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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.50 2006/04/09 07:42:45 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
12<version>1.0</version> 26<version>1.0.27</version>
13<date>07 Jan 2003</date> 27<date>2006-04-09</date>
28
14<!-- 29<!--
15
16Contents 30Contents
17 31
18I. Introduction 32I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 33II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 34III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 42XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 43XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 45XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
33 48
34--><chapter> 49<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
51<section>
52<body>
53
54<p>
55For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60</p>
61
62<p>
63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128</impo>
129
130<note>
131It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136the squirrelmail section.
137</note>
138
36<body> 139</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 140</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 141</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 142
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p> 143<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 144<title>Postfix Basics</title>
145<section>
146<body>
147
148<pre caption="Install postfix">
149# <i>emerge postfix</i>
150</pre>
151
152<warn>
153Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155</warn>
156
157<p>
158After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163myhostname = $host.domain.name
164mydomain = $domain.name
165inet_interfaces = all
166mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168home_mailbox = .maildir/
169local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171</pre>
172
173<p>
174Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175turn on verbose output for debugging:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181#
182==========================================================================
183<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190</p>
191
192<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 196
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 197# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 198</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is reccommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 199
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 200<p>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 201Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 202yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204next step.
205</p>
206
207<note>
208I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210</note>
211
49</body> 212</body>
50</chapter> 213</section>
51<chapter> 214</chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 215
216<chapter>
217<title>Courier-imap</title>
218<section>
219<body>
220
221<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223</pre>
224
225<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237</pre>
238
239<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244</pre>
245
246<p>
247Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251progressing.
252</p>
253
53<body> 254</body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 255</section>
256</chapter>
257
258<chapter>
259<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260<section>
261<body>
262
263<p>
264Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269end anyway.
55</pre> 270</p>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 271
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 272<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 273# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 274</pre>
60 mydomain = $domain.name 275
61 inet_interfaces = all 276<p>
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 277Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 278</p>
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 279
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 280<pre caption="Starting sasl">
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 281# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 282mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 283pwcheck_method: saslauthd
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 284# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 285SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
71 # 286SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
72 ========================================================================== 287# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 288</pre>
289
290</body>
291</section>
292</chapter>
293
294<chapter>
295<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296<section>
297<body>
298
299<p>
300Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301</p>
302
303<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308countryName_default
309stateOrProvinceName_default
310localityName_default
3110.organizationName_default
312commonName_default
313emailAddress_default.
314
315<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317# <i>cd misc</i>
318# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324# create a certificate
325system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327# create a certificate request
328system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
74 329
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 330# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
331# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
332# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
337
338# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
339# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
340# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
341<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
342We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
76</pre> 343</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 344
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body> 345</body>
88</chapter> 346</section>
347
89<chapter> 348</chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body>
115</chapter> 349<chapter>
116<chapter> 350<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 351<section>
118<body> 352<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 353
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 354<p>
121<p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p> 355Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 356capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
123 # <i>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</i> 357will be easy to find.
124 # <i>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</i>
125<codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
126
127 econf \
128 --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
129 --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
130 --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
131 --with-openssl \
132 --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
133 --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
134 --with-des \
135 --with-rc4 \
136 --disable-krb4 \
137 --with-gnu-ld \
138 --enable-shared \
139 --disable-sample \
140 --enable-login \
141 --disable-cram \
142 --disable-digest \
143 ${myconf} || die &quot;bad ./configure&quot;
144
145 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
146<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
147<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
148</pre> 358</p>
149<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 359
150<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 360<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
151 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 361# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
152 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 362
363smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
364smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
365smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
366broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
367smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
368
369<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
370are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
371Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
372smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375
376smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
378 permit_mynetworks,
379 reject_unauth_destination
153 380
154 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
155</pre>
156</body>
157</chapter>
158<chapter>
159<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
160<body>
161<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
162<pre>
163 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
164 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
165<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
166
167 countryName_default
168 stateOrProvinceName_default
169 localityName_default
170 0.organizationName_default
171 commonName_default
172 emailAddress_default.
173
174 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
175 381
176 382<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
177 # <i>cd misc</i> 383smtp_use_tls = yes
178 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 384smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
179<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
180<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
181<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
182<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
183
184 # create a certificate
185 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
186
187 # create a certificate request
188 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
189
190 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
191 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
192 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
193 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
194 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
195 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
196<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
197
198
199 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
200 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
201 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
202<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
203<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
204</pre>
205</body>
206</chapter>
207<chapter>
208<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
209<body>
210<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
211<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
212 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
213
214 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
215 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
216 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
217 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
218 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
219
220 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
221<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
222<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
223<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
224<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
225<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
226
227 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
228 permit_sasl_authenticated,
229 permit_mynetworks,
230 reject_unauth_destination
231
232
233 smtpd_use_tls = yes 385smtpd_use_tls = yes
234 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 386#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
235 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 387smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
236 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 388smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
237 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 389smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
238 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 390smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
239 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 391smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
240 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 392smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
241 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 393tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
242 394
243 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 395<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
244<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 396You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
245 397
246 # <i>postfix reload</i> 398# <i>postfix reload</i>
247</pre> 399</pre>
400
401<p>
248<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 402Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
403</p>
404
249<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 405<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
250 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 406# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
251 407
252 Trying 127.0.0.1... 408Trying 127.0.0.1...
253 Connected to localhost. 409Connected to localhost.
254 Escape character is '^]'. 410Escape character is '^]'.
255 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 411220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
256 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 412<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
257 250-mail.domain.com 413250-mail.domain.com
258 250-PIPELINING 414250-PIPELINING
259 250-SIZE 10240000 415250-SIZE 10240000
260 250-VRFY 416250-VRFY
261 250-ETRN 417250-ETRN
262 250-STARTTLS 418250-STARTTLS
263 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP 419250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
264 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP 420250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
265 250-XVERP 421250-XVERP
266 250 8BITMIME 422250 8BITMIME
267 <i>^]</i> 423<i>^]</i>
268 telnet> <i>quit</i> 424telnet> <i>quit</i>
425</pre>
426
427<p>
428Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
429install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
430sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
431unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
432and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
269</pre> 433</p>
270<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 434
271 </p>
272</body> 435</body>
436</section>
273</chapter> 437</chapter>
438
274<chapter> 439<chapter>
275<title>MySQL</title> 440<title>MySQL</title>
441<section>
276<body> 442<body>
277<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 443
444<p>
445Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
446link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
447dumpfile for this step.
448</p>
449
278<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 450<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
279 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 451# <i>emerge mysql</i>
280 452
281 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 453# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
282<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 454<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
283<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 455for adding a root password with mysql,
284<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 456not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
285 457
286 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 458# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
287 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 459# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
288 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 460# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
289 461
290 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 462# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
291 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 463mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
292 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 464 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
293 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 465 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
294 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 466 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
467Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
295 468
296 -> <i>quit</i> 469mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
470Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
471
472mysql> <i>quit</i>
297<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 473<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
298 474
299 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 475# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
300</pre> 476</pre>
477
478<p>
301<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 479Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
480following tables are included:
481</p>
482
302 <ul> 483<ul>
303<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 484 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
304<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 485 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
486 <li>
305<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 487 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
488 hosting
489 </li>
306<li>users - all user account information</li> 490 <li>users - all user account information</li>
307<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 491 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
308</ul> 492</ul>
309</p> 493
310<pre caption="alias table sample" > 494<pre caption="alias table sample">
311 id alias destination 495id alias destination
312 1 root foo@bar.com 4961 root foo@bar.com
313 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4972 postmaster foo@bar.com
314 </pre> 498</pre>
499
315<pre caption="user table sample" > 500<pre caption="user table sample">
316 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 501<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
317 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 502id email clear name uid gid homedir \
318 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 503 maildir quota postfix
50410 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
505 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
50613 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
507 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
319 </pre> 508</pre>
509
510<p>
511The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
512user and group.
513</p>
514
320<pre caption="transport table sample" > 515<pre caption="transport table sample">
321 id domain destination 516id domain destination
322 1 bar.com local: 5171 bar.com local:
323 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5182 virt-bar.org virtual:
324 </pre> 519</pre>
520
325<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 521<pre caption="virtual table sample">
326 id email destination 522id email destination
327 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5233 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
328 </pre> 524</pre>
525
329</body> 526</body>
527</section>
330</chapter> 528</chapter>
529
331<chapter> 530<chapter>
332<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 531<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
532<section>
333<body> 533<body>
534
535<p>
334<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 536Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
537more easily.
538</p>
539
335<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 540<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
336 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 541# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
542</pre>
543
544<p>
545There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
546this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
547numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
548problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
549not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
550with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
551phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
552index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
553phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
554however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
555including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
337</pre> 556</p>
338<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 557
339<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 558<p>
559Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
560Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
561</p>
562
340 <ul> 563<ul>
341<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 564 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
342<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 565 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
343</ul> 566</ul>
344</p> 567
345<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 568<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
346 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 569# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
347 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 570# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
348 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 571# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
572
349<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 573<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
350 574
351 ServerName host.domain.name 575ServerName host.domain.name
352 ServerAdmin your@email.address 576ServerAdmin your@email.address
353 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 577SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
354 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 578SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
355 579
356 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 580# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
357</pre> 581</pre>
358<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 582
583<note>
584If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
585server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
586apache restarted successfully.
587</note>
588
589<p>
359<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 590Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
591</p>
592
360<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 593<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
361 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 594# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
362<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 595<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
363 596
364 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 597$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
365 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 598$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
366 // (this user must have read-only 599 // (this user must have read-only
367 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
368 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 601 // and "mysql/db" tables)
369 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 602$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
370 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 603$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
371 </pre> 604</pre>
372<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 605
606<p>
607Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
608local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
609transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
610supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
611go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
612accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
613correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
614automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
615general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
616after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
617</p>
618
373</body> 619</body>
620</section>
374</chapter> 621</chapter>
622
375<chapter> 623<chapter>
376<title>The vmail user</title> 624<title>The vmail user</title>
625<section>
377<body> 626<body>
378<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 627
628<p>
629At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
630mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
631</p>
632
379<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 633<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
380 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 634# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
381 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 635# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
382 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 636# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
383 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 637# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
384 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 638# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
639</pre>
640
641<p>
642So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
643homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
644homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
645haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
385</pre> 646</p>
386<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 647
387</body> 648</body>
649</section>
388</chapter> 650</chapter>
651
389<chapter> 652<chapter>
390<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 653<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
654<section>
391<body> 655<body>
392<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 656
393<pre> 657<p>
394 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 658Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
395<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 659courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
396<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 660<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
397<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
398
399 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
400<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
401
402 #auth required pam_nologin.so
403 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
404 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
405 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
406
407 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
408 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
409 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
410 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
411
412 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
413 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
414<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
415</pre> 661</p>
416<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 662
417<pre> 663<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
418 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 664# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
419 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 665authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
420 666
421 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
422 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
423
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 667# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
425 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 668MYSQL_SERVER localhost
426 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 669MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
427 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 670MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
428 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 671MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
429 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 672MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
430 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 673<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
674#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
431 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 675MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
432 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 676MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
433 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 677MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
434 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 678MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
435 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 679MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
436 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 680MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
437 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 681MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
438 682
439 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 683# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
440 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 684# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
685</pre>
686
687<p>
688We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
689for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
441</pre> 690</p>
442<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 691
443<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 692<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
444 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 693# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
445 # mysql-aliases.cf 694# mysql-aliases.cf
446 695
447 user = mailsql 696user = mailsql
448 password = $password 697password = $password
449 dbname = mailsql 698dbname = mailsql
450 table = alias 699table = alias
451 select_field = destination 700select_field = destination
452 where_field = alias 701where_field = alias
453 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 702hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
454 </pre> 703</pre>
704
455<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 705<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
456 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 706# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
457 # mysql-relocated.cf 707# mysql-relocated.cf
458 708
459 user = mailsql 709user = mailsql
460 password = $password 710password = $password
461 dbname = mailsql 711dbname = mailsql
462 table = relocated 712table = relocated
463 select_field = destination 713select_field = destination
464 where_field = email 714where_field = email
465 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 715hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
466 </pre> 716</pre>
717
467<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 718<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
468 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 719# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
469 # mysql-transport.cf 720# mysql-transport.cf
470 721
471 user = mailsql 722user = mailsql
472 password = $password 723password = $password
473 dbname = mailsql 724dbname = mailsql
474 table = transport 725table = transport
475 select_field = destination 726select_field = destination
476 where_field = domain 727where_field = domain
477 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 728hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
478 </pre> 729</pre>
730
479<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 731<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
480 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 732# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
481 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 733#myql-virtual-gid.cf
482 734
483 user = mailsql 735user = mailsql
484 password = $password 736password = $password
485 dbname = mailsql 737dbname = mailsql
486 table = users 738table = users
487 select_field = gid 739select_field = gid
488 where_field = email 740where_field = email
489 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 741additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
490 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 742hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
491 </pre> 743</pre>
744
492<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 745<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
493 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 746# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
494 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 747#myql-virtual-maps.cf
495 748
496 user = mailsql 749user = mailsql
497 password = $password 750password = $password
498 dbname = mailsql 751dbname = mailsql
499 table = users 752table = users
500 select_field = maildir 753select_field = maildir
501 where_field = email 754where_field = email
502 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 755additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
503 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 756hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
504 </pre> 757</pre>
758
505<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 759<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
506 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 760# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
507 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 761# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
508 762
509 user = mailsql 763user = mailsql
510 password = $password 764password = $password
511 dbname = mailsql 765dbname = mailsql
512 table = users 766table = users
513 select_field = uid 767select_field = uid
514 where_field = email 768where_field = email
515 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 769additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
516 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 770hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
517 </pre> 771</pre>
772
518<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 773<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
519 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 774# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
520 # mysql-virtual.cf 775# mysql-virtual.cf
521 776
522 user = mailsql 777user = mailsql
523 password = $password 778password = $password
524 dbname = mailsql 779dbname = mailsql
525 table = virtual 780table = virtual
526 select_field = destination 781select_field = destination
527 where_field = email 782where_field = email
528 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 783hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
529 </pre> 784</pre>
785
786<p>
530<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 787Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
788</p>
789
531<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 790<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
532 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 791# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
533 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 792alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
534 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 793relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
535 794
536 local_transport = local 795local_transport = local
537 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 796local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
538 797
539 virtual_transport = virtual 798virtual_transport = virtual
540 virtual_mailbox_domains = 799virtual_mailbox_domains =
541 virt-bar.com, 800 virt-bar.com,
542 $other-virtual-domain.com 801 $other-virtual-domain.com
543 802
544 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 803virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
545 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 804virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
546 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 805virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
547 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 806virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
548 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 807virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
549 virtual_mailbox_base = / 808virtual_mailbox_base = /
550 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 809#virtual_mailbox_limit =
551 </pre> 810</pre>
552<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 811
812<p>
813For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
814<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
815</p>
816
817<pre caption="Changing file permission">
818# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
820</pre>
821
822<p>
823As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
824release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
825longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
826</p>
827
828<note>
553<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 829It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
830for more information.
831</note>
832
833<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
554<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 834# <i>postfix reload</i>
835</pre>
836
837<p>
838Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
839able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
840for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
841everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
842things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
843troubleshooting section of this howto.
555</pre> 844</p>
556<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 845
557</body> 846</body>
847</section>
558</chapter> 848</chapter>
849
559<chapter> 850<chapter>
560<title>Squirrelmail</title> 851<title>Squirrelmail</title>
852<section>
561<body> 853<body>
562<pre> 854
855<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
563 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 856# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
564<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 857<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
858(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
565 859
566 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 860# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
567 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 861# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
568 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 862# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
569<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 863<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
570<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 864Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
571<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 865and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
572</pre> 866</pre>
867
573</body> 868</body>
869</section>
574</chapter> 870</chapter>
871
575<chapter> 872<chapter>
576<title>Mailman</title> 873<title>Mailman</title>
874<section>
577<body> 875<body>
578<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correclty for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really reccommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 876
579<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 877<p>
580 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 878Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
581 MAILGID="280" 879support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
582 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 880get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
583 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 881to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
882documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
883here.
584</pre> 884</p>
885
585<pre> 886<p>
887One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
888you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
889overridden in the ebuild file by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
890</p>
891
892<pre caption="Install mailman">
586 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 893# <i>emerge mailman</i>
587<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
588<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
589<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote>
590
591 # <i>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
592</pre> 894</pre>
895
896<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
897# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
898<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
899DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
900DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
901</pre>
902
593<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 903<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
594 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 904# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
595 MTA = "Postfix" 905MTA = "Postfix"
596 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 906POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
597 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 907add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
598 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 908add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
599<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 909<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
600</pre>
601<pre> 910</pre>
911
912<pre caption="And last but not least">
602<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 913<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
603 914
604 # <i>su mailman</i> 915# <i>su mailman</i>
605 # <i>cd ~</i> 916# <i>cd ~</i>
606 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 917# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
607 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 918Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
608 Initial test password: 919Initial test password:
609 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 920Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
610 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 921<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
611 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 922list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
612 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 923# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
613 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 924<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
614 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 925verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
615 926
616 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 927# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
617 # STANZA START: test 928# STANZA START: test
618 # CREATED: 929# CREATED:
619 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 930test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
620 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 931test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
621 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 932test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
622 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 933test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
623 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 934test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
624 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 935test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
625 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 936test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
626 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 937test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
627 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 938test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
628 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 939test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
629 # STANZA END: test 940# STANZA END: test
630 941
631 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 942# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
632 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 943# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
633 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 944<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
634</pre> 945</pre>
635 946
636<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 947<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
637 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 948# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
638 owner_request_special = no 949owner_request_special = no
639 recipient_delimiter = + 950recipient_delimiter = +
640 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 951<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
641 952
642 alias_maps = 953alias_maps =
643 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 954 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
644 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 955 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
645 956
646 virtual_alias_maps = 957virtual_alias_maps =
647 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 958 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
648 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 959 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
649 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 960<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
650 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 961You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
651 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 962but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
963using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
964to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
965</pre>
966
967<p>
968You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
969note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
970mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
971Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
972lists.
652</pre> 973</p>
653<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 974
654</body> 975</body>
976</section>
655</chapter> 977</chapter>
978
656<chapter> 979<chapter>
657<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 980<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
658<body><p>Coming soon...</p></body> 981<section>
982<body>
983
984<p>
985For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
986link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
987</p>
988
989</body>
990</section>
659</chapter> 991</chapter>
992
660<chapter> 993<chapter>
661<title>Wrap Up</title> 994<title>Wrap Up</title>
995<section>
662<body> 996<body>
663<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 997
998<p>
999Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1000verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1001to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1002sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1003courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1004up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1005the services enabled.
1006</p>
1007
664<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1008<pre caption="Wrap up">
665 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1009# <i>postfix reload</i>
666 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1010# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
667</pre> 1011</pre>
1012
668<p> 1013<p>
669<e>Have fun!</e> 1014<e>Have fun!</e>
670</p> 1015</p>
1016
671</body> 1017</body>
1018</section>
672</chapter> 1019</chapter>
1020
673<chapter> 1021<chapter>
674<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1022<title>Troubleshooting</title>
675<section> 1023<section>
676<title>Introduction</title> 1024<title>Introduction</title>
677<body> 1025<body>
678<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1026
1027<p>
1028Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1029detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1030you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1031it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1032that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1033from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1034work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1035</p>
1036
679</body> 1037</body>
680</section>
681<section> 1038</section>
1039<section>
682<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1040<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
683<body> 1041<body>
684<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1042
685<pre> 1043<p>
1044Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1045your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1046if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1047it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1048make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1049</p>
1050
1051<pre caption="How to restart a service">
686 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1052# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
687</pre> 1053</pre>
1054
688</body> 1055</body>
689</section> 1056</section>
690<section> 1057<section>
691<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1058<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
692<body> 1059<body>
693<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1060
694<pre> 1061<p>
1062If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1063running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1064Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1065component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1066process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1067awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1068out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1069</p>
1070
1071<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
695 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1072# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
696 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1073# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
697</pre> 1074</pre>
1075
698</body> 1076</body>
699</section> 1077</section>
700<section> 1078<section>
701<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1079<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
702<body> 1080<body>
703<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1081
704<pre> 1082<p>
1083If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1084sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1085current config's to you, like postfix.
1086</p>
1087
1088<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
705 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1089# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
706 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1090# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
707 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1091# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
708 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1092# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
709</pre> 1093</pre>
1094
710</body> 1095</body>
711</section>
712<section> 1096</section>
1097<section>
713<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1098<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
714<body> 1099<body>
715<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1100
716<pre> 1101<p>
1102Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1103logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1104logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1105logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1106in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1107figure out which component is having the problem.
1108</p>
1109
1110<pre caption="Checking the logs">
717 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1111# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
718 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1112# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
719 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1113# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
720 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1114# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1115</pre>
1116
1117<p>
1118You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1119will increase log output over just verbose mode.
721</pre> 1120</p>
722<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1121
723<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1122<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
724 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1123# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
725 debug_peer_level = 5 1124debug_peer_level = 5
726 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1125debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
727 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1126<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
728 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1127commands as well.)</comment>
729</pre> 1128</pre>
1129
730</body> 1130</body>
731</section>
732<section> 1131</section>
1132<section>
733<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1133<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
734<body> 1134<body>
735<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1135
736<pre> 1136<p>
1137SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1138we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1139to the service itself and see what's happening.
1140</p>
1141
1142<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
737 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1143# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
738<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1144<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
739<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1145letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
740 1146
741 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1147Trying 127.0.0.1...
742 Connected to localhost. 1148Connected to localhost.
743 Escape character is '^]'. 1149Escape character is '^]'.
744 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1150* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
745 </pre> 1151</pre>
1152
746</body> 1153</body>
747</section>
748<section> 1154</section>
1155<section>
749<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1156<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
750<body> 1157<body>
751<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1158
752<pre> 1159<p>
1160You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1161software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1162all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1163information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1164transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1165</p>
1166
1167<pre caption="Using strace">
753 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1168# <i>emerge strace</i>
754 # <i>strace $command</i> 1169# <i>strace $command</i>
755 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1170# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
756</pre> 1171</pre>
1172
757</body> 1173</body>
758</section> 1174</section>
759<section> 1175<section>
760<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1176<title>Step 7: Research</title>
761<body> 1177<body>
762<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1178
1179<p>
1180Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1181If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1182help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1183already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1184which contains some great debugging ideas.
763<p> 1185</p>
1186
764<ul> 1187<ul>
765<li>
766<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1188 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
767<li> 1189 <li>
768<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1190 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
769<li> 1191 to look for specific errors
1192 </li>
770<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1193 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
771<li> 1194 <li>
772<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1195 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1196 lists - searchable
1197 </li>
773<li> 1198 <li>
774<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1199 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1200 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1201 </li>
775<li> 1202 <li>
776<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1203 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1204 google, which has never failed me
1205 </li>
1206 <li>
777<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1207 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1208 place to go for help.
1209 </li>
778</ul> 1210</ul>
779</p> 1211
780</body> 1212</body>
781</section> 1213</section>
782</chapter> 1214</chapter>
783</guide> 1215</guide>
784

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