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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.40 2004/12/22 21:33:10 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17
18<abstract>
19This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
20postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
21</abstract>
22
12<version>1.0</version> 23<version>1.0.17</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 24<date>2004-12-22</date>
25
14<!-- 26<!--
15
16Contents 27Contents
17 28
18I. Introduction 29I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 30II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 31III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 39XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 40XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 41XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 42XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 43XV. Troubleshooting
44-->
33 45
34--><chapter> 46<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>Introduction</title>
48<section>
49<body>
50
51<p>
52For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
53you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
54Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
55need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
56system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
57</p>
58
59<p>
60A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
61with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
62that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
63domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
64smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
65system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
66the system? How do you manage it all?
67</p>
68
69<p>
70This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
71mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
72users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
73authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
74utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
75mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
76central and easy mysql database.
77</p>
78
79<p>
80There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
81system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
82needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
83<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
84</p>
85
86<p>
87The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql,
88postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
89mailman.
90</p>
91
92<p>
93Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
94before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir
95sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
96get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
97turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
98</p>
99
100<impo>
101This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
102of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
103upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
104well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
105run into issues with this.
106</impo>
107
108<impo>
109This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
110However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
111support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1121.3.x version.
113</impo>
114
115<impo>
116You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
117for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
118advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
119</impo>
120
121<impo>
122Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
123server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
124verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
125</impo>
126
127<note>
128It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
129with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
130any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
131Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
132flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
133the squirrelmail section.
134</note>
135
36<body> 136</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 137</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 138</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 139
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 140<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 141<title>Postfix Basics</title>
142<section>
143<body>
144
145<pre caption="Install postfix">
146# <i>emerge postfix</i>
147</pre>
148
149<warn>
150Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
151qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
152</warn>
153
154<p>
155After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
156options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
160myhostname = $host.domain.name
161mydomain = $domain.name
162inet_interfaces = all
163mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
164mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
165home_mailbox = .maildir/
166local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
167default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
172turn on verbose output for debugging:
173</p>
174
175<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
176# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
177# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
178#
179==========================================================================
180<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
181smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
182</pre>
183
184<p>
185Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
186should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
187</p>
188
189<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
190# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
191<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
192when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 193
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 194# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 195</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 196
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 197<p>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 198Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 199yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
200postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
201next step.
202</p>
203
204<note>
205I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
206before you progress to the next step of the howto.
207</note>
208
49</body> 209</body>
50</chapter> 210</section>
51<chapter> 211</chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 212
213<chapter>
214<title>Courier-imap</title>
215<section>
216<body>
217
218<pre caption="Install courier-imap">
219# <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
220</pre>
221
222<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
223# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
224<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
225you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
226This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
227
228# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
229# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
230<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
231
232# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
233# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
234</pre>
235
236<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
237# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
238# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
239# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
241</pre>
242
243<p>
244Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
245started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
246going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
247running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
248progressing.
249</p>
250
53<body> 251</body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 252</section>
253</chapter>
254
255<chapter>
256<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
257<section>
258<body>
259
260<p>
261Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
262actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that
263information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
264not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
265a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
266end anyway.
55</pre> 267</p>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 268
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 269<note>
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 270Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 271file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone
60 mydomain = $domain.name 272knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo
61 inet_interfaces = all 273incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">email me</mail> as I'd
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 274love to hear a solution to this.
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 275</note>
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 276
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 277<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 278<comment>(We don't have ldap and we're using sasl's mysql capabilities
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 279 so we need to set the appropriate USE flags, but only if your USE flags
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 280 doesn't already contain the mysql USE flag and not the ldap one)</comment>
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 281# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 282# <i>echo "dev-libs/cyrus-sasl -ldap mysql" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
71 # 283# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
72 ========================================================================== 284</pre>
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 285
286<p>
287Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
288</p>
289
290<pre caption="Starting sasl">
291# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
292pwcheck_method: auxprop
293auxprop_plugin: sql
294sql_engine: mysql
295sql_hostnames: localhost
296sql_user: mailsql
297sql_passwd: <comment>&lt;password&gt;</comment>
298sql_database: mailsql
299sql_select: select clear from users where email = '%u@%r'
300mech_list: plain login
301pwcheck_method: saslauthd
302mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
303<comment>(It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.
304They cause problems for some mail clients.)</comment>
305# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
306</pre>
307
308</body>
309</section>
310</chapter>
311
312<chapter>
313<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
314<section>
315<body>
316
317<p>
318Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
319</p>
320
321<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
322# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
323# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
324
325<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
326countryName_default
327stateOrProvinceName_default
328localityName_default
3290.organizationName_default
330commonName_default
331emailAddress_default.
332
333<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
334
335# <i>cd misc</i>
336# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
337<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
338#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
339certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
340reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
341
342# create a certificate
343system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
344
345# create a certificate request
346system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
74 347
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body>
88</chapter>
89<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body>
115</chapter>
116<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
118<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
122 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
123<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
124<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
125</pre>
126<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
127<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
128 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
129 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
130 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
131<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
132<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
133 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
134</pre>
135</body>
136</chapter>
137<chapter>
138<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
139<body>
140<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
141<pre>
142 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
143 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
144<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
145
146 countryName_default
147 stateOrProvinceName_default
148 localityName_default
149 0.organizationName_default
150 commonName_default
151 emailAddress_default.
152
153 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
154
155
156 # <i>cd misc</i>
157 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
158<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
159<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
160<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
161<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
162
163 # create a certificate
164 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
165
166 # create a certificate request
167 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 348# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 349# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 350# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
172 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 351# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
173 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 352# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 353# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 354<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
176 355
177
178 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 356# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 357# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 358# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 359<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 360We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
183</pre> 361</pre>
362
184</body> 363</body>
364</section>
365
185</chapter> 366</chapter>
186<chapter> 367<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 368<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
369<section>
188<body> 370<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 371
372<p>
373Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
374capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
375will be easy to find.
376</p>
377
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 378<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
191 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 379# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 380
193 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 381smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 382smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 383smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 384broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 385smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 386
199 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 387<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 388are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 389Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 390smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 391smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 392mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
205 393
206 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 394smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 395 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 396 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 397 reject_unauth_destination
210 398
211 399
212 smtpd_use_tls = yes 400smtpd_use_tls = yes
213 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 401#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 402smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 403smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 404smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 405smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 406smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 407smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 408tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 409
222 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 410<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 411You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
224 412
225 # <i>postfix reload</i> 413# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 414</pre>
415
416<p>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 417Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
418</p>
419
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 420<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
229 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 421# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 422
231 Trying 127.0.0.1... 423Trying 127.0.0.1...
232 Connected to localhost. 424Connected to localhost.
233 Escape character is '^]'. 425Escape character is '^]'.
234 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 426220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 427<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236 250-mail.domain.com 428250-mail.domain.com
237 250-PIPELINING 429250-PIPELINING
238 250-SIZE 10240000 430250-SIZE 10240000
239 250-VRFY 431250-VRFY
240 250-ETRN 432250-ETRN
241 250-STARTTLS 433250-STARTTLS
242 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 434250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 435250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-XVERP 436250-XVERP
245 250 8BITMIME 437250 8BITMIME
246 <i>^]</i> 438<i>^]</i>
247 telnet> <i>quit</i> 439telnet> <i>quit</i>
440</pre>
441
442<p>
443Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
444install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
445sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
446unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
447and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
248</pre> 448</p>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 449
250 </p>
251</body> 450</body>
451</section>
252</chapter> 452</chapter>
453
253<chapter> 454<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 455<title>MySQL</title>
456<section>
255<body> 457<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 458
459<p>
460Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
461link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
462dumpfile for this step.
463</p>
464
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 465<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
258 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 466# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 467
260 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 468# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 469<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 470for adding a root password with mysql,
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 471not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
264 472
265 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 473# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 474# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 475# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268 476
269 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 477# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 478mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 479 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 480 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 481 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
274 482
275 -> <i>quit</i> 483 -> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 484<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
277 485
278 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 486# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 487</pre>
488
489<p>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 490Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
491following tables are included:
492</p>
493
281 <ul> 494<ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 495 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 496 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
497 <li>
284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 498 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
499 hosting
500 </li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 501 <li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 502 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 503</ul>
288</p> 504
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 505<pre caption="alias table sample">
290 id alias destination 506id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 5071 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 5082 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 </pre> 509</pre>
510
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 511<pre caption="user table sample">
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 512<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 513id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 514 maildir quota postfix
51510 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
516 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
51713 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
518 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298 </pre> 519</pre>
520
521<p>
522The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
523user and group.
524</p>
525
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 526<pre caption="transport table sample">
300 id domain destination 527id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 5281 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5292 virt-bar.org virtual:
303 </pre> 530</pre>
531
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 532<pre caption="virtual table sample">
305 id email destination 533id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5343 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
307 </pre> 535</pre>
536
308</body> 537</body>
538</section>
309</chapter> 539</chapter>
540
310<chapter> 541<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 542<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
543<section>
312<body> 544<body>
545
546<p>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 547Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
548more easily.
549</p>
550
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 551<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
315 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 552# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
557this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
558numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
559problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
560not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
561with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
562phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
563index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
564phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
565however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
566including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
316</pre> 567</p>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 568
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 569<p>
570Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
571Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
572</p>
573
319 <ul> 574<ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 575 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 576 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 577</ul>
323</p> 578
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 579<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
325 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 580# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
326 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 581# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 582# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
583
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 584<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
329 585
330 ServerName host.domain.name 586ServerName host.domain.name
331 ServerAdmin your@email.address 587ServerAdmin your@email.address
332 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 588SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
333 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 589SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
334 590
335 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 591# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
336</pre> 592</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 593
594<note>
595If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
596server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
597apache restarted successfully.
598</note>
599
600<p>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 601Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
602</p>
603
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 604<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
340 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 605# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 606<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
342 607
343 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 608$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 609$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 610 // (this user must have read-only
346 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 611$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 612 // and "mysql/db" tables)
348 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 613$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 614$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350 </pre> 615</pre>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 616
617<p>
618Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
619local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
620transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
621supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
622go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
623accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
624correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
625automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
626general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
627after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
628</p>
629
352</body> 630</body>
631</section>
353</chapter> 632</chapter>
633
354<chapter> 634<chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 635<title>The vmail user</title>
636<section>
356<body> 637<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 638
639<p>
640At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
641mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
642</p>
643
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 644<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
359 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 645# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 646# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 647# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 648# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 649# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
650</pre>
651
652<p>
653So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
654homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
655homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
656haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
364</pre> 657</p>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 658
366</body> 659</body>
660</section>
367</chapter> 661</chapter>
662
368<chapter> 663<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 664<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
665<section>
370<body> 666<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 667
372<pre> 668<p>
373 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 669Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 670courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 671<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote> 672</p>
377 673
674<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
675# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 676# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 677<comment>(Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.)</comment>
380 678
381 #auth required pam_nologin.so 679#auth required pam_nologin.so
382 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 680#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 681#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 682#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385 683
386 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 684auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 685 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 686account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 687 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390 688
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 689# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 690# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 691<comment>(Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files.)</comment>
394</pre> 692</pre>
693
694<p>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 695Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.
396<pre> 696</p>
697
698<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 699# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
398 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 700authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
399 701
400 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 702# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 703AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
402 704
403 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 705# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
404 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 706MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 707MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 708MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 709MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 710MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 711<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
712#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
410 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 713MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 714MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 715MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 716MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 717MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 718MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 719MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 720
418 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 721# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 722# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
723</pre>
724
725<p>
726We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
727for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
420</pre> 728</p>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 729
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 730<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
423 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 731# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424 # mysql-aliases.cf 732# mysql-aliases.cf
425 733
426 user = mailsql 734user = mailsql
427 password = $password 735password = $password
428 dbname = mailsql 736dbname = mailsql
429 table = alias 737table = alias
430 select_field = destination 738select_field = destination
431 where_field = alias 739where_field = alias
432 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 740hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433 </pre> 741</pre>
742
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 743<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
435 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 744# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436 # mysql-relocated.cf 745# mysql-relocated.cf
437 746
438 user = mailsql 747user = mailsql
439 password = $password 748password = $password
440 dbname = mailsql 749dbname = mailsql
441 table = relocated 750table = relocated
442 select_field = destination 751select_field = destination
443 where_field = email 752where_field = email
444 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 753hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445 </pre> 754</pre>
755
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 756<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
447 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 757# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448 # mysql-transport.cf 758# mysql-transport.cf
449 759
450 user = mailsql 760user = mailsql
451 password = $password 761password = $password
452 dbname = mailsql 762dbname = mailsql
453 table = transport 763table = transport
454 select_field = destination 764select_field = destination
455 where_field = domain 765where_field = domain
456 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 766hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457 </pre> 767</pre>
768
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 769<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
459 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 770# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 771#myql-virtual-gid.cf
461 772
462 user = mailsql 773user = mailsql
463 password = $password 774password = $password
464 dbname = mailsql 775dbname = mailsql
465 table = users 776table = users
466 select_field = gid 777select_field = gid
467 where_field = email 778where_field = email
468 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 779additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 780hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470 </pre> 781</pre>
782
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 783<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
472 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 784# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 785#myql-virtual-maps.cf
474 786
475 user = mailsql 787user = mailsql
476 password = $password 788password = $password
477 dbname = mailsql 789dbname = mailsql
478 table = users 790table = users
479 select_field = maildir 791select_field = maildir
480 where_field = email 792where_field = email
481 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 793additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 794hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483 </pre> 795</pre>
796
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 797<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 798# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 799# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 800
488 user = mailsql 801user = mailsql
489 password = $password 802password = $password
490 dbname = mailsql 803dbname = mailsql
491 table = users 804table = users
492 select_field = uid 805select_field = uid
493 where_field = email 806where_field = email
494 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 807additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 808hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre> 809</pre>
810
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 811<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 812# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499 # mysql-virtual.cf 813# mysql-virtual.cf
500 814
501 user = mailsql 815user = mailsql
502 password = $password 816password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql 817dbname = mailsql
504 table = virtual 818table = virtual
505 select_field = destination 819select_field = destination
506 where_field = email 820where_field = email
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 821hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre> 822</pre>
823
824<p>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 825Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
826</p>
827
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 828<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 829# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
512 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 830alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 831relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 832
515 local_transport = local 833local_transport = local
516 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 834local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 835
518 virtual_transport = virtual 836virtual_transport = virtual
519 virtual_mailbox_domains = 837virtual_mailbox_domains =
520 virt-bar.com, 838 virt-bar.com,
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 839 $other-virtual-domain.com
522 840
523 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 841virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
524 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 842virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 843virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 844virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
527 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 845virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528 virtual_mailbox_base = / 846virtual_mailbox_base = /
529 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 847#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530 </pre> 848</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 849
850<p>
851For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
852<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
853</p>
854
855<pre caption="Changing file permission">
856# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
857# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
858</pre>
859
860<p>
861As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
862release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
863longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
864</p>
865
866<note>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 867It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
868for more information.
869</note>
870
871<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 872# <i>postfix reload</i>
873</pre>
874
875<p>
876Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
877able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
878for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
879everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
880things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
881troubleshooting section of this howto.
534</pre> 882</p>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 883
536</body> 884</body>
885</section>
537</chapter> 886</chapter>
887
538<chapter> 888<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 889<title>Squirrelmail</title>
890<section>
540<body> 891<body>
541<pre> 892
893<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
542 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 894# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 895<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
896(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
544 897
545 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 898# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
546 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 899# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
547 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 900# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 901<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 902Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 903and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
551</pre> 904</pre>
905
552</body> 906</body>
907</section>
553</chapter> 908</chapter>
909
554<chapter> 910<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 911<title>Mailman</title>
912<section>
556<body> 913<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 914
915<p>
916Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
917support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
918get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
919to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
920documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
921here.
922</p>
923
924<p>
925One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
926you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
927overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
928</p>
929
558<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 930<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
559 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 931# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
560 MAILGID="280" 932MAILGID="280"
561 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 933<comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
562 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 934This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
563</pre>
564<pre> 935</pre>
936
937<pre caption="Install mailman">
565 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 938# <i>emerge mailman</i>
566<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 939<comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
567<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 940emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
568<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote> 941in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
942We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
569 943
570 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 944# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
571</pre> 945</pre>
946
947<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
948# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
949<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
950DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
951DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
952</pre>
953
572<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 954<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
573 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 955# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
574 MTA = "Postfix" 956MTA = "Postfix"
575 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 957POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
576 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 958add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
577 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 959add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
578<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 960<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
579</pre>
580<pre> 961</pre>
962
963<pre caption="And last but not least">
581<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 964<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
582 965
583 # <i>su mailman</i> 966# <i>su mailman</i>
584 # <i>cd ~</i> 967# <i>cd ~</i>
585 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 968# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
586 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 969Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
587 Initial test password: 970Initial test password:
588 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 971Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
589 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 972<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
590 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 973list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
591 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 974# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
592 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 975<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
593 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 976verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
594 977
595 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 978# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
596 # STANZA START: test 979# STANZA START: test
597 # CREATED: 980# CREATED:
598 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 981test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
599 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 982test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
600 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 983test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
601 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 984test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
602 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 985test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
603 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 986test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
604 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 987test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
605 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 988test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
606 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 989test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
607 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 990test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
608 # STANZA END: test 991# STANZA END: test
609 992
610 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 993# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
611 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 994# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
612 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 995<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
613</pre> 996</pre>
614 997
615<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 998<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
616 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 999# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
617 owner_request_special = no 1000owner_request_special = no
618 recipient_delimiter = + 1001recipient_delimiter = +
619 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 1002<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
620 1003
621 alias_maps = 1004alias_maps =
622 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 1005 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
623 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 1006 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
624 1007
625 virtual_alias_maps = 1008virtual_alias_maps =
626 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 1009 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
627 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 1010 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
628 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 1011<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
629 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 1012You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
630 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 1013but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
1014using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
1015to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
1016</pre>
1017
1018<p>
1019You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
1020note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
1021mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
1022Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
1023lists.
631</pre> 1024</p>
632<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 1025
633</body> 1026</body>
1027</section>
634</chapter> 1028</chapter>
1029
635<chapter> 1030<chapter>
636<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 1031<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
637<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 1032<section>
1033<body>
1034
1035<p>
1036Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to
1037make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.
1038</p>
1039
1040</body>
1041</section>
638</chapter> 1042</chapter>
1043
639<chapter> 1044<chapter>
640<title>Wrap Up</title> 1045<title>Wrap Up</title>
1046<section>
641<body> 1047<body>
642<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 1048
1049<p>
1050Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1051verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1052to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1053sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1054courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1055up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1056the services enabled.
1057</p>
1058
643<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1059<pre caption="Wrap up">
644 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1060# <i>postfix reload</i>
645 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1061# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
646</pre> 1062</pre>
1063
647<p> 1064<p>
648<e>Have fun!</e> 1065<e>Have fun!</e>
649</p> 1066</p>
1067
650</body> 1068</body>
1069</section>
651</chapter> 1070</chapter>
1071
652<chapter> 1072<chapter>
653<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1073<title>Troubleshooting</title>
654<section> 1074<section>
655<title>Introduction</title> 1075<title>Introduction</title>
656<body> 1076<body>
657<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1077
1078<p>
1079Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1080detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1081you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1082it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1083that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1084from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1085work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1086</p>
1087
658</body> 1088</body>
659</section>
660<section> 1089</section>
1090<section>
661<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1091<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
662<body> 1092<body>
663<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1093
664<pre> 1094<p>
1095Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1096your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1097if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1098it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1099make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1100</p>
1101
1102<pre caption="How to restart a service">
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1103# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
666</pre> 1104</pre>
1105
667</body> 1106</body>
668</section> 1107</section>
669<section> 1108<section>
670<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1109<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
671<body> 1110<body>
672<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1111
673<pre> 1112<p>
1113If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1114running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1115Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1116component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1117process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1118awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1119out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1120</p>
1121
1122<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
674 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1123# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
675 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1124# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
676</pre> 1125</pre>
1126
677</body> 1127</body>
678</section> 1128</section>
679<section> 1129<section>
680<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1130<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
681<body> 1131<body>
682<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1132
683<pre> 1133<p>
1134If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1135sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1136current config's to you, like postfix.
1137</p>
1138
1139<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
684 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1140# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
685 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1141# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
686 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1142# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1143# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
688</pre> 1144</pre>
1145
689</body> 1146</body>
690</section>
691<section> 1147</section>
1148<section>
692<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1149<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
693<body> 1150<body>
694<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1151
695<pre> 1152<p>
1153Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1154logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1155logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1156logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1157in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1158figure out which component is having the problem.
1159</p>
1160
1161<pre caption="Checking the logs">
696 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1162# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
697 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1163# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
698 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1164# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
699 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1165# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1166</pre>
1167
1168<p>
1169You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1170will increase log output over just verbose mode.
700</pre> 1171</p>
701<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1172
702<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1173<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1174# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
704 debug_peer_level = 5 1175debug_peer_level = 5
705 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1176debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
706 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1177<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
707 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1178commands as well.)</comment>
708</pre> 1179</pre>
1180
709</body> 1181</body>
710</section>
711<section> 1182</section>
1183<section>
712<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1184<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
713<body> 1185<body>
714<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1186
715<pre> 1187<p>
1188SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1189we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1190to the service itself and see what's happening.
1191</p>
1192
1193<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
716 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1194# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
717<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1195<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
718<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1196letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
719 1197
720 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1198Trying 127.0.0.1...
721 Connected to localhost. 1199Connected to localhost.
722 Escape character is '^]'. 1200Escape character is '^]'.
723 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1201* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
724 </pre> 1202</pre>
1203
725</body> 1204</body>
726</section>
727<section> 1205</section>
1206<section>
728<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1207<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
729<body> 1208<body>
730<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1209
731<pre> 1210<p>
1211You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1212software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1213all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1214information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1215transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1216</p>
1217
1218<pre caption="Using strace">
732 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1219# <i>emerge strace</i>
733 # <i>strace $command</i> 1220# <i>strace $command</i>
734 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1221# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
735</pre> 1222</pre>
1223
736</body> 1224</body>
737</section> 1225</section>
738<section> 1226<section>
739<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1227<title>Step 7: Research</title>
740<body> 1228<body>
741<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1229
1230<p>
1231Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1232If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1233help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1234already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1235which contains some great debugging ideas.
742<p> 1236</p>
1237
743<ul> 1238<ul>
744<li>
745<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1239 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
746<li> 1240 <li>
747<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1241 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
748<li> 1242 to look for specific errors
1243 </li>
749<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1244 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
750<li> 1245 <li>
751<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1246 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1247 lists - searchable
1248 </li>
752<li> 1249 <li>
753<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1250 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1251 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1252 </li>
754<li> 1253 <li>
755<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1254 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1255 google, which has never failed me
1256 </li>
1257 <li>
756<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1258 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1259 place to go for help.
1260 </li>
757</ul> 1261</ul>
758</p> 1262
759</body> 1263</body>
760</section> 1264</section>
761</chapter> 1265</chapter>
762</guide> 1266</guide>
763

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