708
439 user = mailsql 709user = mailsql
440 password = $password 710password = $password
441 dbname = mailsql 711dbname = mailsql
442 table = relocated 712table = relocated
443 select_field = destination 713select_field = destination
444 where_field = email 714where_field = email
445 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 715hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
446 </pre> 716</pre>
717
447<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 718<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
448 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 719# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
449 # mysql-transport.cf 720# mysql-transport.cf
450 721
451 user = mailsql 722user = mailsql
452 password = $password 723password = $password
453 dbname = mailsql 724dbname = mailsql
454 table = transport 725table = transport
455 select_field = destination 726select_field = destination
456 where_field = domain 727where_field = domain
457 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 728hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
458 </pre> 729</pre>
730
459<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 731<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
460 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 732# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
461 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 733#myql-virtual-gid.cf
462 734
463 user = mailsql 735user = mailsql
464 password = $password 736password = $password
465 dbname = mailsql 737dbname = mailsql
466 table = users 738table = users
467 select_field = gid 739select_field = gid
468 where_field = email 740where_field = email
469 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 741additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
470 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 742hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
471 </pre> 743</pre>
744
472<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 745<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
473 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 746# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
474 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 747#myql-virtual-maps.cf
475 748
476 user = mailsql 749user = mailsql
477 password = $password 750password = $password
478 dbname = mailsql 751dbname = mailsql
479 table = users 752table = users
480 select_field = maildir 753select_field = maildir
481 where_field = email 754where_field = email
482 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 755additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
483 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 756hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
484 </pre> 757</pre>
758
485<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 759<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
486 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 760# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
487 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 761# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
488 762
489 user = mailsql 763user = mailsql
490 password = $password 764password = $password
491 dbname = mailsql 765dbname = mailsql
492 table = users 766table = users
493 select_field = uid 767select_field = uid
494 where_field = email 768where_field = email
495 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 769additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
496 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 770hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
497 </pre> 771</pre>
772
498<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 773<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
499 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 774# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
500 # mysql-virtual.cf 775# mysql-virtual.cf
501 776
502 user = mailsql 777user = mailsql
503 password = $password 778password = $password
504 dbname = mailsql 779dbname = mailsql
505 table = virtual 780table = virtual
506 select_field = destination 781select_field = destination
507 where_field = email 782where_field = email
508 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 783hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
509 </pre> 784</pre>
785
786<p>
510<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 787Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
788</p>
789
511<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 790<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
512 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 791# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
513 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 792alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
514 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 793relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
515 794
516 local_transport = local 795local_transport = local
517 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 796local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
518 797
519 virtual_transport = virtual 798virtual_transport = virtual
520 virtual_mailbox_domains = 799virtual_mailbox_domains =
521 virt-bar.com, 800 virt-bar.com,
522 $other-virtual-domain.com 801 $other-virtual-domain.com
523 802
524 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 803virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
525 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 804virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
526 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 805virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
527 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 806virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
528 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 807virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
529 virtual_mailbox_base = / 808virtual_mailbox_base = /
530 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 809#virtual_mailbox_limit =
531 </pre> 810</pre>
532<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 811
812<p>
813For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
814<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
815</p>
816
817<pre caption="Changing file permission">
818# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
820</pre>
821
822<p>
823As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
824release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
825longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
826</p>
827
828<note>
533<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 829It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
830for more information.
831</note>
832
833<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
534<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 834# <i>postfix reload</i>
835</pre>
836
837<p>
838Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
839able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
840for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
841everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
842things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
843troubleshooting section of this howto.
535</pre> 844</p>
536<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 845
537</body> 846</body>
847</section>
538</chapter> 848</chapter>
849
539<chapter> 850<chapter>
540<title>Squirrelmail</title> 851<title>Squirrelmail</title>
852<section>
541<body> 853<body>
542<pre> 854
855<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
543 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 856# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
544<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 857<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
858(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
545 859
546 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 860# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
547 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 861# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
548 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 862# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
549<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 863<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
550<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 864Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
551<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 865and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
552</pre> 866</pre>
867
553</body> 868</body>
869</section>
554</chapter> 870</chapter>
871
555<chapter> 872<chapter>
556<title>Mailman</title> 873<title>Mailman</title>
874<section>
557<body> 875<body>
558<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 876
559<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 877<p>
560<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 878Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
561 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 879support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
562 MAILGID="280" 880get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
563 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 881to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
564 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 882documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
883here.
565</pre> 884</p>
885
566<pre> 886<p>
887One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
888you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
889overridden in the ebuild file by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
890</p>
891
892<pre caption="Install mailman">
567 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 893# <i>emerge mailman</i>
568 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
569 <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
570 <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
571 <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
572
573 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
574</pre> 894</pre>
895
575<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 896<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
576 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 897# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
577 <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 898<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
578 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 899DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
579 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 900DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
580</pre> 901</pre>
902
581<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 903<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
582 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 904# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
583 MTA = "Postfix" 905MTA = "Postfix"
584 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 906POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
585 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 907add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
586 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 908add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
587<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 909<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
588</pre>
589<pre> 910</pre>
911
912<pre caption="And last but not least">
590 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 913<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
591 914
592 # <i>su mailman</i> 915# <i>su mailman</i>
593 # <i>cd ~</i> 916# <i>cd ~</i>
594 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 917# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
595 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 918Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
596 Initial test password: 919Initial test password:
597 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 920Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
598 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 921<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
599 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 922list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
600 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 923# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
601 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 924<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
602 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 925verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
603 926
604 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 927# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
605 # STANZA START: test 928# STANZA START: test
606 # CREATED: 929# CREATED:
607 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 930test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
608 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 931test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
609 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 932test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
610 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 933test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
611 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 934test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
612 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 935test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
613 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 936test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
614 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 937test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
615 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 938test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
616 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 939test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
617 # STANZA END: test 940# STANZA END: test
618 941
619 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 942# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
620 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 943# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
621 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 944<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
622</pre> 945</pre>
623 946
624<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 947<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
625 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 948# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
626 owner_request_special = no 949owner_request_special = no
627 recipient_delimiter = + 950recipient_delimiter = +
628 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 951<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
629 952
630 alias_maps = 953alias_maps =
631 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 954 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
632 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 955 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
633 956
634 virtual_alias_maps = 957virtual_alias_maps =
635 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 958 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
636 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 959 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
637 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 960<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
638 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 961You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
639 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 962but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
640 <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 963using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
641 <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 964to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
965</pre>
966
967<p>
968You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
969note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
970mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
971Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
972lists.
642</pre> 973</p>
643<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 974
644</body> 975</body>
976</section>
645</chapter> 977</chapter>
978
646<chapter> 979<chapter>
647<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 980<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
648<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 981<section>
982<body>
983
984<p>
985For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
986link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
987</p>
988
989</body>
990</section>
649</chapter> 991</chapter>
992
650<chapter> 993<chapter>
651<title>Wrap Up</title> 994<title>Wrap Up</title>
995<section>
652<body> 996<body>
653<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 997
998<p>
999Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1000verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1001to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1002sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1003courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1004up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1005the services enabled.
1006</p>
1007
654<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1008<pre caption="Wrap up">
655 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1009# <i>postfix reload</i>
656 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1010# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
657</pre> 1011</pre>
1012
658<p> 1013<p>
659<e>Have fun!</e> 1014<e>Have fun!</e>
660</p> 1015</p>
1016
661</body> 1017</body>
1018</section>
662</chapter> 1019</chapter>
1020
663<chapter> 1021<chapter>
664<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1022<title>Troubleshooting</title>
665<section> 1023<section>
666<title>Introduction</title> 1024<title>Introduction</title>
667<body> 1025<body>
668<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1026
1027<p>
1028Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1029detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1030you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1031it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1032that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1033from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1034work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1035</p>
1036
669</body> 1037</body>
670</section>
671<section> 1038</section>
1039<section>
672<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1040<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
673<body> 1041<body>
674<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1042
675<pre> 1043<p>
1044Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1045your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1046if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1047it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1048make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1049</p>
1050
1051<pre caption="How to restart a service">
676 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1052# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
677</pre> 1053</pre>
1054
678</body> 1055</body>
679</section> 1056</section>
680<section> 1057<section>
681<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1058<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
682<body> 1059<body>
683<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1060
684<pre> 1061<p>
1062If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1063running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1064Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1065component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1066process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1067awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1068out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1069</p>
1070
1071<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
685 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1072# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
686 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1073# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
687</pre> 1074</pre>
1075
688</body> 1076</body>
689</section> 1077</section>
690<section> 1078<section>
691<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1079<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
692<body> 1080<body>
693<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1081
694<pre> 1082<p>
1083If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1084sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1085current config's to you, like postfix.
1086</p>
1087
1088<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
695 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1089# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
696 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1090# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
697 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1091# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
698 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1092# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
699</pre> 1093</pre>
1094
700</body> 1095</body>
701</section>
702<section> 1096</section>
1097<section>
703<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1098<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
704<body> 1099<body>
705<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1100
706<pre> 1101<p>
1102Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1103logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1104logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1105logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1106in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1107figure out which component is having the problem.
1108</p>
1109
1110<pre caption="Checking the logs">
707 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1111# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
708 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1112# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
709 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1113# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
710 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1114# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1115</pre>
1116
1117<p>
1118You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1119will increase log output over just verbose mode.
711</pre> 1120</p>
712<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1121
713<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1122<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
714 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1123# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
715 debug_peer_level = 5 1124debug_peer_level = 5
716 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1125debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
717 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1126<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
718 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1127commands as well.)</comment>
719</pre> 1128</pre>
1129
720</body> 1130</body>
721</section>
722<section> 1131</section>
1132<section>
723<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1133<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
724<body> 1134<body>
725<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1135
726<pre> 1136<p>
1137SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1138we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1139to the service itself and see what's happening.
1140</p>
1141
1142<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
727 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1143# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
728<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1144<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
729<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1145letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
730 1146
731 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1147Trying 127.0.0.1...
732 Connected to localhost. 1148Connected to localhost.
733 Escape character is '^]'. 1149Escape character is '^]'.
734 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1150* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
735 </pre> 1151</pre>
1152
736</body> 1153</body>
737</section>
738<section> 1154</section>
1155<section>
739<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1156<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
740<body> 1157<body>
741<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1158
742<pre> 1159<p>
1160You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1161software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1162all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1163information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1164transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1165</p>
1166
1167<pre caption="Using strace">
743 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1168# <i>emerge strace</i>
744 # <i>strace $command</i> 1169# <i>strace $command</i>
745 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1170# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
746</pre> 1171</pre>
1172
747</body> 1173</body>
748</section> 1174</section>
749<section> 1175<section>
750<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1176<title>Step 7: Research</title>
751<body> 1177<body>
752<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1178
1179<p>
1180Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1181If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1182help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1183already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1184which contains some great debugging ideas.
753<p> 1185</p>
1186
754<ul> 1187<ul>
755<li>
756<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1188 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
757<li> 1189 <li>
758<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1190 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
759<li> 1191 to look for specific errors
1192 </li>
760<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1193 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
761<li> 1194 <li>
762<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1195 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1196 lists - searchable
1197 </li>
763<li> 1198 <li>
764<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1199 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1200 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1201 </li>
765<li> 1202 <li>
766<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1203 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1204 google, which has never failed me
1205 </li>
1206 <li>
767<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1207 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1208 place to go for help.
1209 </li>
768</ul> 1210</ul>
769</p> 1211
770</body> 1212</body>
771</section> 1213</section>
772</chapter> 1214</chapter>
773</guide> 1215</guide>
774

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