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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 4<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 5<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5<author title="Author" > 6<author title="Author" >
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 7<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 8</author>
8<author title="Author" > 9<author title="Author" >
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 10<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 11</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 12<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12<version>1.0</version> 13<version>1.0.4</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 14<date>November 13, 2003</date>
14<!-- 15<!--
15 16
16Contents 17Contents
17 18
18I. Introduction 19I. Introduction
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 39<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 40<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 41<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 42<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 43
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 44 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 45<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 46<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
47<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 48<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 49<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 50<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
49</body> 51</body>
50</chapter> 52</chapter>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 56<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
55</pre> 57</pre>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 58<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 59<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 60<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 61myhostname = $host.domain.name
60 mydomain = $domain.name 62mydomain = $domain.name
61 inet_interfaces = all 63inet_interfaces = all
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 64mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 65mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 66home_mailbox = .maildir/
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 67local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 68default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 69<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 70<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 71# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 72# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
71 # 73#
72 ========================================================================== 74==========================================================================
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 75smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
74 76
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 77<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre> 78</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 79<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 80<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 81# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 82<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 83<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82 84
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 85# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre> 86</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 87<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 88<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body> 89</body>
88</chapter> 90</chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title> 92<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body> 93<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 94<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre> 95</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 96<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 97# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 98<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 99<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 100<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99 101
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 102# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 103# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 104<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103 105
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 106# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i> 107# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre> 108</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 109<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 110# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 113# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre> 114</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 115<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body> 116</body>
115</chapter> 117</chapter>
116<chapter> 118<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 119<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
118<body> 120<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 121<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 122<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 123<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
122 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 124# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
123<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote> 125<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
124<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote> 126<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
125</pre> 127</pre>
126<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 128<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
127<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 129<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
128 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 130# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
129 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 131pwcheck_method: saslauthd
130 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 132mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
131<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 133<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
132<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 134<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
133 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 135# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
134</pre> 136</pre>
135</body> 137</body>
136</chapter> 138</chapter>
137<chapter> 139<chapter>
138<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 140<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
139<body> 141<body>
140<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 142<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
141<pre> 143<pre>
142 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 144# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
143 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 145# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
146
144<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 147<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
145
146 countryName_default 148countryName_default
147 stateOrProvinceName_default 149stateOrProvinceName_default
148 localityName_default 150localityName_default
149 0.organizationName_default 1510.organizationName_default
150 commonName_default 152commonName_default
151 emailAddress_default. 153emailAddress_default.
152 154
153 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 155<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
154 156
155 157
156 # <i>cd misc</i> 158# <i>cd misc</i>
157 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 159# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
158<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote> 160<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
159<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote> 161<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
160<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote> 162<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
161<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote> 163<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
164
165# create a certificate
166system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
167
168# create a certificate request
169system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
162 170
163 # create a certificate
164 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
165
166 # create a certificate request
167 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 171# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 172# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 173# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
172 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 174# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
173 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 175# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 176# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 177<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
176 178
177
178 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 179# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 180# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 181# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 182<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 183<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
183</pre> 184</pre>
184</body> 185</body>
185</chapter> 186</chapter>
186<chapter> 187<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 188<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
188<body> 189<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 190<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 191<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
191 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 192# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 193
193 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 194smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 195smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 196smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 197broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 198smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 199
199 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 200<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 201<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 202<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 203<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 204<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 205<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
205 206
206 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 207smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 208 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 209 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 210 reject_unauth_destination
210 211
211 212
212 smtpd_use_tls = yes 213smtpd_use_tls = yes
213 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 214#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 215smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 216smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 217smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 218smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 219smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 220smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 221tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 222
222 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 223<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 224<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
224 225
225 # <i>postfix reload</i> 226# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 227</pre>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 228<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 229<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
229 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 230# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 231
231 Trying 127.0.0.1... 232Trying 127.0.0.1...
232 Connected to localhost. 233Connected to localhost.
233 Escape character is '^]'. 234Escape character is '^]'.
234 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 235220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 236<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236 250-mail.domain.com 237250-mail.domain.com
237 250-PIPELINING 238250-PIPELINING
238 250-SIZE 10240000 239250-SIZE 10240000
239 250-VRFY 240250-VRFY
240 250-ETRN 241250-ETRN
241 250-STARTTLS 242250-STARTTLS
242 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 243250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 244250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-XVERP 245250-XVERP
245 250 8BITMIME 246250 8BITMIME
246 <i>^]</i> 247<i>^]</i>
247 telnet> <i>quit</i> 248telnet> <i>quit</i>
248</pre> 249</pre>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 250<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
250 </p> 251 </p>
251</body> 252</body>
252</chapter> 253</chapter>
253<chapter> 254<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 255<title>MySQL</title>
255<body> 256<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 257<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 258<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
258 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 259# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 260
260 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 261# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 262<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 263<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 264<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
264 265
265 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 266# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 267# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 268# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268 269
269 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 270# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 271mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 272 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 273 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 274 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
274 275
275 -> <i>quit</i> 276 -> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 277<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
277 278
278 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 279# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 280</pre>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 281<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
281 <ul> 282 <ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 283<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 284<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 286<li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 287<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 288</ul>
288</p> 289</p>
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 290<pre caption="alias table sample" >
290 id alias destination 291id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 2921 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 2932 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 </pre> 294</pre>
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 295<pre caption="user table sample" >
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 296<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 297id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 298 maildir quota postfix
29910 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
300 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
30113 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
302 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298 </pre> 303</pre>
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 304<pre caption="transport table sample" >
300 id domain destination 305id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 3061 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 3072 virt-bar.org virtual:
303 </pre> 308</pre>
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 309<pre caption="virtual table sample" >
305 id email destination 310id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 3113 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
307 </pre> 312</pre>
308</body> 313</body>
309</chapter> 314</chapter>
310<chapter> 315<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 316<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
312<body> 317<body>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 318<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 319<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
315 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 320# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
316</pre> 321</pre>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 322<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 323<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
319 <ul> 324 <ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 325<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 326<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 327</ul>
323</p> 328</p>
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 329<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
325 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 330# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
326 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 331# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 332# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 333<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
329 334
330 ServerName host.domain.name 335ServerName host.domain.name
331 ServerAdmin your@email.address 336ServerAdmin your@email.address
332 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 337SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
333 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 338SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
334 339
335 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 340# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
336</pre> 341</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 342<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 343<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 344<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
340 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 345# <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 346<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
342 347
343 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 348$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 350 // (this user must have read-only
346 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 351$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 352 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
348 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 353$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 354$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350 </pre> 355</pre>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 356<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
352</body> 357</body>
353</chapter> 358</chapter>
354<chapter> 359<chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 360<title>The vmail user</title>
356<body> 361<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 362<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 363<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
359 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 364# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 365# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 366# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 367# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 368# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
364</pre> 369</pre>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 370<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
366</body> 371</body>
367</chapter> 372</chapter>
368<chapter> 373<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 374<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
370<body> 375<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 376<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
372<pre> 377<pre>
373 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 378# <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 379<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 380<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote> 381<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377 382
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 383# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 384<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380 385
381 #auth required pam_nologin.so 386#auth required pam_nologin.so
382 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 387#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 388#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 389#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385 390
386 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 391auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 392 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 393account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 394 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390 395
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 396# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 397# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 398<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394</pre> 399</pre>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 400<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
396<pre> 401<pre>
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 402# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
398 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 403authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
399 404
400 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 405# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 406AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402 407
403 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 408# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
404 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 409MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 410MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 411MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 412MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 413MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 414#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
410 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 415MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 416MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 417MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 418MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 419MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 420MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 421MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 422
418 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 423# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 424# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
420</pre> 425</pre>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 426<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 427<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
423 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 428# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424 # mysql-aliases.cf 429# mysql-aliases.cf
425 430
426 user = mailsql 431user = mailsql
427 password = $password 432password = $password
428 dbname = mailsql 433dbname = mailsql
429 table = alias 434table = alias
430 select_field = destination 435select_field = destination
431 where_field = alias 436where_field = alias
432 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 437hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433 </pre> 438</pre>
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 439<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
435 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 440# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436 # mysql-relocated.cf 441# mysql-relocated.cf
437 442
438 user = mailsql 443user = mailsql
439 password = $password 444password = $password
440 dbname = mailsql 445dbname = mailsql
441 table = relocated 446table = relocated
442 select_field = destination 447select_field = destination
443 where_field = email 448where_field = email
444 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 449hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445 </pre> 450</pre>
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 451<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
447 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 452# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448 # mysql-transport.cf 453# mysql-transport.cf
449 454
450 user = mailsql 455user = mailsql
451 password = $password 456password = $password
452 dbname = mailsql 457dbname = mailsql
453 table = transport 458table = transport
454 select_field = destination 459select_field = destination
455 where_field = domain 460where_field = domain
456 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 461hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457 </pre> 462</pre>
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 463<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
459 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 464# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 465#myql-virtual-gid.cf
461 466
462 user = mailsql 467user = mailsql
463 password = $password 468password = $password
464 dbname = mailsql 469dbname = mailsql
465 table = users 470table = users
466 select_field = gid 471select_field = gid
467 where_field = email 472where_field = email
468 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 473additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 474hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470 </pre> 475</pre>
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 476<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
472 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 477# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 478#myql-virtual-maps.cf
474 479
475 user = mailsql 480user = mailsql
476 password = $password 481password = $password
477 dbname = mailsql 482dbname = mailsql
478 table = users 483table = users
479 select_field = maildir 484select_field = maildir
480 where_field = email 485where_field = email
481 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 486additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 487hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483 </pre> 488</pre>
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 489<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 490# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 491# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 492
488 user = mailsql 493user = mailsql
489 password = $password 494password = $password
490 dbname = mailsql 495dbname = mailsql
491 table = users 496table = users
492 select_field = uid 497select_field = uid
493 where_field = email 498where_field = email
494 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 499additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 500hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre> 501</pre>
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 502<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 503# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499 # mysql-virtual.cf 504# mysql-virtual.cf
500 505
501 user = mailsql 506user = mailsql
502 password = $password 507password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql 508dbname = mailsql
504 table = virtual 509table = virtual
505 select_field = destination 510select_field = destination
506 where_field = email 511where_field = email
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 512hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre> 513</pre>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 514<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 515<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 516# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
512 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 517alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 518relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 519
515 local_transport = local 520local_transport = local
516 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 521local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 522
518 virtual_transport = virtual 523virtual_transport = virtual
519 virtual_mailbox_domains = 524virtual_mailbox_domains =
520 virt-bar.com, 525 virt-bar.com,
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 526 $other-virtual-domain.com
522 527
523 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 528virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
524 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 529virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 530virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 531virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
527 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 532virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528 virtual_mailbox_base = / 533virtual_mailbox_base = /
529 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 534#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530 </pre> 535</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 536<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 537<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 538<pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
534</pre> 539</pre>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 540<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
537</chapter> 542</chapter>
538<chapter> 543<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 544<title>Squirrelmail</title>
540<body> 545<body>
541<pre> 546<pre>
542 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 547# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 548<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
544 549
545 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 550# <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
546 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 551# <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
547 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 552# <i>./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 553<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 554<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 555<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
551</pre> 556</pre>
552</body> 557</body>
553</chapter> 558</chapter>
554<chapter> 559<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 560<title>Mailman</title>
556<body> 561<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 562<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
563<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
558<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 564<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
559 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 565# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
560 MAILGID="280" 566MAILGID="280"
561 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 567<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
562 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 568<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
563</pre>
564<pre> 569</pre>
570<pre>
565 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 571# <i>emerge mailman</i>
566<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 572<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
567<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 573<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
568<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote> 574<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
575<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
569 576
570 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 577# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
578</pre>
579<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
580# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
581<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
582DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
583DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
571</pre> 584</pre>
572<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 585<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
573 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 586# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
574 MTA = "Postfix" 587MTA = "Postfix"
575 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 588POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
576 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 589add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
577 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 590add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
578<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 591<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
579</pre> 592</pre>
580<pre> 593<pre>
581<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 594<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
582 595
583 # <i>su mailman</i> 596# <i>su mailman</i>
584 # <i>cd ~</i> 597# <i>cd ~</i>
585 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 598# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
586 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 599Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
587 Initial test password: 600Initial test password:
588 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 601Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
589 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 602<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
590 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 603<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
591 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 604# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
592 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 605<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
593 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 606<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
594 607
595 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 608# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
596 # STANZA START: test 609# STANZA START: test
597 # CREATED: 610# CREATED:
598 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 611test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
599 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 612test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
600 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 613test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
601 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 614test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
602 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 615test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
603 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 616test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
604 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 617test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
605 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 618test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
606 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 619test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
607 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 620test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
608 # STANZA END: test 621# STANZA END: test
609 622
610 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 623# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
611 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 624# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
612 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 625<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
613</pre> 626</pre>
614 627
615<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 628<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
616 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 629# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
617 owner_request_special = no 630owner_request_special = no
618 recipient_delimiter = + 631recipient_delimiter = +
619 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 632<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
620 633
621 alias_maps = 634alias_maps =
622 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 635 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
623 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 636 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
624 637
625 virtual_alias_maps = 638virtual_alias_maps =
626 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 639 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
627 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 640 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
628 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 641<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
629 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 642<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
630 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 643<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
644<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
645<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
631</pre> 646</pre>
632<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 647<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
633</body> 648</body>
634</chapter> 649</chapter>
635<chapter> 650<chapter>
639<chapter> 654<chapter>
640<title>Wrap Up</title> 655<title>Wrap Up</title>
641<body> 656<body>
642<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 657<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
643<pre caption="Wrap up" > 658<pre caption="Wrap up" >
644 # <i>postfix reload</i> 659# <i>postfix reload</i>
645 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 660# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
646</pre> 661</pre>
647<p> 662<p>
648<e>Have fun!</e> 663<e>Have fun!</e>
649</p> 664</p>
650</body> 665</body>
660<section> 675<section>
661<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 676<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
662<body> 677<body>
663<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 678<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
664<pre> 679<pre>
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 680# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
666</pre> 681</pre>
667</body> 682</body>
668</section> 683</section>
669<section> 684<section>
670<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 685<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
671<body> 686<body>
672<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 687<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
673<pre> 688<pre>
674 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 689# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
675 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 690# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
676</pre> 691</pre>
677</body> 692</body>
678</section> 693</section>
679<section> 694<section>
680<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 695<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
681<body> 696<body>
682<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 697<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
683<pre> 698<pre>
684 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 699# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
685 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 700# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
686 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 701# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 702# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
688</pre> 703</pre>
689</body> 704</body>
690</section> 705</section>
691<section> 706<section>
692<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 707<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
693<body> 708<body>
694<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 709<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
695<pre> 710<pre>
696 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 711# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
697 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 712# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
698 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 713# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
699 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 714# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
700</pre> 715</pre>
701<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 716<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
702<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 717<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 718# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
704 debug_peer_level = 5 719debug_peer_level = 5
705 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 720debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
706 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 721<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
707 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 722<codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
708</pre> 723</pre>
709</body> 724</body>
710</section> 725</section>
711<section> 726<section>
712<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 727<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
713<body> 728<body>
714<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 729<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
715<pre> 730<pre>
716 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 731# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
717<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 732<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
718<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 733<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
719 734
720 Trying 127.0.0.1... 735Trying 127.0.0.1...
721 Connected to localhost. 736Connected to localhost.
722 Escape character is '^]'. 737Escape character is '^]'.
723 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 738* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
724 </pre> 739</pre>
725</body> 740</body>
726</section> 741</section>
727<section> 742<section>
728<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 743<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
729<body> 744<body>
730<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 745<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
731<pre> 746<pre>
732 # <i>emerge strace</i> 747# <i>emerge strace</i>
733 # <i>strace $command</i> 748# <i>strace $command</i>
734 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 749# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
735</pre> 750</pre>
736</body> 751</body>
737</section> 752</section>
738<section> 753<section>
739<title>Step 7: Research</title> 754<title>Step 7: Research</title>

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