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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.52 2006/07/04 00:21:20 rane Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
12<version>1.0</version> 26<version>1.1</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 27<date>2006-07-04</date>
28
14<!-- 29<!--
15
16Contents 30Contents
17 31
18I. Introduction 32I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 33II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 34III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 42XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 43XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 45XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
33 48
34--><chapter> 49<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
51<section>
52<body>
53
54<p>
55For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60</p>
61
62<p>
63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
126your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
127<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
128<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
129<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
130</impo>
131
132<note>
133It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
134with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
135any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
136Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
137flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
138the squirrelmail section.
139</note>
140
36<body> 141</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 142</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 143</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 144
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 145<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 146<title>Postfix Basics</title>
147<section>
148<body>
149
150<pre caption="Install postfix">
151# <i>emerge postfix</i>
152</pre>
153
154<warn>
155Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
156qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
157</warn>
158
159<p>
160After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
161options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
162</p>
163
164<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
165myhostname = $host.domain.name
166mydomain = $domain.name
167inet_interfaces = all
168mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
169mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
170home_mailbox = .maildir/
171local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
172default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
173</pre>
174
175<p>
176Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
177turn on verbose output for debugging:
178</p>
179
180<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
181# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
182# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
183#
184==========================================================================
185<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
186smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
187</pre>
188
189<p>
190Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
191should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
195# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
196<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
197when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 198
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 199# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 200</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 201
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 202<p>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 203Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 204yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
205postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
206next step.
207</p>
208
209<note>
210I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
211before you progress to the next step of the howto.
212</note>
213
49</body> 214</body>
50</chapter> 215</section>
51<chapter> 216</chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 217
218<chapter>
219<title>Courier-imap</title>
220<section>
221<body>
222
223<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
224# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
225</pre>
226
227<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
228# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
229<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
230you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
231This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
232
233# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
234# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
235<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
236
237# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
238# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
239</pre>
240
241<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
242# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
244# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
245# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
246</pre>
247
248<p>
249Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
250started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
251going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
252running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
253progressing.
254</p>
255
53<body> 256</body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 257</section>
258</chapter>
259
260<chapter>
261<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
262<section>
263<body>
264
265<p>
266Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
267actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
268information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
269not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
270a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
271end anyway.
55</pre> 272</p>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 273
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 274<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 275# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 276</pre>
60 mydomain = $domain.name 277
61 inet_interfaces = all 278<p>
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 279Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 280</p>
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 281
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 282<pre caption="Starting sasl">
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 283# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 284mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 285pwcheck_method: saslauthd
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 286# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 287SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
71 # 288SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
72 ========================================================================== 289# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 290</pre>
291
292</body>
293</section>
294</chapter>
295
296<chapter>
297<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
298<section>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
303</p>
304
305<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
306# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
307# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
308
309<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
310countryName_default
311stateOrProvinceName_default
312localityName_default
3130.organizationName_default
314commonName_default
315emailAddress_default.
316
317<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
318
319# <i>cd misc</i>
320# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
321<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
322#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
323certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
324reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
325
326# create a certificate
327system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
328
329# create a certificate request
330system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
74 331
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body>
88</chapter>
89<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body>
115</chapter>
116<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
118<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
122 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
123<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
124<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
125</pre>
126<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
127<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
128 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
129 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
130 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
131<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
132<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
133 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
134</pre>
135</body>
136</chapter>
137<chapter>
138<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
139<body>
140<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
141<pre>
142 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
143 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
144<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
145
146 countryName_default
147 stateOrProvinceName_default
148 localityName_default
149 0.organizationName_default
150 commonName_default
151 emailAddress_default.
152
153 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
154
155
156 # <i>cd misc</i>
157 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
158<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
159<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
160<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
161<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
162
163 # create a certificate
164 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
165
166 # create a certificate request
167 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 332# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 333# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 334# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
172 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 335# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
173 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 336# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 337# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 338<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
176 339
177
178 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 340# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 341# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 342# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 343<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 344We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
183</pre> 345</pre>
346
184</body> 347</body>
348</section>
349
185</chapter> 350</chapter>
186<chapter> 351<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 352<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
353<section>
188<body> 354<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 355
356<p>
357Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
358capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
359will be easy to find.
360</p>
361
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 362<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
191 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 363# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 364
193 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 365smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 366smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 367smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 368broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 369smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 370
199 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 371<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 372are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 373Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 374smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 375smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 376mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
205 377
206 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 378smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 379 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 380 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 381 reject_unauth_destination
210 382
211 383
384<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
385smtp_use_tls = yes
386smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
212 smtpd_use_tls = yes 387smtpd_use_tls = yes
213 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 388#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 389smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 390smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 391smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 392smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 393smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 394smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 395tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 396
222 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 397<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 398You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
224 399
225 # <i>postfix reload</i> 400# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 401</pre>
402
403<p>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 404Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
405</p>
406
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 407<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
229 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 408# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 409
231 Trying 127.0.0.1... 410Trying 127.0.0.1...
232 Connected to localhost. 411Connected to localhost.
233 Escape character is '^]'. 412Escape character is '^]'.
234 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 413220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 414<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236 250-mail.domain.com 415250-mail.domain.com
237 250-PIPELINING 416250-PIPELINING
238 250-SIZE 10240000 417250-SIZE 10240000
239 250-VRFY 418250-VRFY
240 250-ETRN 419250-ETRN
241 250-STARTTLS 420250-STARTTLS
242 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 421250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 422250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-XVERP 423250-XVERP
245 250 8BITMIME 424250 8BITMIME
246 <i>^]</i> 425<i>^]</i>
247 telnet> <i>quit</i> 426telnet> <i>quit</i>
427</pre>
428
429<p>
430Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
431install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
432sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
433unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
434and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
248</pre> 435</p>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 436
250 </p>
251</body> 437</body>
438</section>
252</chapter> 439</chapter>
440
253<chapter> 441<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 442<title>MySQL</title>
443<section>
255<body> 444<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 445
446<p>
447Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
448link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
449dumpfile for this step.
450</p>
451
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 452<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
258 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 453# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 454
260 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 455# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 456<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 457for adding a root password with mysql,
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 458not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
264 459
265 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 460# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 461# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 462# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268 463
269 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 464# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 465mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 466 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 467 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 468 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
469Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
274 470
275 -> <i>quit</i> 471mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
472Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
473
474mysql> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 475<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
277 476
278 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 477# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 478</pre>
479
480<p>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 481Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
482following tables are included:
483</p>
484
281 <ul> 485<ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 486 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 487 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
488 <li>
284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 489 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
490 hosting
491 </li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 492 <li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 493 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 494</ul>
288</p> 495
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 496<pre caption="alias table sample">
290 id alias destination 497id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 4981 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 4992 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 </pre> 500</pre>
501
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 502<pre caption="user table sample">
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 503<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 504id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 505 maildir quota postfix
50610 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
507 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
50813 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
509 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298 </pre> 510</pre>
511
512<p>
513The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
514user and group.
515</p>
516
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 517<pre caption="transport table sample">
300 id domain destination 518id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 5191 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5202 virt-bar.org virtual:
303 </pre> 521</pre>
522
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 523<pre caption="virtual table sample">
305 id email destination 524id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5253 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
307 </pre> 526</pre>
527
308</body> 528</body>
529</section>
309</chapter> 530</chapter>
531
310<chapter> 532<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 533<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
534<section>
312<body> 535<body>
536
537<p>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 538Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
539more easily.
540</p>
541
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 542<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
315 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 543# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
544</pre>
545
546<p>
547There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
548this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.com/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
549numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
550problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
551not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
552with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
553phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
554index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
555phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
556however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
557including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
316</pre> 558</p>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 559
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 560<p>
561Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
562Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
563</p>
564
319 <ul> 565<ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 566 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 567 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 568</ul>
323</p> 569
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 570<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
325 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 571# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
326 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 572# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 573# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
574
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 575<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
329 576
330 ServerName host.domain.name 577ServerName host.domain.name
331 ServerAdmin your@email.address 578ServerAdmin your@email.address
332 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 579SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
333 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 580SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
334 581
335 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 582# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
336</pre> 583</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 584
585<note>
586If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
587server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
588apache restarted successfully.
589</note>
590
591<p>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 592Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
593</p>
594
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 595<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
340 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 596# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 597<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
342 598
343 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 599$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 601 // (this user must have read-only
346 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 602$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 603 // and "mysql/db" tables)
348 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 604$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 605$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350 </pre> 606</pre>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 607
608<p>
609Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
610local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
611transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
612supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
613go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
614accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
615correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
616automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
617general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
618after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
619</p>
620
352</body> 621</body>
622</section>
353</chapter> 623</chapter>
624
354<chapter> 625<chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 626<title>The vmail user</title>
627<section>
356<body> 628<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 629
630<p>
631At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
632mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
633</p>
634
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 635<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
359 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 636# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 637# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 638# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 639# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 640# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
641</pre>
642
643<p>
644So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
645homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
646homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
647haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
364</pre> 648</p>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 649
366</body> 650</body>
651</section>
367</chapter> 652</chapter>
653
368<chapter> 654<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 655<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
656<section>
370<body> 657<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 658
372<pre> 659<p>
373 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 660Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 661courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 662<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380
381 #auth required pam_nologin.so
382 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385
386 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394</pre> 663</p>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 664
396<pre> 665<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 666# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
398 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 667authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
399 668
400 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402
403 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 669# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
404 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 670MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 671MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 672MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 673MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 674MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 675<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
676#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
410 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 677MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 678MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 679MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 680MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 681MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 682MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 683MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 684
418 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 685# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 686# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
687</pre>
688
689<p>
690We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
691for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
420</pre> 692</p>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 693
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 694<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
423 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 695# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424 # mysql-aliases.cf 696# mysql-aliases.cf
425 697
426 user = mailsql 698user = mailsql
427 password = $password 699password = $password
428 dbname = mailsql 700dbname = mailsql
429 table = alias 701table = alias
430 select_field = destination 702select_field = destination
431 where_field = alias 703where_field = alias
432 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 704hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433 </pre> 705</pre>
706
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 707<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
435 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 708# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436 # mysql-relocated.cf 709# mysql-relocated.cf
437 710
438 user = mailsql 711user = mailsql
439 password = $password 712password = $password
440 dbname = mailsql 713dbname = mailsql
441 table = relocated 714table = relocated
442 select_field = destination 715select_field = destination
443 where_field = email 716where_field = email
444 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 717hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445 </pre> 718</pre>
719
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 720<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
447 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 721# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448 # mysql-transport.cf 722# mysql-transport.cf
449 723
450 user = mailsql 724user = mailsql
451 password = $password 725password = $password
452 dbname = mailsql 726dbname = mailsql
453 table = transport 727table = transport
454 select_field = destination 728select_field = destination
455 where_field = domain 729where_field = domain
456 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 730hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457 </pre> 731</pre>
732
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 733<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
459 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 734# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 735#myql-virtual-gid.cf
461 736
462 user = mailsql 737user = mailsql
463 password = $password 738password = $password
464 dbname = mailsql 739dbname = mailsql
465 table = users 740table = users
466 select_field = gid 741select_field = gid
467 where_field = email 742where_field = email
468 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 743additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 744hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470 </pre> 745</pre>
746
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 747<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
472 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 748# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 749#myql-virtual-maps.cf
474 750
475 user = mailsql 751user = mailsql
476 password = $password 752password = $password
477 dbname = mailsql 753dbname = mailsql
478 table = users 754table = users
479 select_field = maildir 755select_field = maildir
480 where_field = email 756where_field = email
481 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 757additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 758hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483 </pre> 759</pre>
760
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 761<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 762# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 763# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 764
488 user = mailsql 765user = mailsql
489 password = $password 766password = $password
490 dbname = mailsql 767dbname = mailsql
491 table = users 768table = users
492 select_field = uid 769select_field = uid
493 where_field = email 770where_field = email
494 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 771additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 772hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre> 773</pre>
774
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 775<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 776# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499 # mysql-virtual.cf 777# mysql-virtual.cf
500 778
501 user = mailsql 779user = mailsql
502 password = $password 780password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql 781dbname = mailsql
504 table = virtual 782table = virtual
505 select_field = destination 783select_field = destination
506 where_field = email 784where_field = email
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 785hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre> 786</pre>
787
788<p>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 789Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
790</p>
791
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 792<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 793# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
512 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 794alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 795relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 796
515 local_transport = local 797local_transport = local
516 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 798local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 799
518 virtual_transport = virtual 800virtual_transport = virtual
519 virtual_mailbox_domains = 801virtual_mailbox_domains =
520 virt-bar.com, 802 virt-bar.com,
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 803 $other-virtual-domain.com
522 804
523 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 805virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
524 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 806virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 807virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 808virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
527 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 809virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528 virtual_mailbox_base = / 810virtual_mailbox_base = /
529 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 811#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530 </pre> 812</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 813
814<p>
815For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
816<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
817</p>
818
819<pre caption="Changing file permission">
820# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
821# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
822</pre>
823
824<p>
825As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
826release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
827longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
828</p>
829
830<note>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 831It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
832for more information.
833</note>
834
835<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 836# <i>postfix reload</i>
837</pre>
838
839<p>
840Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
841able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
842for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
843everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
844things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
845troubleshooting section of this howto.
534</pre> 846</p>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 847
536</body> 848</body>
849</section>
537</chapter> 850</chapter>
851
538<chapter> 852<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 853<title>Squirrelmail</title>
854<section>
540<body> 855<body>
541<pre> 856
857<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
542 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 858# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 859<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
860(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
544 861
545 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 862# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
546 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 863# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
547 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 864# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 865<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 866Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 867and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
551</pre> 868</pre>
869
552</body> 870</body>
871</section>
553</chapter> 872</chapter>
873
554<chapter> 874<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 875<title>Mailman</title>
876<section>
556<body> 877<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 878
558<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 879<p>
559 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 880Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
560 MAILGID="280" 881support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
561 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 882get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
562 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 883to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
884documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
885here.
563</pre> 886</p>
887
564<pre> 888<p>
889One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
890you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
891overridden in the ebuild file by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
892</p>
893
894<pre caption="Install mailman">
565 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 895# <i>emerge mailman</i>
566<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
567<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
568<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote>
569
570 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
571</pre> 896</pre>
897
898<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
899# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
900<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
901DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
902DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
903</pre>
904
572<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 905<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
573 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 906# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
574 MTA = "Postfix" 907MTA = "Postfix"
575 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 908POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
576 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 909add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
577 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 910add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
578<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 911<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
579</pre>
580<pre> 912</pre>
913
914<pre caption="And last but not least">
581<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 915<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
582 916
583 # <i>su mailman</i> 917# <i>su mailman</i>
584 # <i>cd ~</i> 918# <i>cd ~</i>
585 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 919# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
586 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 920Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
587 Initial test password: 921Initial test password:
588 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 922Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
589 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 923<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
590 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 924list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
591 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 925# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
592 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 926<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
593 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 927verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
594 928
595 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 929# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
596 # STANZA START: test 930# STANZA START: test
597 # CREATED: 931# CREATED:
598 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 932test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
599 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 933test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
600 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 934test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
601 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 935test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
602 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 936test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
603 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 937test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
604 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 938test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
605 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 939test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
606 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 940test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
607 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 941test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
608 # STANZA END: test 942# STANZA END: test
609 943
610 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 944# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
611 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 945# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
612 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 946<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
613</pre> 947</pre>
614 948
615<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 949<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
616 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 950# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
617 owner_request_special = no 951owner_request_special = no
618 recipient_delimiter = + 952recipient_delimiter = +
619 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 953<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
620 954
621 alias_maps = 955alias_maps =
622 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 956 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
623 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 957 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
624 958
625 virtual_alias_maps = 959virtual_alias_maps =
626 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 960 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
627 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 961 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
628 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 962<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
629 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 963You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
630 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 964but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
965using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
966to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
967</pre>
968
969<p>
970You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
971note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
972mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
973Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
974lists.
631</pre> 975</p>
632<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 976
633</body> 977</body>
978</section>
634</chapter> 979</chapter>
980
635<chapter> 981<chapter>
636<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 982<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
637<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 983<section>
984<body>
985
986<p>
987For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
988link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
989</p>
990
991</body>
992</section>
638</chapter> 993</chapter>
994
639<chapter> 995<chapter>
640<title>Wrap Up</title> 996<title>Wrap Up</title>
997<section>
641<body> 998<body>
642<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 999
1000<p>
1001Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1002verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1003to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1004sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1005courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1006up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1007the services enabled.
1008</p>
1009
643<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1010<pre caption="Wrap up">
644 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1011# <i>postfix reload</i>
645 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1012# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
646</pre> 1013</pre>
1014
647<p> 1015<p>
648<e>Have fun!</e> 1016<e>Have fun!</e>
649</p> 1017</p>
1018
650</body> 1019</body>
1020</section>
651</chapter> 1021</chapter>
1022
652<chapter> 1023<chapter>
653<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1024<title>Troubleshooting</title>
654<section> 1025<section>
655<title>Introduction</title> 1026<title>Introduction</title>
656<body> 1027<body>
657<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1028
1029<p>
1030Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1031detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1032you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1033it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1034that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1035from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1036work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1037</p>
1038
658</body> 1039</body>
659</section>
660<section> 1040</section>
1041<section>
661<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1042<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
662<body> 1043<body>
663<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1044
664<pre> 1045<p>
1046Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1047your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1048if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1049it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1050make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1051</p>
1052
1053<pre caption="How to restart a service">
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1054# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
666</pre> 1055</pre>
1056
667</body> 1057</body>
668</section> 1058</section>
669<section> 1059<section>
670<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1060<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
671<body> 1061<body>
672<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1062
673<pre> 1063<p>
1064If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1065running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1066Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1067component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1068process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1069awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1070out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1071</p>
1072
1073<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
674 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1074# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
675 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1075# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
676</pre> 1076</pre>
1077
677</body> 1078</body>
678</section> 1079</section>
679<section> 1080<section>
680<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1081<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
681<body> 1082<body>
682<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1083
683<pre> 1084<p>
1085If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1086sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1087current config's to you, like postfix.
1088</p>
1089
1090<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
684 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1091# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
685 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1092# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
686 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1093# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1094# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
688</pre> 1095</pre>
1096
689</body> 1097</body>
690</section>
691<section> 1098</section>
1099<section>
692<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1100<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
693<body> 1101<body>
694<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1102
695<pre> 1103<p>
1104Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1105logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1106logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1107logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1108in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1109figure out which component is having the problem.
1110</p>
1111
1112<pre caption="Checking the logs">
696 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1113# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
697 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1114# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
698 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1115# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
699 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1116# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1117</pre>
1118
1119<p>
1120You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1121will increase log output over just verbose mode.
700</pre> 1122</p>
701<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1123
702<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1124<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1125# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
704 debug_peer_level = 5 1126debug_peer_level = 5
705 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1127debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
706 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1128<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
707 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1129commands as well.)</comment>
708</pre> 1130</pre>
1131
709</body> 1132</body>
710</section>
711<section> 1133</section>
1134<section>
712<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1135<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
713<body> 1136<body>
714<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1137
715<pre> 1138<p>
1139SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1140we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1141to the service itself and see what's happening.
1142</p>
1143
1144<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
716 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1145# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
717<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1146<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
718<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1147letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
719 1148
720 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1149Trying 127.0.0.1...
721 Connected to localhost. 1150Connected to localhost.
722 Escape character is '^]'. 1151Escape character is '^]'.
723 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1152* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
724 </pre> 1153</pre>
1154
725</body> 1155</body>
726</section>
727<section> 1156</section>
1157<section>
728<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1158<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
729<body> 1159<body>
730<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1160
731<pre> 1161<p>
1162You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1163software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1164all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1165information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1166transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1167</p>
1168
1169<pre caption="Using strace">
732 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1170# <i>emerge strace</i>
733 # <i>strace $command</i> 1171# <i>strace $command</i>
734 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1172# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
735</pre> 1173</pre>
1174
736</body> 1175</body>
737</section> 1176</section>
738<section> 1177<section>
739<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1178<title>Step 7: Research</title>
740<body> 1179<body>
741<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1180
1181<p>
1182Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1183If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1184help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1185already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1186which contains some great debugging ideas.
742<p> 1187</p>
1188
743<ul> 1189<ul>
744<li>
745<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1190 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
746<li> 1191 <li>
747<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1192 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
748<li> 1193 to look for specific errors
1194 </li>
749<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1195 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
750<li> 1196 <li>
751<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1197 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1198 lists - searchable
1199 </li>
752<li> 1200 <li>
753<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1201 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1202 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1203 </li>
754<li> 1204 <li>
755<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1205 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1206 google, which has never failed me
1207 </li>
1208 <li>
756<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1209 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1210 place to go for help.
1211 </li>
757</ul> 1212</ul>
758</p> 1213
759</body> 1214</body>
760</section> 1215</section>
761</chapter> 1216</chapter>
762</guide> 1217</guide>
763

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