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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.53 2006/09/04 08:49:44 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
22This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24</abstract>
25
12<version>1.0</version> 26<version>1.2</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 27<date>2006-09-04</date>
28
14<!-- 29<!--
15
16Contents 30Contents
17 31
18I. Introduction 32I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 33II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 34III. Courier-imap
28XI. Squirrelmail 42XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman 43XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 44XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up 45XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting 46XV. Troubleshooting
47-->
33 48
34--><chapter> 49<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 50<title>Introduction</title>
51<section>
52<body>
53
54<p>
55For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60</p>
61
62<p>
63A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69the system? How do you manage it all?
70</p>
71
72<p>
73This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79central and easy mysql database.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87</p>
88
89<p>
90The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92mailman.
93</p>
94
95<p>
96Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101</p>
102
103<impo>
104This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108run into issues with this.
109</impo>
110
111<impo>
112This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1151.3.x version.
116</impo>
117
118<impo>
119You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122</impo>
123
124<impo>
125Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
126your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
127<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
128<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
129<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
130</impo>
131
132<note>
133It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
134with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
135any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
136Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
137flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
138the squirrelmail section.
139</note>
140
36<body> 141</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 142</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 143</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 144
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 145<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 146<title>Postfix Basics</title>
147<section>
148<body>
149
150<pre caption="Install postfix">
151# <i>emerge postfix</i>
152</pre>
153
154<warn>
155Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
156qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
157</warn>
158
159<p>
160After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
161options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
162<c>$variables</c> with your own names.
163</p>
164
165<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
166myhostname = $host.domain.name
167mydomain = $domain.name
168inet_interfaces = all
169mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
170mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
171home_mailbox = .maildir/
172local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
173default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
174</pre>
175
176<p>
177Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
178turn on verbose output for debugging:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
182# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
183# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
184#
185==========================================================================
186<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
187smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
188</pre>
189
190<p>
191Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
192should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
193</p>
194
195<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
196# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
197<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
198when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 199
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 200# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 201</pre>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 202
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 203<p>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 204Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 205yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
206postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
207next step.
208</p>
209
210<note>
211I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
212before you progress to the next step of the howto.
213</note>
214
49</body> 215</body>
50</chapter> 216</section>
51<chapter> 217</chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title> 218
219<chapter>
220<title>Courier-imap</title>
221<section>
222<body>
223
224<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
225# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
226</pre>
227
228<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
229# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
230<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
231you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
232This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
233
234# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
235# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
236<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
237
238# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
239# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
240</pre>
241
242<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
243# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
244# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
245# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
246# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
247</pre>
248
249<p>
250Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
251started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
252going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
253running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
254progressing.
255</p>
256
53<body> 257</body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 258</section>
259</chapter>
260
261<chapter>
262<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
263<section>
264<body>
265
266<p>
267Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
268actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
269information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
270not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
271a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
272end anyway.
55</pre> 273</p>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 274
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 275<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 276# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name 277</pre>
60 mydomain = $domain.name 278
61 inet_interfaces = all 279<p>
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 280Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 281</p>
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 282
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 283<pre caption="Starting sasl">
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 284# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 285mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 286pwcheck_method: saslauthd
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 287# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 288SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
71 # 289SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
72 ========================================================================== 290# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 291</pre>
292
293</body>
294</section>
295</chapter>
296
297<chapter>
298<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
299<section>
300<body>
301
302<p>
303Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
307# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
308# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
309
310<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
311countryName_default
312stateOrProvinceName_default
313localityName_default
3140.organizationName_default
315commonName_default
316emailAddress_default.
317
318<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
319
320# <i>cd misc</i>
321# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
322<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
323#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
324certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
325reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
326
327# create a certificate
328system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329
330# create a certificate request
331system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
74 332
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84</pre>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87</body>
88</chapter>
89<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title>
91<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93</pre>
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre>
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112</pre>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114</body>
115</chapter>
116<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
118<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
122 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
123<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
124<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
125</pre>
126<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
127<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
128 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
129 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
130 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
131<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
132<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
133 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
134</pre>
135</body>
136</chapter>
137<chapter>
138<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
139<body>
140<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
141<pre>
142 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
143 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
144<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
145
146 countryName_default
147 stateOrProvinceName_default
148 localityName_default
149 0.organizationName_default
150 commonName_default
151 emailAddress_default.
152
153 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
154
155
156 # <i>cd misc</i>
157 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
158<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
159<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
160<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
161<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
162
163 # create a certificate
164 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
165
166 # create a certificate request
167 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 333# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 334# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 335# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
172 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 336# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
173 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 337# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 338# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 339<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
176 340
177
178 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 341# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 342# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 343# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 344<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 345We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
183</pre> 346</pre>
347
184</body> 348</body>
349</section>
350
185</chapter> 351</chapter>
186<chapter> 352<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 353<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
354<section>
188<body> 355<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 356
357<p>
358Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
359capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
360will be easy to find.
361</p>
362
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 363<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
191 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 364# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 365
193 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 366smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 367smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 368smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 369broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 370smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 371
199 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 372<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 373are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 374Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 375smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 376smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 377mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
205 378
206 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 379smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 380 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 381 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 382 reject_unauth_destination
210 383
211 384
385<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
386smtp_use_tls = yes
387smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
212 smtpd_use_tls = yes 388smtpd_use_tls = yes
213 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 389#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 390smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 391smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 392smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 393smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 394smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 395smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 396tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 397
222 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 398<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 399You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
224 400
225 # <i>postfix reload</i> 401# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 402</pre>
403
404<p>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 405Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
406</p>
407
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 408<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
229 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 409# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 410
231 Trying 127.0.0.1... 411Trying 127.0.0.1...
232 Connected to localhost. 412Connected to localhost.
233 Escape character is '^]'. 413Escape character is '^]'.
234 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 414220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 415<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236 250-mail.domain.com 416250-mail.domain.com
237 250-PIPELINING 417250-PIPELINING
238 250-SIZE 10240000 418250-SIZE 10240000
239 250-VRFY 419250-VRFY
240 250-ETRN 420250-ETRN
241 250-STARTTLS 421250-STARTTLS
242 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 422250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 423250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-XVERP 424250-XVERP
245 250 8BITMIME 425250 8BITMIME
246 <i>^]</i> 426<i>^]</i>
247 telnet> <i>quit</i> 427telnet> <i>quit</i>
428</pre>
429
430<p>
431Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
432install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
433sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
434unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
435and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
248</pre> 436</p>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 437
250 </p>
251</body> 438</body>
439</section>
252</chapter> 440</chapter>
441
253<chapter> 442<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 443<title>MySQL</title>
444<section>
255<body> 445<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 446
447<p>
448Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
449link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
450dumpfile for this step.
451</p>
452
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 453<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
258 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 454# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 455
260 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 456# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 457<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 458for adding a root password with mysql,
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 459not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
264 460
265 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 461# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 462# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 463# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268 464
269 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 465# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 466mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 467 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 468 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 469 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
470Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
274 471
275 -> <i>quit</i> 472mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
473Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
474
475mysql> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 476<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
277 477
278 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 478# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 479</pre>
480
481<p>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 482Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
483following tables are included:
484</p>
485
281 <ul> 486<ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 487 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 488 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
489 <li>
284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 490 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
491 hosting
492 </li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 493 <li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 494 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 495</ul>
288</p> 496
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 497<pre caption="alias table sample">
290 id alias destination 498id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 4991 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 5002 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 </pre> 501</pre>
502
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 503<pre caption="user table sample">
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 504<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 505id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 506 maildir quota postfix
50710 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
508 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
50913 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
510 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298 </pre> 511</pre>
512
513<p>
514The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
515user and group.
516</p>
517
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 518<pre caption="transport table sample">
300 id domain destination 519id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 5201 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5212 virt-bar.org virtual:
303 </pre> 522</pre>
523
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 524<pre caption="virtual table sample">
305 id email destination 525id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5263 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
307 </pre> 527</pre>
528
308</body> 529</body>
530</section>
309</chapter> 531</chapter>
532
310<chapter> 533<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 534<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
535<section>
312<body> 536<body>
537
538<p>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 539Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
540more easily.
541</p>
542
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 543<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
315 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 544# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
545</pre>
546
547<p>
548There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
549this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.com/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
550numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
551problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
552not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
553with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
554phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
555index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
556phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
557however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
558including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
316</pre> 559</p>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 560
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 561<p>
562Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
563Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
564</p>
565
319 <ul> 566<ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 567 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 568 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 569</ul>
323</p> 570
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 571<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
325 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 572# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
326 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 573# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 574# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
575
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 576<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
329 577
330 ServerName host.domain.name 578ServerName host.domain.name
331 ServerAdmin your@email.address 579ServerAdmin your@email.address
332 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 580SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
333 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 581SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
334 582
335 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 583# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
336</pre> 584</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 585
586<note>
587If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
588server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
589apache restarted successfully.
590</note>
591
592<p>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 593Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
594</p>
595
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 596<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
340 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 597# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 598<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
342 599
343 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 600$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 601$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 602 // (this user must have read-only
346 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 603$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 604 // and "mysql/db" tables)
348 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 605$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 606$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350 </pre> 607</pre>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 608
609<p>
610Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
611local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
612transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
613supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
614go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
615accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
616correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
617automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
618general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
619setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
620</p>
621
352</body> 622</body>
623</section>
353</chapter> 624</chapter>
625
354<chapter> 626<chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 627<title>The vmail user</title>
628<section>
356<body> 629<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 630
631<p>
632At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
633mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
634</p>
635
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 636<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
359 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 637# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 638# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 639# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 640# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 641# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
642</pre>
643
644<p>
645So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
646homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that user's uid, gid, and
647homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
648haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
364</pre> 649</p>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 650
366</body> 651</body>
652</section>
367</chapter> 653</chapter>
654
368<chapter> 655<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 656<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
657<section>
370<body> 658<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 659
372<pre> 660<p>
373 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 661Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 662courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 663<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380
381 #auth required pam_nologin.so
382 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385
386 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394</pre> 664</p>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 665
396<pre> 666<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 667# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
398 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 668authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
399 669
400 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402
403 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 670# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
404 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 671MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 672MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 673MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 674MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 675MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 676<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
677#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
410 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 678MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 679MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 680MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 681MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 682MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 683MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 684MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 685
418 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 686# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 687# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
688</pre>
689
690<p>
691We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
692for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
693Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
694password, alias, email address, and so on.
420</pre> 695</p>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 696
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 697<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
423 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 698# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424 # mysql-aliases.cf 699# mysql-aliases.cf
425 700
426 user = mailsql 701user = mailsql
427 password = $password 702password = $password
428 dbname = mailsql 703dbname = mailsql
429 table = alias 704table = alias
430 select_field = destination 705select_field = destination
431 where_field = alias 706where_field = alias
432 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 707hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433 </pre> 708</pre>
709
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 710<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
435 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 711# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436 # mysql-relocated.cf 712# mysql-relocated.cf
437 713
438 user = mailsql 714user = mailsql
439 password = $password 715password = $password
440 dbname = mailsql 716dbname = mailsql
441 table = relocated 717table = relocated
442 select_field = destination 718select_field = destination
443 where_field = email 719where_field = email
444 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 720hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445 </pre> 721</pre>
722
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 723<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
447 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 724# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448 # mysql-transport.cf 725# mysql-transport.cf
449 726
450 user = mailsql 727user = mailsql
451 password = $password 728password = $password
452 dbname = mailsql 729dbname = mailsql
453 table = transport 730table = transport
454 select_field = destination 731select_field = destination
455 where_field = domain 732where_field = domain
456 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 733hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457 </pre> 734</pre>
735
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 736<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
459 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 737# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 738#myql-virtual-gid.cf
461 739
462 user = mailsql 740user = mailsql
463 password = $password 741password = $password
464 dbname = mailsql 742dbname = mailsql
465 table = users 743table = users
466 select_field = gid 744select_field = gid
467 where_field = email 745where_field = email
468 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 746additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 747hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470 </pre> 748</pre>
749
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 750<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
472 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 751# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 752#myql-virtual-maps.cf
474 753
475 user = mailsql 754user = mailsql
476 password = $password 755password = $password
477 dbname = mailsql 756dbname = mailsql
478 table = users 757table = users
479 select_field = maildir 758select_field = maildir
480 where_field = email 759where_field = email
481 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 760additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 761hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483 </pre> 762</pre>
763
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 764<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 765# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 766# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 767
488 user = mailsql 768user = mailsql
489 password = $password 769password = $password
490 dbname = mailsql 770dbname = mailsql
491 table = users 771table = users
492 select_field = uid 772select_field = uid
493 where_field = email 773where_field = email
494 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 774additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 775hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre> 776</pre>
777
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 778<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 779# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499 # mysql-virtual.cf 780# mysql-virtual.cf
500 781
501 user = mailsql 782user = mailsql
502 password = $password 783password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql 784dbname = mailsql
504 table = virtual 785table = virtual
505 select_field = destination 786select_field = destination
506 where_field = email 787where_field = email
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 788hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre> 789</pre>
790
791<p>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 792Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
793</p>
794
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 795<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 796# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
512 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 797alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 798relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 799
515 local_transport = local 800local_transport = local
516 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 801local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 802
518 virtual_transport = virtual 803virtual_transport = virtual
519 virtual_mailbox_domains = 804virtual_mailbox_domains =
520 virt-bar.com, 805 virt-bar.com,
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 806 $other-virtual-domain.com
522 807
523 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 808virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
524 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 809virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 810virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 811virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
527 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 812virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528 virtual_mailbox_base = / 813virtual_mailbox_base = /
529 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 814#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530 </pre> 815</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 816
817<p>
818For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
819<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
820</p>
821
822<pre caption="Changing file permission">
823# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
824# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
825</pre>
826
827<p>
828As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
829release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
830longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
831</p>
832
833<note>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 834It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
835for more information.
836</note>
837
838<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 839# <i>postfix reload</i>
840</pre>
841
842<p>
843Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
844able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
845for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
846everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
847things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
848troubleshooting section of this howto.
534</pre> 849</p>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 850
536</body> 851</body>
852</section>
537</chapter> 853</chapter>
854
538<chapter> 855<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 856<title>Squirrelmail</title>
857<section>
540<body> 858<body>
541<pre> 859
860<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
542 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 861# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 862<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
863(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
544 864
545 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 865# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
546 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 866# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
547 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 867# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 868<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 869Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 870and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
551</pre> 871</pre>
872
552</body> 873</body>
874</section>
553</chapter> 875</chapter>
876
554<chapter> 877<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 878<title>Mailman</title>
879<section>
556<body> 880<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 881
558<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 882<p>
559 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 883Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
560 MAILGID="280" 884support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
561 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 885get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
562 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 886to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
887documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
888here.
563</pre> 889</p>
890
564<pre> 891<p>
892One further note, current versions of mailman install to
893<path>/usr/local/mailman</path>. If you're like me and wish to change the
894default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild file by changing
895the INSTALLDIR variable.
896</p>
897
898<pre caption="Install mailman">
565 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 899# <i>emerge mailman</i>
566<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
567<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
568<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote>
569
570 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
571</pre> 900</pre>
901
902<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
903# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
904<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
905DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
906DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
907</pre>
908
572<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 909<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
573 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 910# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
574 MTA = "Postfix" 911MTA = "Postfix"
575 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 912POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
576 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 913add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
577 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 914add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
578<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 915<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
579</pre>
580<pre> 916</pre>
917
918<pre caption="And last but not least">
581<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 919<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
582 920
583 # <i>su mailman</i> 921# <i>su mailman</i>
584 # <i>cd ~</i> 922# <i>cd ~</i>
585 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 923# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
586 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 924Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
587 Initial test password: 925Initial test password:
588 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 926Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
589 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 927<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
590 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 928list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
591 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 929# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
592 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 930<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
593 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 931verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
594 932
595 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 933# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
596 # STANZA START: test 934# STANZA START: test
597 # CREATED: 935# CREATED:
598 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 936test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
599 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 937test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
600 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 938test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
601 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 939test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
602 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 940test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
603 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 941test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
604 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 942test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
605 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 943test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
606 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 944test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
607 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 945test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
608 # STANZA END: test 946# STANZA END: test
609 947
610 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 948# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
611 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 949# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
612 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 950<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
613</pre> 951</pre>
614 952
615<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 953<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
616 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 954# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
617 owner_request_special = no 955owner_request_special = no
618 recipient_delimiter = + 956recipient_delimiter = +
619 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 957<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
620 958
621 alias_maps = 959alias_maps =
622 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 960 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
623 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 961 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
624 962
625 virtual_alias_maps = 963virtual_alias_maps =
626 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 964 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
627 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 965 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
628 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 966<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
629 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 967You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
630 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 968but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
969using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
970to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
971</pre>
972
973<p>
974You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
975note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
976mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
977Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
978lists.
631</pre> 979</p>
632<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 980
633</body> 981</body>
982</section>
634</chapter> 983</chapter>
984
635<chapter> 985<chapter>
636<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 986<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
637<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 987<section>
988<body>
989
990<p>
991For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
992link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
993</p>
994
995</body>
996</section>
638</chapter> 997</chapter>
998
639<chapter> 999<chapter>
640<title>Wrap Up</title> 1000<title>Wrap Up</title>
1001<section>
641<body> 1002<body>
642<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 1003
1004<p>
1005Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1006verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1007to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1008sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1009courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1010up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1011the services enabled.
1012</p>
1013
643<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1014<pre caption="Wrap up">
644 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1015# <i>postfix reload</i>
645 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1016# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
646</pre> 1017</pre>
1018
647<p> 1019<p>
648<e>Have fun!</e> 1020<e>Have fun!</e>
649</p> 1021</p>
1022
650</body> 1023</body>
1024</section>
651</chapter> 1025</chapter>
1026
652<chapter> 1027<chapter>
653<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1028<title>Troubleshooting</title>
654<section> 1029<section>
655<title>Introduction</title> 1030<title>Introduction</title>
656<body> 1031<body>
657<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1032
1033<p>
1034Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1035detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1036you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1037it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1038that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1039from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1040work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1041</p>
1042
658</body> 1043</body>
659</section>
660<section> 1044</section>
1045<section>
661<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1046<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
662<body> 1047<body>
663<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1048
664<pre> 1049<p>
1050Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1051your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1052if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1053it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1054make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1055</p>
1056
1057<pre caption="How to restart a service">
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1058# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
666</pre> 1059</pre>
1060
667</body> 1061</body>
668</section> 1062</section>
669<section> 1063<section>
670<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1064<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
671<body> 1065<body>
672<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1066
673<pre> 1067<p>
1068If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1069running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1070Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1071component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1072process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1073awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1074out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1075</p>
1076
1077<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
674 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1078# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
675 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1079# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
676</pre> 1080</pre>
1081
677</body> 1082</body>
678</section> 1083</section>
679<section> 1084<section>
680<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1085<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
681<body> 1086<body>
682<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1087
683<pre> 1088<p>
1089If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1090sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1091current config's to you, like postfix.
1092</p>
1093
1094<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
684 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1095# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
685 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1096# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
686 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1097# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1098# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
688</pre> 1099</pre>
1100
689</body> 1101</body>
690</section>
691<section> 1102</section>
1103<section>
692<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1104<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
693<body> 1105<body>
694<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1106
695<pre> 1107<p>
1108Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1109logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1110logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1111logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1112in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1113figure out which component is having the problem.
1114</p>
1115
1116<pre caption="Checking the logs">
696 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1117# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
697 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1118# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
698 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1119# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
699 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1120# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1121</pre>
1122
1123<p>
1124You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1125will increase log output over just verbose mode.
700</pre> 1126</p>
701<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1127
702<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1128<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1129# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
704 debug_peer_level = 5 1130debug_peer_level = 5
705 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1131debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
706 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1132<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
707 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1133commands as well.)</comment>
708</pre> 1134</pre>
1135
709</body> 1136</body>
710</section>
711<section> 1137</section>
1138<section>
712<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1139<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
713<body> 1140<body>
714<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1141
715<pre> 1142<p>
1143SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1144we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1145to the service itself and see what's happening.
1146</p>
1147
1148<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
716 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1149# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
717<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1150<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
718<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1151letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
719 1152
720 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1153Trying 127.0.0.1...
721 Connected to localhost. 1154Connected to localhost.
722 Escape character is '^]'. 1155Escape character is '^]'.
723 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1156* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
724 </pre> 1157</pre>
1158
725</body> 1159</body>
726</section>
727<section> 1160</section>
1161<section>
728<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1162<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
729<body> 1163<body>
730<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1164
731<pre> 1165<p>
1166You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1167software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1168all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1169information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1170transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1171</p>
1172
1173<pre caption="Using strace">
732 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1174# <i>emerge strace</i>
733 # <i>strace $command</i> 1175# <i>strace $command</i>
734 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1176# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
735</pre> 1177</pre>
1178
736</body> 1179</body>
737</section> 1180</section>
738<section> 1181<section>
739<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1182<title>Step 7: Research</title>
740<body> 1183<body>
741<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1184
1185<p>
1186Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1187If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1188help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1189already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1190which contains some great debugging ideas.
742<p> 1191</p>
1192
743<ul> 1193<ul>
744<li>
745<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1194 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
746<li> 1195 <li>
747<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1196 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
748<li> 1197 to look for specific errors
1198 </li>
749<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1199 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
750<li> 1200 <li>
751<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1201 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1202 lists - searchable
1203 </li>
752<li> 1204 <li>
753<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1205 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1206 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1207 </li>
754<li> 1208 <li>
755<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1209 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1210 google, which has never failed me
1211 </li>
1212 <li>
756<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1213 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1214 place to go for help.
1215 </li>
757</ul> 1216</ul>
758</p> 1217
759</body> 1218</body>
760</section> 1219</section>
761</chapter> 1220</chapter>
762</guide> 1221</guide>
763

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