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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.46 2005/12/02 14:49:56 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
12<version>1.0</version> 26<version>1.0.23</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 27<date>2005-12-02</date>
28
14<!-- 29<!--
15
16Contents 30Contents
17 31
18I. Introduction 32I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 33II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 34III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 42XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 43XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 45XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
33 48
34--><chapter> 49<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
51<section>
52<body>
53
54<p>
55For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60</p>
61
62<p>
63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128</impo>
129
130<note>
131It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136the squirrelmail section.
137</note>
138
36<body> 139</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 140</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 141</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 142
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 143<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 144<title>Postfix Basics</title>
145<section>
146<body>
147
148<pre caption="Install postfix">
149# <i>emerge postfix</i>
150</pre>
151
152<warn>
153Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155</warn>
156
157<p>
158After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163myhostname = $host.domain.name
164mydomain = $domain.name
165inet_interfaces = all
166mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168home_mailbox = .maildir/
169local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171</pre>
172
173<p>
174Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175turn on verbose output for debugging:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181#
182==========================================================================
183<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190</p>
191
192<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 196
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 197# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 198</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 199
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 200<p>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 201Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 202yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204next step.
205</p>
206
207<note>
208I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210</note>
211
49</body> 212</body>
50</chapter> 213</section>
51<chapter> 214</chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 215
216<chapter>
217<title>Courier-imap</title>
218<section>
219<body>
220
221<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223</pre>
224
225<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237</pre>
238
239<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244</pre>
245
246<p>
247Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251progressing.
252</p>
253
53<body> 254</body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 255</section>
256</chapter>
257
258<chapter>
259<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260<section>
261<body>
262
263<p>
264Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269end anyway.
55</pre> 270</p>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 271
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 272<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 273# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 274</pre>
60 mydomain = $domain.name 275
61 inet_interfaces = all 276<p>
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 277Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 278</p>
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 279
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 280<pre caption="Starting sasl">
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 281# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 282mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 283pwcheck_method: saslauthd
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 284# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 285SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
71 # 286SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
72 ========================================================================== 287# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 288</pre>
289
290</body>
291</section>
292</chapter>
293
294<chapter>
295<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296<section>
297<body>
298
299<p>
300Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301</p>
302
303<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308countryName_default
309stateOrProvinceName_default
310localityName_default
3110.organizationName_default
312commonName_default
313emailAddress_default.
314
315<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317# <i>cd misc</i>
318# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324# create a certificate
325system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327# create a certificate request
328system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
74 329
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body>
88</chapter>
89<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body>
115</chapter>
116<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
118<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
122 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
123<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
124<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
125</pre>
126<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
127<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
128 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
129 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
130 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
131<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
132<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
133 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
134</pre>
135</body>
136</chapter>
137<chapter>
138<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
139<body>
140<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
141<pre>
142 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
143 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
144<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
145
146 countryName_default
147 stateOrProvinceName_default
148 localityName_default
149 0.organizationName_default
150 commonName_default
151 emailAddress_default.
152
153 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
154
155
156 # <i>cd misc</i>
157 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
158<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
159<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
160<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
161<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
162
163 # create a certificate
164 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
165
166 # create a certificate request
167 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 330# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 331# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 332# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
172 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 333# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
173 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 334# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 335# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 336<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
176 337
177
178 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 338# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 339# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 340# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 341<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 342We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
183</pre> 343</pre>
344
184</body> 345</body>
346</section>
347
185</chapter> 348</chapter>
186<chapter> 349<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 350<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351<section>
188<body> 352<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 353
354<p>
355Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357will be easy to find.
358</p>
359
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 360<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
191 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 361# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 362
193 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 363smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 364smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 365smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 366broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 367smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 368
199 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 369<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 370are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 371Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 372smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 373smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 374mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
205 375
206 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 376smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 378 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 379 reject_unauth_destination
210 380
211 381
212 smtpd_use_tls = yes 382smtpd_use_tls = yes
213 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 383#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 384smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 385smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 386smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 387smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 388smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 389smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 390tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 391
222 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 392<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 393You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
224 394
225 # <i>postfix reload</i> 395# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 396</pre>
397
398<p>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 399Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
400</p>
401
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 402<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
229 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 403# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 404
231 Trying 127.0.0.1... 405Trying 127.0.0.1...
232 Connected to localhost. 406Connected to localhost.
233 Escape character is '^]'. 407Escape character is '^]'.
234 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 408220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 409<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236 250-mail.domain.com 410250-mail.domain.com
237 250-PIPELINING 411250-PIPELINING
238 250-SIZE 10240000 412250-SIZE 10240000
239 250-VRFY 413250-VRFY
240 250-ETRN 414250-ETRN
241 250-STARTTLS 415250-STARTTLS
242 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 416250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 417250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-XVERP 418250-XVERP
245 250 8BITMIME 419250 8BITMIME
246 <i>^]</i> 420<i>^]</i>
247 telnet> <i>quit</i> 421telnet> <i>quit</i>
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
426install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
427sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
428unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
429and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
248</pre> 430</p>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 431
250 </p>
251</body> 432</body>
433</section>
252</chapter> 434</chapter>
435
253<chapter> 436<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 437<title>MySQL</title>
438<section>
255<body> 439<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 440
441<p>
442Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
443link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
444dumpfile for this step.
445</p>
446
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 447<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
258 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 448# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 449
260 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 450# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 451<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 452for adding a root password with mysql,
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 453not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
264 454
265 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 455# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 456# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 457# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268 458
269 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 459# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 460mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 461 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 462 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 463 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
464Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
274 465
275 -> <i>quit</i> 466mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
467Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
468
469mysql> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 470<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
277 471
278 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 472# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 473</pre>
474
475<p>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 476Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
477following tables are included:
478</p>
479
281 <ul> 480<ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 481 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 482 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
483 <li>
284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 484 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
485 hosting
486 </li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 487 <li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 488 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 489</ul>
288</p> 490
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 491<pre caption="alias table sample">
290 id alias destination 492id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 4931 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4942 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 </pre> 495</pre>
496
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 497<pre caption="user table sample">
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 498<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 499id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 500 maildir quota postfix
50110 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
502 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
50313 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
504 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298 </pre> 505</pre>
506
507<p>
508The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
509user and group.
510</p>
511
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 512<pre caption="transport table sample">
300 id domain destination 513id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 5141 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5152 virt-bar.org virtual:
303 </pre> 516</pre>
517
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 518<pre caption="virtual table sample">
305 id email destination 519id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5203 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
307 </pre> 521</pre>
522
308</body> 523</body>
524</section>
309</chapter> 525</chapter>
526
310<chapter> 527<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 528<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
529<section>
312<body> 530<body>
531
532<p>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 533Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
534more easily.
535</p>
536
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 537<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
315 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 538# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
539</pre>
540
541<p>
542There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
543this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
544numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
545problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
546not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
547with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
548phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
549index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
550phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
551however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
552including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
316</pre> 553</p>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 554
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 555<p>
556Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
557Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
558</p>
559
319 <ul> 560<ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 561 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 562 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 563</ul>
323</p> 564
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 565<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
325 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 566# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
326 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 567# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 568# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
569
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 570<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
329 571
330 ServerName host.domain.name 572ServerName host.domain.name
331 ServerAdmin your@email.address 573ServerAdmin your@email.address
332 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 574SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
333 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 575SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
334 576
335 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 577# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
336</pre> 578</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 579
580<note>
581If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
582server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
583apache restarted successfully.
584</note>
585
586<p>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 587Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
588</p>
589
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 590<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
340 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 591# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 592<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
342 593
343 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 594$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 595$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 596 // (this user must have read-only
346 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 597$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 598 // and "mysql/db" tables)
348 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 599$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350 </pre> 601</pre>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 602
603<p>
604Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
605local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
606transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
607supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
608go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
609accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
610correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
611automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
612general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
613after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
614</p>
615
352</body> 616</body>
617</section>
353</chapter> 618</chapter>
619
354<chapter> 620<chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 621<title>The vmail user</title>
622<section>
356<body> 623<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 624
625<p>
626At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
627mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
628</p>
629
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 630<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
359 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 631# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 632# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 633# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 634# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 635# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
636</pre>
637
638<p>
639So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
640homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
641homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
642haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
364</pre> 643</p>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 644
366</body> 645</body>
646</section>
367</chapter> 647</chapter>
648
368<chapter> 649<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 650<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
651<section>
370<body> 652<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 653
372<pre> 654<p>
373 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 655Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 656courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 657<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380
381 #auth required pam_nologin.so
382 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385
386 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394</pre> 658</p>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 659
396<pre> 660<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 661# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
398 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 662authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
399 663
400 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402
403 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 664# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
404 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 665MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 666MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 667MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 668MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 669MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 670<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
671#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
410 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 672MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 673MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 674MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 675MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 676MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 677MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 678MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 679
418 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 680# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 681# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
682</pre>
683
684<p>
685We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
686for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
420</pre> 687</p>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 688
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 689<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
423 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 690# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424 # mysql-aliases.cf 691# mysql-aliases.cf
425 692
426 user = mailsql 693user = mailsql
427 password = $password 694password = $password
428 dbname = mailsql 695dbname = mailsql
429 table = alias 696table = alias
430 select_field = destination 697select_field = destination
431 where_field = alias 698where_field = alias
432 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 699hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433 </pre> 700</pre>
701
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 702<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
435 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 703# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436 # mysql-relocated.cf 704# mysql-relocated.cf
437 705
438 user = mailsql 706user = mailsql
439 password = $password 707password = $password
440 dbname = mailsql 708dbname = mailsql
441 table = relocated 709table = relocated
442 select_field = destination 710select_field = destination
443 where_field = email 711where_field = email
444 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 712hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445 </pre> 713</pre>
714
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 715<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
447 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 716# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448 # mysql-transport.cf 717# mysql-transport.cf
449 718
450 user = mailsql 719user = mailsql
451 password = $password 720password = $password
452 dbname = mailsql 721dbname = mailsql
453 table = transport 722table = transport
454 select_field = destination 723select_field = destination
455 where_field = domain 724where_field = domain
456 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 725hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457 </pre> 726</pre>
727
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 728<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
459 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 729# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 730#myql-virtual-gid.cf
461 731
462 user = mailsql 732user = mailsql
463 password = $password 733password = $password
464 dbname = mailsql 734dbname = mailsql
465 table = users 735table = users
466 select_field = gid 736select_field = gid
467 where_field = email 737where_field = email
468 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 738additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 739hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470 </pre> 740</pre>
741
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 742<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
472 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 743# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 744#myql-virtual-maps.cf
474 745
475 user = mailsql 746user = mailsql
476 password = $password 747password = $password
477 dbname = mailsql 748dbname = mailsql
478 table = users 749table = users
479 select_field = maildir 750select_field = maildir
480 where_field = email 751where_field = email
481 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 752additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 753hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483 </pre> 754</pre>
755
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 756<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 757# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 758# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 759
488 user = mailsql 760user = mailsql
489 password = $password 761password = $password
490 dbname = mailsql 762dbname = mailsql
491 table = users 763table = users
492 select_field = uid 764select_field = uid
493 where_field = email 765where_field = email
494 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 766additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 767hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre> 768</pre>
769
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 770<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 771# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499 # mysql-virtual.cf 772# mysql-virtual.cf
500 773
501 user = mailsql 774user = mailsql
502 password = $password 775password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql 776dbname = mailsql
504 table = virtual 777table = virtual
505 select_field = destination 778select_field = destination
506 where_field = email 779where_field = email
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 780hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre> 781</pre>
782
783<p>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 784Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
785</p>
786
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 787<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 788# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
512 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 789alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 790relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 791
515 local_transport = local 792local_transport = local
516 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 793local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 794
518 virtual_transport = virtual 795virtual_transport = virtual
519 virtual_mailbox_domains = 796virtual_mailbox_domains =
520 virt-bar.com, 797 virt-bar.com,
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 798 $other-virtual-domain.com
522 799
523 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 800virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
524 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 801virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 802virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 803virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
527 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 804virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528 virtual_mailbox_base = / 805virtual_mailbox_base = /
529 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 806#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530 </pre> 807</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 808
809<p>
810For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
811<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
812</p>
813
814<pre caption="Changing file permission">
815# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
816# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
817</pre>
818
819<p>
820As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
821release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
822longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
823</p>
824
825<note>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 826It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
827for more information.
828</note>
829
830<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 831# <i>postfix reload</i>
832</pre>
833
834<p>
835Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
836able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
837for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
838everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
839things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
840troubleshooting section of this howto.
534</pre> 841</p>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 842
536</body> 843</body>
844</section>
537</chapter> 845</chapter>
846
538<chapter> 847<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 848<title>Squirrelmail</title>
849<section>
540<body> 850<body>
541<pre> 851
852<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
542 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 853# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 854<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
855(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
544 856
545 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 857# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
546 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 858# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
547 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 859# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 860<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 861Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 862and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
551</pre> 863</pre>
864
552</body> 865</body>
866</section>
553</chapter> 867</chapter>
868
554<chapter> 869<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 870<title>Mailman</title>
871<section>
556<body> 872<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 873
874<p>
875Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
876support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
877get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
878to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
879documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
880here.
881</p>
882
883<p>
884One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
885you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
886overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
887</p>
888
558<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 889<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
559 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 890# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
560 MAILGID="280" 891MAILGID="280"
561 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 892<comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
562 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 893This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
563</pre>
564<pre> 894</pre>
895
896<pre caption="Install mailman">
565 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 897# <i>emerge mailman</i>
566<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 898<comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
567<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 899emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
568<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote> 900in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
901We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
569 902
570 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 903# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
571</pre> 904</pre>
905
906<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
907# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
908<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
909DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
910DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
911</pre>
912
572<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 913<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
573 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 914# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
574 MTA = "Postfix" 915MTA = "Postfix"
575 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 916POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
576 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 917add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
577 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 918add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
578<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 919<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
579</pre>
580<pre> 920</pre>
921
922<pre caption="And last but not least">
581<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 923<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
582 924
583 # <i>su mailman</i> 925# <i>su mailman</i>
584 # <i>cd ~</i> 926# <i>cd ~</i>
585 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 927# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
586 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 928Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
587 Initial test password: 929Initial test password:
588 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 930Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
589 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 931<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
590 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 932list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
591 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 933# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
592 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 934<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
593 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 935verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
594 936
595 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 937# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
596 # STANZA START: test 938# STANZA START: test
597 # CREATED: 939# CREATED:
598 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 940test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
599 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 941test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
600 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 942test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
601 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 943test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
602 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 944test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
603 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 945test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
604 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 946test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
605 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 947test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
606 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 948test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
607 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 949test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
608 # STANZA END: test 950# STANZA END: test
609 951
610 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 952# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
611 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 953# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
612 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 954<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
613</pre> 955</pre>
614 956
615<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 957<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
616 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 958# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
617 owner_request_special = no 959owner_request_special = no
618 recipient_delimiter = + 960recipient_delimiter = +
619 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 961<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
620 962
621 alias_maps = 963alias_maps =
622 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 964 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
623 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 965 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
624 966
625 virtual_alias_maps = 967virtual_alias_maps =
626 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 968 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
627 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 969 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
628 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 970<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
629 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 971You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
630 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 972but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
973using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
974to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
975</pre>
976
977<p>
978You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
979note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
980mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
981Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
982lists.
631</pre> 983</p>
632<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 984
633</body> 985</body>
986</section>
634</chapter> 987</chapter>
988
635<chapter> 989<chapter>
636<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 990<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
637<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 991<section>
992<body>
993
994<p>
995For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
996link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
997</p>
998
999</body>
1000</section>
638</chapter> 1001</chapter>
1002
639<chapter> 1003<chapter>
640<title>Wrap Up</title> 1004<title>Wrap Up</title>
1005<section>
641<body> 1006<body>
642<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 1007
1008<p>
1009Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1010verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1011to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1012sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1013courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1014up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1015the services enabled.
1016</p>
1017
643<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1018<pre caption="Wrap up">
644 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1019# <i>postfix reload</i>
645 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1020# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
646</pre> 1021</pre>
1022
647<p> 1023<p>
648<e>Have fun!</e> 1024<e>Have fun!</e>
649</p> 1025</p>
1026
650</body> 1027</body>
1028</section>
651</chapter> 1029</chapter>
1030
652<chapter> 1031<chapter>
653<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1032<title>Troubleshooting</title>
654<section> 1033<section>
655<title>Introduction</title> 1034<title>Introduction</title>
656<body> 1035<body>
657<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1036
1037<p>
1038Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1039detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1040you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1041it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1042that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1043from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1044work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1045</p>
1046
658</body> 1047</body>
659</section>
660<section> 1048</section>
1049<section>
661<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1050<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
662<body> 1051<body>
663<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1052
664<pre> 1053<p>
1054Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1055your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1056if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1057it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1058make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1059</p>
1060
1061<pre caption="How to restart a service">
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1062# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
666</pre> 1063</pre>
1064
667</body> 1065</body>
668</section> 1066</section>
669<section> 1067<section>
670<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1068<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
671<body> 1069<body>
672<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1070
673<pre> 1071<p>
1072If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1073running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1074Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1075component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1076process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1077awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1078out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1079</p>
1080
1081<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
674 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1082# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
675 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1083# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
676</pre> 1084</pre>
1085
677</body> 1086</body>
678</section> 1087</section>
679<section> 1088<section>
680<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1089<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
681<body> 1090<body>
682<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1091
683<pre> 1092<p>
1093If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1094sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1095current config's to you, like postfix.
1096</p>
1097
1098<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
684 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1099# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
685 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1100# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
686 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1101# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1102# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
688</pre> 1103</pre>
1104
689</body> 1105</body>
690</section>
691<section> 1106</section>
1107<section>
692<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1108<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
693<body> 1109<body>
694<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1110
695<pre> 1111<p>
1112Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1113logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1114logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1115logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1116in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1117figure out which component is having the problem.
1118</p>
1119
1120<pre caption="Checking the logs">
696 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1121# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
697 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1122# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
698 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1123# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
699 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1124# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1125</pre>
1126
1127<p>
1128You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1129will increase log output over just verbose mode.
700</pre> 1130</p>
701<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1131
702<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1132<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1133# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
704 debug_peer_level = 5 1134debug_peer_level = 5
705 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1135debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
706 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1136<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
707 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1137commands as well.)</comment>
708</pre> 1138</pre>
1139
709</body> 1140</body>
710</section>
711<section> 1141</section>
1142<section>
712<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1143<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
713<body> 1144<body>
714<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1145
715<pre> 1146<p>
1147SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1148we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1149to the service itself and see what's happening.
1150</p>
1151
1152<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
716 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1153# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
717<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1154<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
718<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1155letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
719 1156
720 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1157Trying 127.0.0.1...
721 Connected to localhost. 1158Connected to localhost.
722 Escape character is '^]'. 1159Escape character is '^]'.
723 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1160* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
724 </pre> 1161</pre>
1162
725</body> 1163</body>
726</section>
727<section> 1164</section>
1165<section>
728<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1166<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
729<body> 1167<body>
730<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1168
731<pre> 1169<p>
1170You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1171software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1172all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1173information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1174transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1175</p>
1176
1177<pre caption="Using strace">
732 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1178# <i>emerge strace</i>
733 # <i>strace $command</i> 1179# <i>strace $command</i>
734 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1180# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
735</pre> 1181</pre>
1182
736</body> 1183</body>
737</section> 1184</section>
738<section> 1185<section>
739<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1186<title>Step 7: Research</title>
740<body> 1187<body>
741<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1188
1189<p>
1190Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1191If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1192help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1193already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1194which contains some great debugging ideas.
742<p> 1195</p>
1196
743<ul> 1197<ul>
744<li>
745<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1198 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
746<li> 1199 <li>
747<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1200 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
748<li> 1201 to look for specific errors
1202 </li>
749<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1203 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
750<li> 1204 <li>
751<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1205 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1206 lists - searchable
1207 </li>
752<li> 1208 <li>
753<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1209 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1210 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1211 </li>
754<li> 1212 <li>
755<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1213 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1214 google, which has never failed me
1215 </li>
1216 <li>
756<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1217 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1218 place to go for help.
1219 </li>
757</ul> 1220</ul>
758</p> 1221
759</body> 1222</body>
760</section> 1223</section>
761</chapter> 1224</chapter>
762</guide> 1225</guide>
763

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