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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.50 2006/04/09 07:42:45 fox2mike Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link =" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4
5<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
7<author title="Author"><mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com">Ezra Gorman</mail></author>
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 7
10<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
11 20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
12<version>1.1</version> 26<version>1.0.27</version>
27<date>2006-04-09</date>
13 28
14<date>13 Jan 2003</date> 29<!--
30Contents
31
32I. Introduction
33II. Postfix Basics
34III. Courier-imap
35IV. Cyrus-sasl
36V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38VII. MySQL
39VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40IX. The vmail user
41X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42XI. Squirrelmail
43XII. Mailman
44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45XIV. Wrap Up
46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
15 48
16<chapter> 49<chapter>
17<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
51<section>
18 <body> 52<body>
19 <p>For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client implemented with fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 53
54<p>
55For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60</p>
61
62<p>
63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128</impo>
129
130<note>
131It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136the squirrelmail section.
137</note>
138
139</body>
140</section>
141</chapter>
142
143<chapter>
144<title>Postfix Basics</title>
145<section>
146<body>
147
148<pre caption="Install postfix">
149# <i>emerge postfix</i>
150</pre>
151
152<warn>
153Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155</warn>
156
157<p>
158After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163myhostname = $host.domain.name
164mydomain = $domain.name
165inet_interfaces = all
166mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168home_mailbox = .maildir/
169local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171</pre>
172
173<p>
174Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175turn on verbose output for debugging:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181#
182==========================================================================
183<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190</p>
191
192<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
20 196
21 <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 197# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
198</pre>
199
200<p>
201Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204next step.
205</p>
206
207<note>
208I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210</note>
211
212</body>
213</section>
214</chapter>
215
216<chapter>
217<title>Courier-imap</title>
218<section>
219<body>
220
221<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223</pre>
224
225<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237</pre>
238
239<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244</pre>
245
246<p>
247Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251progressing.
252</p>
253
254</body>
255</section>
256</chapter>
257
258<chapter>
259<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260<section>
261<body>
262
263<p>
264Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269end anyway.
270</p>
271
272<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
273# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
274</pre>
275
276<p>
277Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278</p>
279
280<pre caption="Starting sasl">
281# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
283pwcheck_method: saslauthd
284# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
285SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
286SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
287# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
288</pre>
289
290</body>
291</section>
292</chapter>
293
294<chapter>
295<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296<section>
297<body>
298
299<p>
300Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301</p>
302
303<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308countryName_default
309stateOrProvinceName_default
310localityName_default
3110.organizationName_default
312commonName_default
313emailAddress_default.
314
315<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317# <i>cd misc</i>
318# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324# create a certificate
325system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327# create a certificate request
328system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
22 329
23 <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 330# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
24 331# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
25 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p> 332# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
26 337
27 338# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
28 <p>The following packages are used in this setup: 339# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
29 340# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
30 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 341<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
31 342We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
32 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 343</pre>
33
34 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
35
36 <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
37 344
38
39 <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary; this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
40 </body> 345</body>
346</section>
41 347
42</chapter>
43
44<chapter> 348</chapter>
45<title>Postfix Basics</title> 349<chapter>
350<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351<section>
46 <body> 352<body>
47 <pre caption="Install Postfix"># <c>emerge postfix</c></pre>
48 353
49 354<p>
50 <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 355Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
51 356capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
52 <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 357will be easy to find.
53 358</p>
359
54 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf"> 360<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
55 myhostname = $host.domain.name 361# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
56 mydomain = $domain.name
57 myorigin = $mydomain
58 inet_interfaces = all
59 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
60 relay_domains = $mydestination
61 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
62 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
63 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
64
65
66 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
67 362
68 363smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
69 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf"> 364smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
70 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 365smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
71 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 366broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
72 # 367smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
73 ========================================================================== 368
74 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 369<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
75 370are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
76 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 371Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
77 </pre> 372smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375
376smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
378 permit_mynetworks,
379 reject_unauth_destination
78 380
79 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
80 381
81 382<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
82 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time"> 383smtp_use_tls = yes
83 # <c>/usr/bin/newaliases</c> 384smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
84
85 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
86 <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
87
88 # <c>/etc/init.d/postfix start</c>
89 </pre>
90
91 <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, and once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
92
93
94 <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic Postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
95 </body>
96
97</chapter>
98
99
100<chapter>
101<title>Courier-imap</title>
102 <body>
103 <pre caption="Install courier-imap"># <c>emerge courier-imap</c></pre>
104
105
106 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
107 # <c>cd /etc/courier-imap</c>
108
109 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
110 <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
111 <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
112
113 # <c>nano -w pop3d.cnf</c>
114 # <c>nano -w imapd.cnf</c>
115
116 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
117
118 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
119 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
120 </pre>
121
122 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
123 # <c>courier-imapd start</c>
124 # <c>courier-imapd-ssl start</c>
125 # <c>courier-pop3d start</c>
126 # <c>courier-pop3d-ssl start</c>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
130
131 </body>
132</chapter>
133
134<chapter>
135<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
136 <body>
137 <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
138
139 <note>For some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
140
141 <p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p>
142
143
144 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
145 # <c>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</c>
146 # <c>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</c>
147
148 <codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
149
150 econf \
151 --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
152 --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
153 --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
154 --with-openssl \
155 --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
156 --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
157 --with-des \
158 --with-rc4 \
159 --disable-krb4 \
160 --with-gnu-ld \
161 --enable-shared \
162 --disable-sample \
163 --enable-login \
164 --disable-cram \
165 --disable-digest \
166 ${myconf} || die "bad ./configure"
167
168 # <c>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</c>
169
170 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
171 <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
172 </pre>
173
174 <p>Now check that the directory <path>/var/lib/sasl2</path> exists. If it wasn't installed you need to create it. If it's there, go ahead and start sasl.</p>
175
176 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
177 # <c>mkdir /var/lib/sasl2 </c>
178
179<!--Ken, perhaps submit the above as a bug? The ebuild should take care of creating this dir. //zhen -->
180
181 <codenote>If saslauthd can't find the dir it will spew errors at you and refuse to start.</codenote>
182
183 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
184 </pre>
185 </body>
186</chapter>
187
188<chapter>
189<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
190 <body>
191
192 <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
193
194 <pre>
195 # <c>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</c>
196 # <c>nano -w openssl.cnf</c>
197
198 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
199
200 countryName_default
201 stateOrProvinceName_default
202 localityName_default
203 0.organizationName_default
204 commonName_default
205 emailAddress_default.
206
207 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
208
209
210 # <c>cd misc</c>
211 # <c>nano -w CA.pl</c>
212
213 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
214 <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
215 <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
216 <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
217
218 # create a certificate
219 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
220
221 # create a certificate request
222 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
223
224 # <c>./CA.pl -newca</c>
225 # <c>./CA.pl -newreq</c>
226 # <c>./CA.pl -sign</c>
227 # <c>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</c>
228 # <c>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</c>
229 # <c>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</c>
230
231 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
232
233
234 # <c>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</c>
235 # <c>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</c>
236 # <c>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</c>
237
238 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
239 <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
240 </pre>
241 </body>
242</chapter>
243
244<chapter>
245<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
246 <body>
247 <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
248
249 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
250 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</c>
251
252 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
253 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
254 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
255 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
256 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
257
258 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
259 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
260 <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
261 <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
262
263 <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
264 <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
265
266 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
267 permit_sasl_authenticated,
268 permit_mynetworks,
269 check_relay_domains,
270 permit
271
272 smtpd_use_tls = yes 385smtpd_use_tls = yes
273 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 386#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
274 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 387smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
275 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 388smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
276 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 389smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
277 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 390smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
278 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 391smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
279 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 392smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
280 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 393tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
281 394
282 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 395<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
283 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 396You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
284 397
285 # <c>postfix reload</c> 398# <i>postfix reload</i>
286 </pre> 399</pre>
287 400
401<p>
288 <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 402Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
289 403</p>
404
290 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support"> 405<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
291 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 406# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
292 407
293 Trying 127.0.0.1... 408Trying 127.0.0.1...
294 Connected to localhost. 409Connected to localhost.
295 Escape character is '^]'. 410Escape character is '^]'.
296 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 411220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
297 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 412<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
298 250-mail.domain.com 413250-mail.domain.com
299 250-PIPELINING 414250-PIPELINING
300 250-SIZE 10240000 415250-SIZE 10240000
301 250-VRFY 416250-VRFY
302 250-ETRN 417250-ETRN
303 250-STARTTLS 418250-STARTTLS
304 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP 419250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
305 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP 420250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
306 250-XVERP 421250-XVERP
307 250 8BITMIME 422250 8BITMIME
308 <i>^]</i> 423<i>^]</i>
309 telnet> <i>quit</i> 424telnet> <i>quit</i>
310 </pre> 425</pre>
311 426
312 <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 427<p>
428Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
429install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
430sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
431unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
432and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
313 </p> 433</p>
314 434
315 </body> 435</body>
436</section>
316</chapter> 437</chapter>
317 438
318<chapter> 439<chapter>
319<title>MySQL</title> 440<title>MySQL</title>
441<section>
320 <body> 442<body>
321 443
322 <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 444<p>
445Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
446link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
447dumpfile for this step.
448</p>
323 449
324 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL"> 450<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
325 # <c>emerge mysql</c> 451# <i>emerge mysql</i>
326 452
327 # <c>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</c> 453# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
328
329 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 454<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
330 <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 455for adding a root password with mysql,
331 <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 456not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
332 457
333 # <c>/etc/init.d/mysql start</c> 458# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
334 # <c>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</c> 459# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
335 # <c>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</c> 460# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
336 461
337 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 462# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
338 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 463mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
339 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 464 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
340 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 465 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
341 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 466 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
467Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
342 468
343 -> <i>quit</i> 469mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
344 470Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
471
472mysql> <i>quit</i>
345 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 473<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
346 474
347 # <c>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</c> 475# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
348 </pre> 476</pre>
349 477
478<p>
350 <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 479Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
480following tables are included:
481</p>
482
351 <ul> 483<ul>
352 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 484 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
353 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 485 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
486 <li>
354 <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 487 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
488 hosting
489 </li>
355 <li>users - all user account information</li> 490 <li>users - all user account information</li>
356 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 491 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
357 </ul> 492</ul>
358 </p>
359 493
360 <pre caption="alias table sample"> 494<pre caption="alias table sample">
361 id alias destination 495id alias destination
362 1 root foo@bar.com 4961 root foo@bar.com
363 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4972 postmaster foo@bar.com
364 </pre> 498</pre>
365 499
366 <pre caption="user table sample"> 500<pre caption="user table sample">
367 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 501<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
368 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 502id email clear name uid gid homedir \
369 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 503 maildir quota postfix
50410 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
505 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
50613 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
507 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
370 </pre> 508</pre>
371 509
510<p>
511The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
512user and group.
513</p>
514
372 <pre caption="transport table sample"> 515<pre caption="transport table sample">
373 id domain destination 516id domain destination
374 1 bar.com local: 5171 bar.com local:
375 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5182 virt-bar.org virtual:
376 </pre> 519</pre>
377 520
378 <pre caption="virtual table sample"> 521<pre caption="virtual table sample">
379 id email destination 522id email destination
380 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5233 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
381 </pre> 524</pre>
525
382 </body> 526</body>
383 527</section>
384</chapter> 528</chapter>
385 529
386<chapter> 530<chapter>
387<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 531<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
532<section>
388 <body> 533<body>
534
535<p>
389 <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 536Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
537more easily.
538</p>
390 539
391 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin"> 540<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
392 # <c>emerge apache php mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</c> 541# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
393 </pre> 542</pre>
394 543
395 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 544<p>
545There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
546this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
547numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
548problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
549not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
550with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
551phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
552index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
553phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
554however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
555including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
556</p>
396 557
397 <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 558<p>
559Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
560Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
561</p>
562
398 <ul> 563<ul>
399 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 564 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
400 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 565 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
401 </ul></p> 566</ul>
402 567
403 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates"> 568<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
404 # <c>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</c> 569# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
405 # <c>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</c> 570# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
406 # <c>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</c> 571# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
407 572
408 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 573<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
409 574
410 ServerName host.domain.name 575ServerName host.domain.name
411 ServerAdmin your@email.address 576ServerAdmin your@email.address
412 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 577SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
413 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 578SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
414 579
415 # <c>/etc/init.d/apache restart</c> 580# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
416 </pre> 581</pre>
417 582
418 <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 583<note>
419 584If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
585server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
586apache restarted successfully.
587</note>
588
589<p>
420 <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 590Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
591</p>
421 592
422 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin"> 593<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
423 # <c>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</c> 594# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
424
425 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 595<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
426 596
427 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 597$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
428 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 598$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
429 // (this user must have read-only 599 // (this user must have read-only
430 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user" 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
431 // and "mysql/db" tables) 601 // and "mysql/db" tables)
432 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 602$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
433 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 603$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
434 </pre> 604</pre>
435 605
436 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 606<p>
607Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
608local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
609transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
610supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
611go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
612accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
613correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
614automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
615general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
616after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
617</p>
618
437 </body> 619</body>
620</section>
438</chapter> 621</chapter>
439 622
440<chapter> 623<chapter>
441<title>The vmail user</title> 624<title>The vmail user</title>
625<section>
442 <body> 626<body>
443 <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
444 627
628<p>
629At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
630mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
631</p>
632
445 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user"> 633<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
446 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 634# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
447 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 635# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
448 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 636# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
449 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 637# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
450 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 638# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
451 </pre> 639</pre>
452 640
453 <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 641<p>
642So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
643homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
644homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
645haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
646</p>
647
454 </body> 648</body>
649</section>
455</chapter> 650</chapter>
456 651
457<chapter> 652<chapter>
458<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 653<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
654<section>
459 <body> 655<body>
460 656
461 <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 657<p>
658Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
659courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
660<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
661</p>
462 662
463 <pre> 663<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
464 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
465
466 <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
467 <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
468 <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
469
470 # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</c>
471
472 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
473
474 #auth required pam_nologin.so
475 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
476 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
477 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
478
479 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
480 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
481 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
482 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
483
484 # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</c>
485 # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</c>
486
487 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
491
492 <pre>
493 # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</c> 664# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
494 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam" 665authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
495 666
496 # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</c>
497 AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
498
499 # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</c> 667# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
500 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 668MYSQL_SERVER localhost
501 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 669MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
502 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 670MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
503 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 671MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
504 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 672MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
505 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 673<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
674#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
506 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 675MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
507 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 676MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
508 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 677MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
509 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 678MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
510 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 679MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
511 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 680MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
512 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 681MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
513 682
514 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 683# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
515 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 684# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
516 </pre> 685</pre>
517 686
518 <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 687<p>
688We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
689for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
690</p>
519 691
520 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf"> 692<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
521 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</c> 693# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
522 # mysql-aliases.cf 694# mysql-aliases.cf
523 695
524 user = mailsql 696user = mailsql
525 password = $password 697password = $password
526 dbname = mailsql 698dbname = mailsql
527 table = alias 699table = alias
528 select_field = destination 700select_field = destination
529 where_field = alias 701where_field = alias
530 hosts = 127.0.0.1 702hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
531 </pre> 703</pre>
532 704
533 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf"> 705<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
534 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</c> 706# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
535 # mysql-relocated.cf 707# mysql-relocated.cf
536 708
537 user = mailsql 709user = mailsql
538 password = $password 710password = $password
539 dbname = mailsql 711dbname = mailsql
540 table = relocated 712table = relocated
541 select_field = destination 713select_field = destination
542 where_field = email 714where_field = email
543 hosts = 127.0.0.1 715hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
544 </pre> 716</pre>
545 717
546 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf"> 718<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
547 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</c> 719# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
548 # mysql-transport.cf 720# mysql-transport.cf
549 721
550 user = mailsql 722user = mailsql
551 password = $password 723password = $password
552 dbname = mailsql 724dbname = mailsql
553 table = transport 725table = transport
554 select_field = destination 726select_field = destination
555 where_field = domain 727where_field = domain
556 hosts = 127.0.0.1 728hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
557 </pre> 729</pre>
558 730
559 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf"> 731<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
560 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</c> 732# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
561 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 733#myql-virtual-gid.cf
562 734
563 user = mailsql 735user = mailsql
564 password = $password 736password = $password
565 dbname = mailsql 737dbname = mailsql
566 table = users 738table = users
567 select_field = gid 739select_field = gid
568 where_field = email 740where_field = email
569 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 741additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
570 hosts = 127.0.0.1 742hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
571 </pre> 743</pre>
572 744
573 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf"> 745<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
574 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</c> 746# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
575 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 747#myql-virtual-maps.cf
576 748
577 user = mailsql 749user = mailsql
578 password = $password 750password = $password
579 dbname = mailsql 751dbname = mailsql
580 table = users 752table = users
581 select_field = maildir 753select_field = maildir
582 where_field = email 754where_field = email
583 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 755additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
584 hosts = 127.0.0.1 756hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
585 </pre> 757</pre>
586 758
587 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf"> 759<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
588 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</c> 760# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
589 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 761# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
590 762
591 user = mailsql 763user = mailsql
592 password = $password 764password = $password
593 dbname = mailsql 765dbname = mailsql
594 table = users 766table = users
595 select_field = uid 767select_field = uid
596 where_field = email 768where_field = email
597 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 769additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
598 hosts = 127.0.0.1 770hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
599 </pre> 771</pre>
600 772
601 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf"> 773<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
602 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</c> 774# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
603 # mysql-virtual.cf 775# mysql-virtual.cf
604 776
605 user = mailsql 777user = mailsql
606 password = $password 778password = $password
607 dbname = mailsql 779dbname = mailsql
608 table = virtual 780table = virtual
609 select_field = destination 781select_field = destination
610 where_field = email 782where_field = email
611 hosts = 127.0.0.1 783hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
612 </pre> 784</pre>
613 785
786<p>
614 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 787Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
788</p>
615 789
616 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf"> 790<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
617 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</c> 791# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
618 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 792alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
619 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 793relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
620 transport_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf 794
621 virtual_gid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf 795local_transport = local
796local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
797
798virtual_transport = virtual
799virtual_mailbox_domains =
800 virt-bar.com,
801 $other-virtual-domain.com
802
803virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
804virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
622 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 805virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
623 virtual_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 806virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
624 virtual_uid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf 807virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
625 virtual_mailbox_base = / 808virtual_mailbox_base = /
809#virtual_mailbox_limit =
626 </pre> 810</pre>
627
628 <p>Shew! Alright now, let's restart postfix and see how all that went.</p>
629 811
630 <pre># <c>postfix reload</c></pre> 812<p>
813For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
814<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
815</p>
631 816
632 <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 817<pre caption="Changing file permission">
818# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
820</pre>
821
822<p>
823As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
824release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
825longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
826</p>
827
828<note>
829It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
830for more information.
831</note>
832
833<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
834# <i>postfix reload</i>
835</pre>
836
837<p>
838Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
839able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
840for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
841everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
842things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
843troubleshooting section of this howto.
844</p>
845
633 </body> 846</body>
847</section>
634</chapter> 848</chapter>
635 849
636<chapter> 850<chapter>
637<title>Squirrelmail</title> 851<title>Squirrelmail</title>
852<section>
638 <body> 853<body>
639 <pre> 854
855<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
640 # <c>emerge squirrelmail</c> 856# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
857<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
858(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
641 859
642 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 860# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
643 861# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
644 # <c>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</c> 862# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
645 # <c>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</c>
646 # <c>./conf.pl</c>
647
648 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 863<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
649 <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 864Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
650 <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 865and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
651 </pre> 866</pre>
867
652 </body> 868</body>
653 869</section>
654</chapter> 870</chapter>
655 871
656<chapter> 872<chapter>
657<title>Mailman</title> 873<title>Mailman</title>
874<section>
658 <body> 875<body>
659 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package.</p>
660 876
661 <pre> 877<p>
878Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
879support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
880get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
881to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
882documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
883here.
884</p>
885
886<p>
887One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
888you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
889overridden in the ebuild file by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
890</p>
891
892<pre caption="Install mailman">
662 # <c>emerge mailman</c> 893# <i>emerge mailman</i>
894</pre>
663 895
664 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 896<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
665 <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 897# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
666 <codenote>in the README.gentoo</codenote> 898<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
899DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
900DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
901</pre>
667 902
668 # <c>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo</c> 903<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
669 904# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
670 <codenote>Follow the rest of the install instructions in the README.</codenote> 905MTA = "Postfix"
906POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
907add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
908add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
909<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
910</pre>
911
912<pre caption="And last but not least">
671 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 913<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
672 914
673 # <c>su mailman</c> 915# <i>su mailman</i>
674 # <c>cd ~</c> 916# <i>cd ~</i>
675 # <c>bin/newlist $listname</c> 917# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
676
677 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 918Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
678 Initial test password: 919Initial test password:
679 Entry for aliases file:
680
681 ## test mailing list
682 ## created: 10-Jan-2003 root
683 $listname: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper post $listname"
684 $listname-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper mailowner $listname"
685 $listname-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper mailcmd $listname"
686 $listname-owner: $listname-admin
687
688 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 920Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
921<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
922list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
923# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
924<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
925verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
926
927# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
928# STANZA START: test
929# CREATED:
930test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
931test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
932test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
933test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
934test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
935test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
936test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
937test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
938test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
939test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
940# STANZA END: test
941
942# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
943# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
944<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
689 </pre> 945</pre>
690 946
691 <p>Add those aliases to the alias table in mailsql. You'll be tempted to add colons to the alias names in mailsql (because that's how the script gives them to you) DON'T DO IT! It won't work if you do. You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. When you log in to the mailman admin page for your new list, at the bottom of the general options page there is a space to declare what domain the list belongs to. With that selection you can add lists for any virtual domain you are hosting. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 947<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
948# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
949owner_request_special = no
950recipient_delimiter = +
951<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
952
953alias_maps =
954 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
955 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
956
957virtual_alias_maps =
958 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
959 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
960<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
961You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
962but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
963using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
964to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
965</pre>
966
967<p>
968You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
969note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
970mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
971Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
972lists.
973</p>
974
692 </body> 975</body>
976</section>
977</chapter>
978
979<chapter>
980<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
981<section>
982<body>
983
984<p>
985For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
986link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
987</p>
988
989</body>
990</section>
693</chapter> 991</chapter>
694 992
695<chapter> 993<chapter>
696<title>Wrap Up</title> 994<title>Wrap Up</title>
995<section>
697 <body> 996<body>
698 997
699 <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 998<p>
999Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1000verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1001to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1002sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1003courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1004up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1005the services enabled.
1006</p>
700 1007
701 <pre caption="Wrap up"> 1008<pre caption="Wrap up">
702 # <c>postfix reload</c> 1009# <i>postfix reload</i>
703 # <c>rc-update add $service default</c> 1010# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
704 </pre> 1011</pre>
705 1012
1013<p>
706 <p><e>Have fun!</e></p> 1014<e>Have fun!</e>
1015</p>
1016
707 </body> 1017</body>
1018</section>
708</chapter> 1019</chapter>
709 1020
710<chapter> 1021<chapter>
711<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1022<title>Troubleshooting</title>
712<section> 1023<section>
713 <title>Introduction</title> 1024<title>Introduction</title>
714 <body> 1025<body>
715 <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1026
1027<p>
1028Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1029detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1030you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1031it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1032that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1033from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1034work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1035</p>
1036
716 </body> 1037</body>
717</section>
718<section> 1038</section>
1039<section>
719 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1040<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
720 <body> 1041<body>
721 <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1042
722 1043<p>
723 <pre> 1044Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1045your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1046if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1047it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1048make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1049</p>
1050
1051<pre caption="How to restart a service">
724 # <c>/etc/init.d/service restart</c> 1052# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
725 </pre> 1053</pre>
1054
726 </body> 1055</body>
727</section>
728<section> 1056</section>
729 1057<section>
730 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1058<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
731 <body> 1059<body>
732 <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
733 1060
734 <pre> 1061<p>
1062If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1063running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1064Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1065component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1066process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1067awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1068out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1069</p>
1070
1071<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
735 # <c>/etc/init.d/$service status</c> 1072# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
736 # <c>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</c> 1073# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
737 </pre> 1074</pre>
1075
738 </body> 1076</body>
739</section>
740<section> 1077</section>
1078<section>
741 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1079<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
742 <body> 1080<body>
743 1081
744 <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1082<p>
1083If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1084sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1085current config's to you, like postfix.
1086</p>
745 1087
746 <pre> 1088<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
747 # <c>apachectl fullstatus</c> (needs lynx installed) 1089# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
748 # <c>apachectl configtest</c> (checks config sanity) 1090# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
749 # <c>postconf -n</c> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1091# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
750 # <c>/etc/init.d/$service restart</c> 1092# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
751 </pre> 1093</pre>
1094
752 </body> 1095</body>
753</section>
754<section> 1096</section>
1097<section>
755 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1098<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
756 <body> 1099<body>
757 <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
758 1100
759 <pre> 1101<p>
1102Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1103logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1104logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1105logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1106in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1107figure out which component is having the problem.
1108</p>
1109
1110<pre caption="Checking the logs">
760 # <c>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</c>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1111# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
761 # <c>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</c> 1112# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
762 # <c>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</c> 1113# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
763 # <c>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</c> 1114# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
764 </pre> 1115</pre>
1116
1117<p>
1118You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1119will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1120</p>
1121
1122<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1123# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1124debug_peer_level = 5
1125debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1126<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1127commands as well.)</comment>
1128</pre>
1129
765 </body> 1130</body>
766
767</section>
768<section> 1131</section>
1132<section>
769 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1133<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
770 <body> 1134<body>
771 <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
772 1135
773 <pre> 1136<p>
1137SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1138we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1139to the service itself and see what's happening.
1140</p>
1141
1142<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
774 # <c>telnet localhost $port</c> 1143# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
775
776 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1144<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
777 <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1145letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
778 1146
779 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1147Trying 127.0.0.1...
780 Connected to localhost. 1148Connected to localhost.
781 Escape character is '^]'. 1149Escape character is '^]'.
782 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1150* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
783 </pre> 1151</pre>
1152
784 </body> 1153</body>
785</section>
786<section> 1154</section>
1155<section>
787 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1156<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
788
789 <body> 1157<body>
790 <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
791 1158
792 <pre> 1159<p>
1160You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1161software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1162all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1163information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1164transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1165</p>
1166
1167<pre caption="Using strace">
793 # <c>emerge strace</c> 1168# <i>emerge strace</i>
794 # <c>strace $command</c> 1169# <i>strace $command</i>
795 # <c>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</c> 1170# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
796 </pre> 1171</pre>
1172
797 </body> 1173</body>
798</section>
799<section> 1174</section>
1175<section>
800 <title>Step 7: Research</title> 1176<title>Step 7: Research</title>
801 <body> 1177<body>
802 <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
803 1178
804 <p> 1179<p>
1180Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1181If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1182help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1183already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1184which contains some great debugging ideas.
1185</p>
1186
805 <ul> 1187<ul>
806 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1188 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1189 <li>
807 <li><uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1190 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1191 to look for specific errors
1192 </li>
808 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1193 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1194 <li>
809 <li><uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1195 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
810 <li><uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1196 lists - searchable
811 <li><uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1197 </li>
1198 <li>
1199 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1200 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1201 </li>
1202 <li>
1203 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1204 google, which has never failed me
1205 </li>
1206 <li>
812 <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1207 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1208 place to go for help.
1209 </li>
813 </ul> 1210</ul>
814 </p>
815 1211
816 </body> 1212</body>
817</section> 1213</section>
818
819</chapter> 1214</chapter>
820
821</guide> 1215</guide>
822
823

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