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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.60 2008/09/28 20:29:25 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
25This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
26postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
27</abstract>
28
12<version>1.0.1</version> 29<version>1.7</version>
13<date>7 Aug 2003</date> 30<date>2008-09-28</date>
14<!--
15 31
16Contents
17
18I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap
21IV. Cyrus-sasl
22V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24VII. MySQL
25VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26IX. The vmail user
27X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting
33
34--><chapter> 32<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 33<title>Introduction</title>
36<body> 34<section>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
47<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
48<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
49<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
50</body> 35<body>
36
37<p>
38For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
39you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
40Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
41need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
42system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
43</p>
44
45<p>
46A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
47with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
48that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
49domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
50smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
51system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
52the system? How do you manage it all?
53</p>
54
55<p>
56This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
57mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
58users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
59authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
60utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
61mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
62central and easy mysql database.
63</p>
64
65<p>
66There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
67system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
68needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
69<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
70</p>
71
72<p>
73The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap,
74courier-authlib postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql,
75php, and mailman.
76</p>
77
78<p>
79Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
80before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
81sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
82get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
83turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
84</p>
85
86<impo>
87You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
88for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
89advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
90</impo>
91
92<impo>
93Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
94your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
95<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
96<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
97<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
98</impo>
99
100<note>
101It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
102with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
103any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
104Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
105flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
106the squirrelmail section.
107</note>
108
109</body>
110</section>
51</chapter> 111</chapter>
112
52<chapter> 113<chapter>
53<title>Postfix Basics</title> 114<title>Postfix Basics</title>
115<section>
54<body> 116<body>
55<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 117
118<pre caption="Install postfix">
119# <i>emerge postfix</i>
120</pre>
121
122<warn>
123Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
124netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
125</warn>
126
127<p>
128After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
129options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
130<c>$variables</c> with your own names.
56</pre> 131</p>
57<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 132
58<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
59<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 133<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
60myhostname = $host.domain.name 134myhostname = $host.domain.name
61mydomain = $domain.name 135mydomain = $domain.name
62inet_interfaces = all 136inet_interfaces = all
63mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 137mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
64mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 138mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
65home_mailbox = .maildir/ 139home_mailbox = .maildir/
66local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 140local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
67default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 141default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
142</pre>
143
144<p>
68<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 145Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
146turn on verbose output for debugging:
147</p>
148
69<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 149<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
70# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 150# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 151# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72# 152#
73========================================================================== 153==========================================================================
154<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
74smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 155smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
156</pre>
75 157
76<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 158<p>
159Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
160should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
77</pre> 161</p>
78<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 162
79<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 163<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
80# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 164# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 165<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
82<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 166when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
83 167
84# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 168# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85</pre> 169</pre>
86<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 170
87<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 171<p>
172Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
173yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
174postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
175next step.
176</p>
177
178<note>
179I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
180before you progress to the next step of the howto.
181</note>
182
88</body> 183</body>
184</section>
89</chapter> 185</chapter>
186
90<chapter> 187<chapter>
91<title>Courier-imap</title> 188<title>Courier-imap</title>
189<section>
92<body> 190<body>
93<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 191
192<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
193# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
94</pre> 194</pre>
195
95<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 196<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
96# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 197# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 198<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
98<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 199you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
99<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 200This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
100 201
101# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 202# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 203# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 204<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
104 205
105# <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 206# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106# <i>mkimapdcert</i> 207# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107</pre> 208</pre>
209
108<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 210<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
109# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 211# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 212# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 213# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 214# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113</pre> 215</pre>
114<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 216
217<p>
218Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
219started work for receiving and sending mail. Of course, you won't be able to log
220on to any of the services because authentication hasn't been configured yet, but
221it is wise to check if the connections themselves work or not.
222</p>
223
224<p>
225Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to
226get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've
227installed already works before progressing.
228</p>
229
115</body> 230</body>
231</section>
116</chapter> 232</chapter>
233
117<chapter> 234<chapter>
118<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 235<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
236<section>
119<body> 237<body>
120<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 238
121<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 239<p>
240Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
241actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass
242that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto,
243we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and
244contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against
245mysql in the end anyway.
246</p>
247
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 248<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
123# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 249# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126</pre> 250</pre>
251
252<p>
127<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 253Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
254</p>
255
128<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 256<pre caption="Starting sasl">
129# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 257# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
258mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
130pwcheck_method: saslauthd 259pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 260# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
132<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 261SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
133<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 262SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
134# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 263# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135</pre> 264</pre>
265
136</body> 266</body>
267</section>
137</chapter> 268</chapter>
269
138<chapter> 270<chapter>
139<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 271<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
272<section>
140<body> 273<body>
274
275<p>
141<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 276Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
142<pre> 277</p>
278
279<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
143# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 280# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 281# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
145 282
146<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 283<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
147countryName_default 284countryName_default
148stateOrProvinceName_default 285stateOrProvinceName_default
149localityName_default 286localityName_default
1500.organizationName_default 2870.organizationName_default
151commonName_default 288commonName_default
152emailAddress_default. 289emailAddress_default.
153 290
154<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 291<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
155
156 292
157# <i>cd misc</i> 293# <i>cd misc</i>
158# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 294# <i>./CA.pl -newreq-nodes</i>
159<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
163
164# create a certificate
165system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166
167# create a certificate request
168system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169
170# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 295# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 296# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 297# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 298# <i>cp newkey.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 299# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 300<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
177 301
178# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 302# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 303# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 304# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 305<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 306We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
183</pre> 307</pre>
308
184</body> 309</body>
310</section>
311
185</chapter> 312</chapter>
186<chapter> 313<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 314<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
315<section>
188<body> 316<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 317
318<p>
319Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
320capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
321will be easy to find.
322</p>
323
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 324<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
191# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 325# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 326
193smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 327smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 328smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 329smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 330broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 331smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 332
199<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 333<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 334are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 335Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 336smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 337smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 338mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
205 339
206smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 340smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 341 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 342 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 343 reject_unauth_destination
210
211 344
345<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
346smtp_use_tls = yes
347smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
212smtpd_use_tls = yes 348smtpd_use_tls = yes
213#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 349#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 350smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newkey.pem
215smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 351smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 352smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 353smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 354smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 355smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 356tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 357
222<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 358<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 359You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
224 360
225# <i>postfix reload</i> 361# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 362</pre>
363
364<p>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 365Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
366For this we are going to use <c>telnet</c> (provided by for instance
367<c>net-misc/netkit-telnetd</c>) although you can also use <c>nc</c> (provided by
368<c>net-analyzer/netcat</c>):
369</p>
370
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 371<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
229# <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 372# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 373
231Trying 127.0.0.1... 374Trying 127.0.0.1...
232Connected to localhost. 375Connected to localhost.
233Escape character is '^]'. 376Escape character is '^]'.
244250-XVERP 387250-XVERP
245250 8BITMIME 388250 8BITMIME
246<i>^]</i> 389<i>^]</i>
247telnet> <i>quit</i> 390telnet> <i>quit</i>
248</pre> 391</pre>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 392
393<p>
394Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
395install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
396sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
397unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
398and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
250 </p> 399</p>
400
251</body> 401</body>
402</section>
403</chapter>
404
252</chapter> 405<chapter>
406<title>The vmail user</title>
407<section>
408<body>
409
410<p>
411Before we set up our virtual mailhosting environment, we create a functional
412user under which the virtual mailboxes will be hosted. For clarity's sake we
413will call this <e>vmail</e>:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
417# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false -m vmail</i>
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421So now you've set up the vmail account. You can create multiple accounts if you
422want (to keep some structure in your set of virtual mail accounts). The user id,
423group id and home dirs are referenced in the MySQL tables.
424</p>
425
426<p>
427Next to the user account we also need to create the location where the mailboxes
428will reside:
429</p>
430
431<pre caption="Creating mailboxes">
432# <i>mkdir -p /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo</i>
433# <i>chown -R vmail:vmail /home/vmail/virt-domain.com</i>
434# <i>maildirmake /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir</i>
435</pre>
436
437</body>
438</section>
439</chapter>
440
253<chapter> 441<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 442<title>MySQL</title>
443<section>
255<body> 444<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 445
446<p>
447Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
448link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
449dumpfile for this step.
450</p>
451
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 452<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
258# <i>emerge mysql</i> 453# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 454
260# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 455# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 456<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 457for adding a root password with mysql, otherwise your db will
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 458be wide open.)</comment>
264 459
265# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 460# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 461# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 462# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268
269# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 463# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 464mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 465 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 466 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 467 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
468Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
274 469
275 -> <i>quit</i> 470mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
471Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
472
473mysql> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 474<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
277 475
278# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 476# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 477</pre>
478
479<p>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 480Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
481following tables are included:
482</p>
483
281 <ul> 484<ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 485 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 486 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
487 <li>
284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 488 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
489 hosting
490 </li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 491 <li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 492 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 493</ul>
288</p> 494
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 495<pre caption="alias table sample">
290 id alias destination 496id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 4971 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4982 postmaster foo@bar.com
293</pre> 499</pre>
500
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 501<pre caption="user table sample">
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 502<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 503id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 504 maildir quota postfix
50510 foo@virt-domain.com $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
506 /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir/ y
50713 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
508 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
509</pre>
510
511<p>
512The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
513user and group.
298</pre> 514</p>
515
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 516<pre caption="transport table sample">
300 id domain destination 517id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 5181 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5192 virt-domain.com virtual:
303</pre> 520</pre>
521
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 522<pre caption="virtual table sample">
305 id email destination 523id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5243 root@virt-domain.com other@email.address
307</pre> 525</pre>
526
308</body> 527</body>
528</section>
309</chapter> 529</chapter>
530
310<chapter> 531<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 532<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
533<section>
312<body> 534<body>
535
536<p>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 537Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
538more easily.
539</p>
540
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 541<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
315# <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 542# <i>emerge apache phpmyadmin</i>
543</pre>
544
545<p>
546There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php,
547including guides provided by the <uri link="/proj/en/php/">Gentoo PHP
548Project</uri>. There are also numerous posts on
549<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the
550installation. So, that said, we're not going to cover it here. Set up the
551apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the
552wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this,
553search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean
554that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be
555able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There
556are many howtos on this including:
557<uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
316</pre> 558</p>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 559
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 560<p>
561Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
562Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
563</p>
564
319 <ul> 565<ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 566 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 567 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 568</ul>
323</p> 569
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 570<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
325# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 571# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
326# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 572# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
327# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 573# <i>cd /etc/apache2/vhosts.d</i>
574<comment>(Check if you have an ssl-vhost template already.
575 Copy that one instead of the default_vhost if that is the case)</comment>
576# <i>cp 00_default_vhost.conf ssl-vhost.conf</i>
577# <i>nano -w ssl-vhost.conf</i>
578
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 579<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
580NameVirtualHost host.domain.name:443
329 581
582&lt;VirtualHost host.domain.name:443&gt;
330ServerName host.domain.name 583 ServerName host.domain.name
331ServerAdmin your@email.address 584 ServerAdmin your@email.address
585
586 DocumentRoot "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin";
587 &lt;Directory "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin"&gt;
588 ...
589 &lt;/Directory&gt;
590
332SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 591 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.cert
333SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 592 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.key
593 SSLEngine on
594 ...
595&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
334 596
597# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/apache2</i>
598<comment>(Add -D SSL -D PHP5 to the APACHE2_OPTS)</comment>
599
335# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 600# <i>/etc/init.d/apache2 restart</i>
336</pre> 601</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 602
603<p>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 604Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
605</p>
606
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 607<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
340# <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 608# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin</i>
609# <i>cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php</i>
610# <i>nano -w config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 611<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
612$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = 'someverysecretpassphraze';
342 613
343$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 614$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 615$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 616 // (this user must have read-only
346$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 617$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 618 // and "mysql/db" tables)
348$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 619$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 620$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
621</pre>
622
623<p>
624Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
625local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
626transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
627supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
628go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
629accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
630correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
631automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
632general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
633setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
350</pre> 634</p>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 635
352</body> 636</body>
353</chapter> 637</section>
354<chapter> 638</chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 639
356<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
359# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
364</pre>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
366</body>
367</chapter>
368<chapter> 640<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 641<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
642<section>
370<body> 643<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 644
372<pre> 645<p>
373# <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 646Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 647courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 648<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377
378# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380
381#auth required pam_nologin.so
382#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385
386auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390
391# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394</pre> 649</p>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 650
396<pre> 651<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
397# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 652# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
398authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 653authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
399 654
400# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402
403# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 655# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
404MYSQL_SERVER localhost 656MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 657MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 658MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 659MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 660MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 661<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
662#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
410MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 663MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 664MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 665MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 666MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 667MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 668MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 669MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 670
418# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 671# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
419# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 672# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
420</pre> 673</pre>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 674
675<p>
676We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
677for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
678Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
679password, alias, email address, and so on.
680</p>
681
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 682<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
423# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 683# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424# mysql-aliases.cf 684# mysql-aliases.cf
425 685
426user = mailsql 686user = mailsql
427password = $password 687password = $password
428dbname = mailsql 688dbname = mailsql
429table = alias 689table = alias
430select_field = destination 690select_field = destination
431where_field = alias 691where_field = alias
432hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 692hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433</pre> 693</pre>
694
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 695<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
435# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 696# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436# mysql-relocated.cf 697# mysql-relocated.cf
437 698
438user = mailsql 699user = mailsql
439password = $password 700password = $password
440dbname = mailsql 701dbname = mailsql
441table = relocated 702table = relocated
442select_field = destination 703select_field = destination
443where_field = email 704where_field = email
444hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 705hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445</pre> 706</pre>
707
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 708<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
447# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 709# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448# mysql-transport.cf 710# mysql-transport.cf
449 711
450user = mailsql 712user = mailsql
451password = $password 713password = $password
452dbname = mailsql 714dbname = mailsql
453table = transport 715table = transport
454select_field = destination 716select_field = destination
455where_field = domain 717where_field = domain
456hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 718hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457</pre> 719</pre>
720
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 721<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
459# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 722# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460#myql-virtual-gid.cf 723# mysql-virtual-gid.cf
461 724
462user = mailsql 725user = mailsql
463password = $password 726password = $password
464dbname = mailsql 727dbname = mailsql
465table = users 728table = users
466select_field = gid 729select_field = gid
467where_field = email 730where_field = email
468additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 731additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 732hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470</pre> 733</pre>
734
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 735<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
472# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 736# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473#myql-virtual-maps.cf 737# mysql-virtual-maps.cf
474 738
475user = mailsql 739user = mailsql
476password = $password 740password = $password
477dbname = mailsql 741dbname = mailsql
478table = users 742table = users
479select_field = maildir 743select_field = maildir
480where_field = email 744where_field = email
481additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 745additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 746hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483</pre> 747</pre>
748
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 749<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
485# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 750# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486# mysql-virtual-uid.cf 751# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 752
488user = mailsql 753user = mailsql
489password = $password 754password = $password
490dbname = mailsql 755dbname = mailsql
491table = users 756table = users
492select_field = uid 757select_field = uid
493where_field = email 758where_field = email
494additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 759additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 760hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496</pre> 761</pre>
762
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 763<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
498# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 764# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499# mysql-virtual.cf 765# mysql-virtual.cf
500 766
501user = mailsql 767user = mailsql
502password = $password 768password = $password
503dbname = mailsql 769dbname = mailsql
504table = virtual 770table = virtual
505select_field = destination 771select_field = destination
506where_field = email 772where_field = email
507hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 773hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508</pre> 774</pre>
775
776<p>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 777Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
778</p>
779
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 780<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
511# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 781# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
782<comment>(Ensure that there are no other alias_maps definitions)</comment>
512alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 783alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 784relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 785
515local_transport = local 786local_transport = local
516local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 787local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 788
518virtual_transport = virtual 789virtual_transport = virtual
519virtual_mailbox_domains = 790<comment>(The domains listed by the mydestination should not be listed in
520 virt-bar.com, 791 the virtual_mailbox_domains parameter)</comment>
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 792virtual_mailbox_domains = virt-domain.com, $other-virtual-domain.com
522 793
523virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 794virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
795<comment>(Substitute $vmail-gid with the GID of the vmail group)</comment>
524virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 796virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 797virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 798virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
799<comment>(Substitute $vmail-uid with the UID of the vmail user)</comment>
527virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 800virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528virtual_mailbox_base = / 801virtual_mailbox_base = /
529#virtual_mailbox_limit = 802#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530</pre> 803</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 804
805<p>
806For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
807<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
808</p>
809
810<pre caption="Changing file permission">
811# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
812# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
813</pre>
814
815<p>
816As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
817release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
818longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
819</p>
820
821<note>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 822It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
823for more information.
824</note>
825
826<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 827# <i>postfix reload</i>
828</pre>
829
830<p>
831Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
832able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
833for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
834everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
835things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
836troubleshooting section of this howto.
534</pre> 837</p>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 838
536</body> 839</body>
840</section>
537</chapter> 841</chapter>
842
538<chapter> 843<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 844<title>Squirrelmail</title>
845<section>
540<body> 846<body>
541<pre> 847
848<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
542# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 849# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 850<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
851(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
544 852
545# <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 853# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
546# <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 854# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
547# <i>./conf.pl</i> 855# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 856<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 857Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 858and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
551</pre> 859</pre>
860
552</body> 861</body>
862</section>
553</chapter> 863</chapter>
864
554<chapter> 865<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 866<title>Mailman</title>
867<section>
556<body> 868<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 869
558<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 870<p>
559<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 871Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
560# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 872support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
561MAILGID="280" 873get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
562<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 874to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
563<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 875documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
876here.
564</pre> 877</p>
565<pre> 878
879<pre caption="Install mailman">
566# <i>emerge mailman</i> 880# <i>emerge mailman</i>
567<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
568<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
569<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
570<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
571
572# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
573</pre> 881</pre>
882
574<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 883<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
575# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 884# <i> nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
576<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 885<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
577DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 886DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
578DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 887DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
579</pre> 888</pre>
889
580<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 890<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
581# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 891# <i>nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
582MTA = "Postfix" 892MTA = "Postfix"
583POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 893POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
584add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 894add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
585add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 895add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
586<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 896<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
587</pre>
588<pre> 897</pre>
898
899<pre caption="And last but not least">
589<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 900<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
590 901
591# <i>su mailman</i> 902# <i>su mailman</i>
592# <i>cd ~</i> 903# <i>cd ~</i>
593# <i>bin/newlist test</i> 904# <i>./bin/newlist --urlhost='www.virt-domain.com' --emailhost='virt-domain.com' test</i>
594Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 905Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
595Initial test password: 906Initial test password:
596Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 907Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
597<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 908<comment>(Virtual domain lists may also be specified with
598<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 909list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
599# <i>bin/genaliases</i> 910# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
600<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 911<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
601<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 912verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
602 913
603# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 914# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
604# STANZA START: test 915# STANZA START: test
605# CREATED: 916# CREATED:
606test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 917test: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
607test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 918test-admin: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
608test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 919test-bounces: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
609test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 920test-confirm: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
610test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 921test-join: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
611test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 922test-leave: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
612test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 923test-owner: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
613test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 924test-request: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
614test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 925test-subscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
615test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 926test-unsubscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
616# STANZA END: test 927# STANZA END: test
928
929<comment>(Create the required mailman list)</comment>
930# <i>./bin/newlist mailman</i>
931# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
932
933<comment>(Return to the root user)</comment>
934# <i>exit</i>
617 935
618# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 936# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
619# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 937# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
620<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 938<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
621</pre> 939</pre>
622 940
623<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 941<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
624# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 942# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
625owner_request_special = no 943owner_request_special = no
626recipient_delimiter = + 944recipient_delimiter = +
627<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 945<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
628 946
629alias_maps = 947alias_maps =
630 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 948 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/aliases,
631 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 949 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
632 950
633virtual_alias_maps = 951virtual_alias_maps =
634 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 952 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
635 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 953 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
636<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 954<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
637<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 955You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
638<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 956but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
639<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 957using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
640<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 958to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
959</pre>
960
961<p>
962You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
963note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
964mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
965Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
966lists.
641</pre> 967</p>
642<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 968
643</body> 969</body>
970</section>
644</chapter> 971</chapter>
972
645<chapter> 973<chapter>
646<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 974<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
647<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 975<section>
976<body>
977
978<p>
979For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
980link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
981</p>
982
983</body>
984</section>
648</chapter> 985</chapter>
986
649<chapter> 987<chapter>
650<title>Wrap Up</title> 988<title>Wrap Up</title>
989<section>
651<body> 990<body>
652<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 991
992<p>
993Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
994verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
995to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
996sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
997courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
998up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
999the services enabled.
1000</p>
1001
653<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1002<pre caption="Wrap up">
654# <i>postfix reload</i> 1003# <i>postfix reload</i>
655# <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1004# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
656</pre> 1005</pre>
1006
657<p> 1007<p>
658<e>Have fun!</e> 1008<e>Have fun!</e>
659</p> 1009</p>
1010
660</body> 1011</body>
1012</section>
661</chapter> 1013</chapter>
1014
662<chapter> 1015<chapter>
663<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1016<title>Troubleshooting</title>
664<section> 1017<section>
665<title>Introduction</title> 1018<title>Introduction</title>
666<body> 1019<body>
667<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1020
1021<p>
1022Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1023detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1024you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1025it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1026that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1027from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1028work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1029</p>
1030
668</body> 1031</body>
669</section>
670<section> 1032</section>
1033<section>
671<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1034<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
672<body> 1035<body>
673<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1036
674<pre> 1037<p>
1038Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1039your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1040if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1041it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1042make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1043</p>
1044
1045<pre caption="How to restart a service">
675# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1046# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
676</pre> 1047</pre>
1048
677</body> 1049</body>
678</section> 1050</section>
679<section> 1051<section>
680<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1052<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
681<body> 1053<body>
682<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1054
683<pre> 1055<p>
1056If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1057running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1058Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1059component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1060process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1061awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1062out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1063</p>
1064
1065<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
684# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1066# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
685# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1067# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
686</pre> 1068</pre>
1069
687</body> 1070</body>
688</section> 1071</section>
689<section> 1072<section>
690<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1073<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
691<body> 1074<body>
692<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1075
693<pre> 1076<p>
1077If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1078sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1079current config's to you, like postfix.
1080</p>
1081
1082<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
694# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1083# <i>apache2ctl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
695# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1084# <i>apache2ctl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
696# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1085# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
697# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1086# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
698</pre> 1087</pre>
1088
699</body> 1089</body>
700</section>
701<section> 1090</section>
1091<section>
702<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1092<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
703<body> 1093<body>
704<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1094
705<pre> 1095<p>
1096Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1097logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1098logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1099logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1100in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1101figure out which component is having the problem.
1102</p>
1103
1104<pre caption="Checking the logs">
706# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1105# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
707# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1106# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
708# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1107# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
709# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1108# <i>tail /var/log/apache2/error_log</i>
1109</pre>
1110
1111<p>
1112You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1113will increase log output over just verbose mode.
710</pre> 1114</p>
711<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1115
712<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1116<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
713# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1117# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
714debug_peer_level = 5 1118debug_peer_level = 5
715debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1119debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
716<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1120<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
717<codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1121commands as well.)</comment>
718</pre> 1122</pre>
1123
719</body> 1124</body>
720</section>
721<section> 1125</section>
1126<section>
722<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1127<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
723<body> 1128<body>
724<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1129
725<pre> 1130<p>
1131SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1132we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1133to the service itself and see what's happening.
1134</p>
1135
1136<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
726# <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1137# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
727<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1138<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
728<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1139letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
729 1140
730Trying 127.0.0.1... 1141Trying 127.0.0.1...
731Connected to localhost. 1142Connected to localhost.
732Escape character is '^]'. 1143Escape character is '^]'.
733* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1144* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
734</pre> 1145</pre>
1146
735</body> 1147</body>
736</section>
737<section> 1148</section>
1149<section>
738<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1150<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
739<body> 1151<body>
740<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1152
741<pre> 1153<p>
1154You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1155software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1156all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1157information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1158transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1159</p>
1160
1161<pre caption="Using strace">
742# <i>emerge strace</i> 1162# <i>emerge strace</i>
743# <i>strace $command</i> 1163# <i>strace $command</i>
744# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1164# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
745</pre> 1165</pre>
1166
746</body> 1167</body>
747</section> 1168</section>
748<section> 1169<section>
749<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1170<title>Step 7: Research</title>
750<body> 1171<body>
751<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1172
1173<p>
1174Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1175If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1176help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1177already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1178which contains some great debugging ideas.
752<p> 1179</p>
1180
753<ul> 1181<ul>
754<li>
755<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1182 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
756<li> 1183 <li>
757<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1184 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
758<li> 1185 to look for specific errors
1186 </li>
759<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1187 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
760<li> 1188 <li>
761<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1189 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1190 lists - searchable
1191 </li>
762<li> 1192 <li>
763<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1193 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1194 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1195 </li>
764<li> 1196 <li>
765<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1197 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
766<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1198 google, which has never failed me
1199 </li>
1200 <li>
1201 I also spend a lot of time on <uri
1202 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>. IRC is a great place to go
1203 for help.
1204 </li>
767</ul> 1205</ul>
768</p> 1206
769</body> 1207</body>
770</section> 1208</section>
771</chapter> 1209</chapter>
772</guide> 1210</guide>
773

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