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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.57 2007/07/23 15:44:42 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
5<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 10</author>
8<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
25This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
26postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
27</abstract>
28
12<version>1.0</version> 29<version>1.5</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 30<date>2007-07-23</date>
14<!--
15 31
16Contents
17
18I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap
21IV. Cyrus-sasl
22V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24VII. MySQL
25VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26IX. The vmail user
27X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28XI. Squirrelmail
29XII. Mailman
30XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31XIV. Wrap Up
32XV. Troubleshooting
33
34--><chapter> 32<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 33<title>Introduction</title>
34<section>
35<body>
36
37<p>
38For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
39you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
40Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
41need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
42system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
43</p>
44
45<p>
46A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
47with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
48that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
49domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
50smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
51system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
52the system? How do you manage it all?
53</p>
54
55<p>
56This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
57mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
58users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
59authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
60utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
61mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
62central and easy mysql database.
63</p>
64
65<p>
66There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
67system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
68needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
69<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
70</p>
71
72<p>
73The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
74postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
75mailman.
76</p>
77
78<p>
79Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
80before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
81sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
82get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
83turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
84</p>
85
86<impo>
87You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
88for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
89advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
90</impo>
91
92<impo>
93Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
94your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
95<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
96<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
97<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
98</impo>
99
100<note>
101It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
102with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
103any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
104Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
105flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
106the squirrelmail section.
107</note>
108
36<body> 109</body>
37<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p> 110</section>
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 111</chapter>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 112
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 113<chapter>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 114<title>Postfix Basics</title>
115<section>
116<body>
117
118<pre caption="Install postfix">
119# <i>emerge postfix</i>
120</pre>
121
122<warn>
123Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
124netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
125</warn>
126
127<p>
128After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
129options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
130<c>$variables</c> with your own names.
131</p>
132
133<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
134myhostname = $host.domain.name
135mydomain = $domain.name
136inet_interfaces = all
137mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
138mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
139home_mailbox = .maildir/
140local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
141default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
142</pre>
143
144<p>
145Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
146turn on verbose output for debugging:
147</p>
148
149<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
150# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
151# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
152#
153==========================================================================
154<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
155smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
156</pre>
157
158<p>
159Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
160should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
161</p>
162
163<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
164# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
165<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
166when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
42 167
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
47<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
48<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
49</body>
50</chapter>
51<chapter>
52<title>Postfix Basics</title>
53<body>
54<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
55</pre>
56<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
57<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
58<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
59 myhostname = $host.domain.name
60 mydomain = $domain.name
61 inet_interfaces = all
62 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
63 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
64 home_mailbox = .maildir/
65 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
66 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
67<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
68<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
69 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
70 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
71 #
72 ==========================================================================
73 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
74
75 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76</pre>
77<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82
83 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 168# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
173yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
174postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
175next step.
84</pre> 176</p>
85<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 177
86<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 178<note>
179I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
180before you progress to the next step of the howto.
181</note>
182
87</body> 183</body>
184</section>
88</chapter> 185</chapter>
186
89<chapter> 187<chapter>
90<title>Courier-imap</title> 188<title>Courier-imap</title>
189<section>
91<body> 190<body>
92<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 191
192<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
193# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
93</pre> 194</pre>
195
94<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 196<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
95 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 197# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 198<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
97<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 199you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
98<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 200This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
99 201
100 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 202# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 203# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 204<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
103 205
104 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 206# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105 # <i>mkimapdcert</i> 207# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106</pre> 208</pre>
209
107<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 210<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
108 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 211# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 212# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 213# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 214# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
215</pre>
216
217<p>
218Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
219started work for receiving and sending mail. Of course, you won't be able to log
220on to any of the services because authentication hasn't been configured yet, but
221it is wise to check if the connections themselves work or not.
112</pre> 222</p>
113<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 223
224<p>
225Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to
226get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've
227installed already works before progressing.
228</p>
229
114</body> 230</body>
231</section>
115</chapter> 232</chapter>
233
116<chapter> 234<chapter>
117<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 235<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
236<section>
118<body> 237<body>
119<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 238
120<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 239<p>
240Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
241actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
242information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
243not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
244a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
245end anyway.
246</p>
247
121<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 248<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
122 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 249# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
123<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
124<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
125</pre> 250</pre>
251
252<p>
126<p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 253Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
254</p>
255
127<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 256<pre caption="Starting sasl">
128 # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 257# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
258mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
129 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 259pwcheck_method: saslauthd
130 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 260# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
131<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 261SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
132<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 262SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
133 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 263# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
134</pre> 264</pre>
265
135</body> 266</body>
267</section>
136</chapter> 268</chapter>
269
137<chapter> 270<chapter>
138<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 271<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
272<section>
139<body> 273<body>
274
275<p>
140<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 276Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
141<pre> 277</p>
278
279<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
142 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 280# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
143 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 281# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
282
144<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 283<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
145
146 countryName_default 284countryName_default
147 stateOrProvinceName_default 285stateOrProvinceName_default
148 localityName_default 286localityName_default
149 0.organizationName_default 2870.organizationName_default
150 commonName_default 288commonName_default
151 emailAddress_default. 289emailAddress_default.
152 290
153 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 291<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
154 292
155
156 # <i>cd misc</i> 293# <i>cd misc</i>
157 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 294# <i>./CA.pl -newreq-nodes</i>
158<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
159<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
160<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
161<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
162
163 # create a certificate
164 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
165
166 # create a certificate request
167 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 295# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 296# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
172 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 297# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
173 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 298# <i>cp newkey.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 299# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 300<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
176 301
177
178 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 302# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 303# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 304# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 305<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 306We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
183</pre> 307</pre>
308
184</body> 309</body>
310</section>
311
185</chapter> 312</chapter>
186<chapter> 313<chapter>
187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 314<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
315<section>
188<body> 316<body>
189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 317
318<p>
319Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
320capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
321will be easy to find.
322</p>
323
190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 324<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
191 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 325# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192 326
193 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 327smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 328smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 329smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 330broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 331smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198 332
199 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 333<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 334are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 335Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 336smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 337smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 338mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
205 339
206 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 340smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207 permit_sasl_authenticated, 341 permit_sasl_authenticated,
208 permit_mynetworks, 342 permit_mynetworks,
209 reject_unauth_destination 343 reject_unauth_destination
210 344
211 345
346<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
347smtp_use_tls = yes
348smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
212 smtpd_use_tls = yes 349smtpd_use_tls = yes
213 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 350#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 351smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newkey.pem
215 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 352smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 353smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 354smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 355smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 356smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 357tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221 358
222 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 359<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 360You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
224 361
225 # <i>postfix reload</i> 362# <i>postfix reload</i>
226</pre> 363</pre>
364
365<p>
227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 366Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
367For this we are going to use <c>telnet</c> (provided by for instance
368<c>net-misc/netkit-telnetd</c>) although you can also use <c>nc</c> (provided by
369<c>net-analyzer/netcat</c>):
370</p>
371
228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 372<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
229 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 373# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 374
231 Trying 127.0.0.1... 375Trying 127.0.0.1...
232 Connected to localhost. 376Connected to localhost.
233 Escape character is '^]'. 377Escape character is '^]'.
234 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 378220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 379<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236 250-mail.domain.com 380250-mail.domain.com
237 250-PIPELINING 381250-PIPELINING
238 250-SIZE 10240000 382250-SIZE 10240000
239 250-VRFY 383250-VRFY
240 250-ETRN 384250-ETRN
241 250-STARTTLS 385250-STARTTLS
242 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 386250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 387250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-XVERP 388250-XVERP
245 250 8BITMIME 389250 8BITMIME
246 <i>^]</i> 390<i>^]</i>
247 telnet> <i>quit</i> 391telnet> <i>quit</i>
392</pre>
393
394<p>
395Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
396install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
397sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
398unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
399and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
248</pre> 400</p>
249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 401
250 </p>
251</body> 402</body>
403</section>
404</chapter>
405
252</chapter> 406<chapter>
407<title>The vmail user</title>
408<section>
409<body>
410
411<p>
412Before we set up our virtual mailhosting environment, we create a functional
413user under which the virtual mailboxes will be hosted. For clarity's sake we
414will call this <e>vmail</e>:
415</p>
416
417<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
418# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false -m vmail</i>
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422So now you've set up the vmail account. You can create multiple accounts if you
423want (to keep some structure in your set of virtual mail accounts). The user id,
424group id and home dirs are referenced in the MySQL tables.
425</p>
426
427<p>
428Next to the user account we also need to create the location where the mailboxes
429will reside:
430</p>
431
432<pre caption="Creating mailboxes">
433# <i>mkdir /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo</i>
434# <i>chown -R vmail:vmail /home/vmail/virt-domain.com</i>
435# <i>maildirmake /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir</i>
436</pre>
437
438</body>
439</section>
440</chapter>
441
253<chapter> 442<chapter>
254<title>MySQL</title> 443<title>MySQL</title>
444<section>
255<body> 445<body>
256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 446
447<p>
448Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
449link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
450dumpfile for this step.
451</p>
452
257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 453<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
258 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 454# <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 455
260 # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i> 456# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 457<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 458for adding a root password with mysql,
263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 459not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
264 460
265 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 461# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 462# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267 # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 463# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268 464
269 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 465# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 466mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 467 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 468 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 469 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
470Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
274 471
275 -> <i>quit</i> 472mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
473Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
474
475mysql> <i>quit</i>
276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 476<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
277 477
278 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 478# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279</pre> 479</pre>
480
481<p>
280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 482Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
483following tables are included:
484</p>
485
281 <ul> 486<ul>
282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 487 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 488 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
489 <li>
284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 490 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
491 hosting
492 </li>
285<li>users - all user account information</li> 493 <li>users - all user account information</li>
286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 494 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287</ul> 495</ul>
288</p> 496
289<pre caption="alias table sample" > 497<pre caption="alias table sample">
290 id alias destination 498id alias destination
291 1 root foo@bar.com 4991 root foo@bar.com
292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 5002 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 </pre> 501</pre>
502
294<pre caption="user table sample" > 503<pre caption="user table sample">
295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 504<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 505id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 506 maildir quota postfix
50710 foo@virt-domain.com $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
508 /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir/ y
50913 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
510 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298 </pre> 511</pre>
512
513<p>
514The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
515user and group.
516</p>
517
299<pre caption="transport table sample" > 518<pre caption="transport table sample">
300 id domain destination 519id domain destination
301 1 bar.com local: 5201 bar.com local:
302 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 5212 virt-domain.com virtual:
303 </pre> 522</pre>
523
304<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 524<pre caption="virtual table sample">
305 id email destination 525id email destination
306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5263 root@virt-domain.com other@email.address
307 </pre> 527</pre>
528
308</body> 529</body>
530</section>
309</chapter> 531</chapter>
532
310<chapter> 533<chapter>
311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 534<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
535<section>
312<body> 536<body>
537
538<p>
313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 539Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
540more easily.
541</p>
542
314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 543<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
315 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 544# <i>emerge apache phpmyadmin</i>
545</pre>
546
547<p>
548There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php,
549including guides provided by the <uri link="/proj/en/php/">Gentoo PHP
550Project</uri>. There are also numerous posts on
551<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the
552installation. So, that said, we're not going to cover it here. Set up the
553apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the
554wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this,
555search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean
556that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be
557able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There
558are many howtos on this including:
559<uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
316</pre> 560</p>
317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 561
318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 562<p>
563Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
564Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
565</p>
566
319 <ul> 567<ul>
320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 568 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 569 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322</ul> 570</ul>
323</p> 571
324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 572<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
325 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 573# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
326 # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 574# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 575# <i>cd /etc/apache2/vhosts.d</i>
576<comment>(Check if you have an ssl-vhost template already.
577 Copy that one instead of the default_vhost if that is the case)</comment>
578# <i>cp 00_default_vhost.conf ssl-vhost.conf</i>
579# <i>nano -w ssl-vhost.conf</i>
580
328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 581<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
329 582NameVirtualHost host.domain.name:443
583
584&lt;VirtualHost host.domain.name:443&gt;
330 ServerName host.domain.name 585 ServerName host.domain.name
331 ServerAdmin your@email.address 586 ServerAdmin your@email.address
587
588 DocumentRoot "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin";
589 &lt;Directory "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin"&gt;
590 ...
591 &lt;/Directory&gt;
592
332 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 593 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.cert
333 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 594 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.key
334 595 SSLEngine on
596 ...
597&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
598
599# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/apache2</i>
600<comment>(Add -D SSL -D PHP5 to the APACHE2_OPTS)</comment>
601
335 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 602# <i>/etc/init.d/apache2 restart</i>
336</pre> 603</pre>
337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 604
605<p>
338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 606Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
607</p>
608
339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 609<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
340 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 610# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin</i>
611# <i>cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php</i>
612# <i>nano -w config.inc.php</i>
341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 613<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
342 614$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = 'someverysecretpassphraze';
615
343 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 616$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 617$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345 // (this user must have read-only 618 // (this user must have read-only
346 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 619$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 620 // and "mysql/db" tables)
348 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 621$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 622$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350 </pre> 623</pre>
351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 624
625<p>
626Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
627local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
628transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
629supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
630go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
631accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
632correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
633automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
634general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
635setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
636</p>
637
352</body> 638</body>
353</chapter> 639</section>
354<chapter> 640</chapter>
355<title>The vmail user</title> 641
356<body>
357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
359 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
364</pre>
365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
366</body>
367</chapter>
368<chapter> 642<chapter>
369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 643<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
644<section>
370<body> 645<body>
371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 646
372<pre> 647<p>
373 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 648Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 649courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 650<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380
381 #auth required pam_nologin.so
382 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385
386 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394</pre> 651</p>
395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 652
396<pre> 653<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 654# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
398 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 655authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
399 656
400 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402
403 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 657# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
404 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 658MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 659MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 660MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 661MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 662MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 663<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
664#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
410 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 665MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 666MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 667MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 668MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 669MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 670MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 671MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 672
418 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 673# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 674# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
675</pre>
676
677<p>
678We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
679for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
680Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
681password, alias, email address, and so on.
420</pre> 682</p>
421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 683
422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 684<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
423 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 685# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424 # mysql-aliases.cf 686# mysql-aliases.cf
425 687
426 user = mailsql 688user = mailsql
427 password = $password 689password = $password
428 dbname = mailsql 690dbname = mailsql
429 table = alias 691table = alias
430 select_field = destination 692select_field = destination
431 where_field = alias 693where_field = alias
432 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 694hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433 </pre> 695</pre>
696
434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 697<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
435 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 698# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436 # mysql-relocated.cf 699# mysql-relocated.cf
437 700
438 user = mailsql 701user = mailsql
439 password = $password 702password = $password
440 dbname = mailsql 703dbname = mailsql
441 table = relocated 704table = relocated
442 select_field = destination 705select_field = destination
443 where_field = email 706where_field = email
444 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 707hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445 </pre> 708</pre>
709
446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 710<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
447 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 711# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448 # mysql-transport.cf 712# mysql-transport.cf
449 713
450 user = mailsql 714user = mailsql
451 password = $password 715password = $password
452 dbname = mailsql 716dbname = mailsql
453 table = transport 717table = transport
454 select_field = destination 718select_field = destination
455 where_field = domain 719where_field = domain
456 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 720hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457 </pre> 721</pre>
722
458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 723<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
459 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 724# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 725# mysql-virtual-gid.cf
461 726
462 user = mailsql 727user = mailsql
463 password = $password 728password = $password
464 dbname = mailsql 729dbname = mailsql
465 table = users 730table = users
466 select_field = gid 731select_field = gid
467 where_field = email 732where_field = email
468 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 733additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 734hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470 </pre> 735</pre>
736
471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 737<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
472 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 738# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 739# mysql-virtual-maps.cf
474 740
475 user = mailsql 741user = mailsql
476 password = $password 742password = $password
477 dbname = mailsql 743dbname = mailsql
478 table = users 744table = users
479 select_field = maildir 745select_field = maildir
480 where_field = email 746where_field = email
481 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 747additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 748hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483 </pre> 749</pre>
750
484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 751<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
485 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 752# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 753# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 754
488 user = mailsql 755user = mailsql
489 password = $password 756password = $password
490 dbname = mailsql 757dbname = mailsql
491 table = users 758table = users
492 select_field = uid 759select_field = uid
493 where_field = email 760where_field = email
494 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 761additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 762hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre> 763</pre>
764
497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 765<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 766# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499 # mysql-virtual.cf 767# mysql-virtual.cf
500 768
501 user = mailsql 769user = mailsql
502 password = $password 770password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql 771dbname = mailsql
504 table = virtual 772table = virtual
505 select_field = destination 773select_field = destination
506 where_field = email 774where_field = email
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 775hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre> 776</pre>
777
778<p>
509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 779Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
780</p>
781
510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 782<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
511 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 783# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
784<comment>(Ensure that there are no other alias_maps definitions)</comment>
512 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 785alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 786relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514 787
515 local_transport = local 788local_transport = local
516 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 789local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517 790
518 virtual_transport = virtual 791virtual_transport = virtual
519 virtual_mailbox_domains = 792<comment>(The domains listed by the mydestination should not be listed in
520 virt-bar.com, 793 the virtual_mailbox_domains parameter)</comment>
521 $other-virtual-domain.com 794virtual_mailbox_domains = virt-domain.com, $other-virtual-domain.com
522 795
523 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 796virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
797<comment>(Substitute $vmail-gid with the GID of the vmail group)</comment>
524 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 798virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 799virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 800virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
801<comment>(Substitute $vmail-uid with the UID of the vmail user)</comment>
527 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 802virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528 virtual_mailbox_base = / 803virtual_mailbox_base = /
529 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 804#virtual_mailbox_limit =
530 </pre> 805</pre>
531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 806
807<p>
808For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
809<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
810</p>
811
812<pre caption="Changing file permission">
813# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
814# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
815</pre>
816
817<p>
818As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
819release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
820longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
821</p>
822
823<note>
532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 824It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
825for more information.
826</note>
827
828<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 829# <i>postfix reload</i>
830</pre>
831
832<p>
833Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
834able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
835for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
836everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
837things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
838troubleshooting section of this howto.
534</pre> 839</p>
535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 840
536</body> 841</body>
842</section>
537</chapter> 843</chapter>
844
538<chapter> 845<chapter>
539<title>Squirrelmail</title> 846<title>Squirrelmail</title>
847<section>
540<body> 848<body>
541<pre> 849
850<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
542 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 851# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 852<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
853(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
544 854
545 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 855# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
546 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 856# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
547 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 857# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 858<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 859Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 860and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
551</pre> 861</pre>
862
552</body> 863</body>
864</section>
553</chapter> 865</chapter>
866
554<chapter> 867<chapter>
555<title>Mailman</title> 868<title>Mailman</title>
869<section>
556<body> 870<body>
557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 871
558<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 872<p>
559 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 873Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
560 MAILGID="280" 874support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
561 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 875get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
562 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 876to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
877documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
878here.
563</pre> 879</p>
564<pre> 880
881<pre caption="Install mailman">
565 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 882# <i>emerge mailman</i>
566<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
567<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
568<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote>
569
570 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
571</pre> 883</pre>
884
885<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
886# <i> nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
887<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
888DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
889DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
890</pre>
891
572<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 892<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
573 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 893# <i>nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
574 MTA = "Postfix" 894MTA = "Postfix"
575 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 895POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
576 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 896add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
577 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 897add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
578<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 898<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
579</pre>
580<pre> 899</pre>
900
901<pre caption="And last but not least">
581<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 902<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
582 903
583 # <i>su mailman</i> 904# <i>su mailman</i>
584 # <i>cd ~</i> 905# <i>cd ~</i>
585 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 906# <i>./bin/newlist --urlhost='www.virt-domain.com' --emailhost='virt-domain.com' test</i>
586 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 907Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
587 Initial test password: 908Initial test password:
588 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 909Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
589 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 910<comment>(Virtual domain lists may also be specified with
590 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 911list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
591 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 912# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
592 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 913<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
593 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 914verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
594 915
595 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 916# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
596 # STANZA START: test 917# STANZA START: test
597 # CREATED: 918# CREATED:
598 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 919test: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
599 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 920test-admin: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
600 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 921test-bounces: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
601 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 922test-confirm: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
602 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 923test-join: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
603 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 924test-leave: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
604 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 925test-owner: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
605 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 926test-request: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
606 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 927test-subscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
607 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 928test-unsubscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
608 # STANZA END: test 929# STANZA END: test
609 930
931<comment>(Create the required mailman list)</comment>
932# <i>./bin/newlist mailman</i>
933# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
934
935<comment>(Return to the root user)</comment>
936# <i>exit</i>
937
610 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 938# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
611 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 939# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
612 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 940<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
613</pre> 941</pre>
614 942
615<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 943<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
616 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 944# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
617 owner_request_special = no 945owner_request_special = no
618 recipient_delimiter = + 946recipient_delimiter = +
619 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 947<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
620 948
621 alias_maps = 949alias_maps =
622 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 950 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/aliases,
623 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 951 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
624 952
625 virtual_alias_maps = 953virtual_alias_maps =
626 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 954 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
627 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 955 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
628 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 956<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
629 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 957You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
630 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote> 958but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
959using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
960to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
961</pre>
962
963<p>
964You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
965note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
966mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
967Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
968lists.
631</pre> 969</p>
632<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 970
633</body> 971</body>
972</section>
634</chapter> 973</chapter>
974
635<chapter> 975<chapter>
636<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 976<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
637<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 977<section>
978<body>
979
980<p>
981For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
982link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
983</p>
984
985</body>
986</section>
638</chapter> 987</chapter>
988
639<chapter> 989<chapter>
640<title>Wrap Up</title> 990<title>Wrap Up</title>
991<section>
641<body> 992<body>
642<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 993
994<p>
995Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
996verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
997to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
998sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
999courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1000up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1001the services enabled.
1002</p>
1003
643<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1004<pre caption="Wrap up">
644 # <i>postfix reload</i> 1005# <i>postfix reload</i>
645 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1006# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
646</pre> 1007</pre>
1008
647<p> 1009<p>
648<e>Have fun!</e> 1010<e>Have fun!</e>
649</p> 1011</p>
1012
650</body> 1013</body>
1014</section>
651</chapter> 1015</chapter>
1016
652<chapter> 1017<chapter>
653<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1018<title>Troubleshooting</title>
654<section> 1019<section>
655<title>Introduction</title> 1020<title>Introduction</title>
656<body> 1021<body>
657<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1022
1023<p>
1024Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1025detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1026you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1027it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1028that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1029from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1030work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1031</p>
1032
658</body> 1033</body>
659</section>
660<section> 1034</section>
1035<section>
661<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1036<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
662<body> 1037<body>
663<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1038
664<pre> 1039<p>
1040Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1041your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1042if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1043it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1044make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1045</p>
1046
1047<pre caption="How to restart a service">
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1048# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
666</pre> 1049</pre>
1050
667</body> 1051</body>
668</section> 1052</section>
669<section> 1053<section>
670<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1054<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
671<body> 1055<body>
672<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1056
673<pre> 1057<p>
1058If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1059running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1060Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1061component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1062process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1063awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1064out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1065</p>
1066
1067<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
674 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1068# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
675 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1069# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
676</pre> 1070</pre>
1071
677</body> 1072</body>
678</section> 1073</section>
679<section> 1074<section>
680<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1075<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
681<body> 1076<body>
682<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1077
683<pre> 1078<p>
1079If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1080sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1081current config's to you, like postfix.
1082</p>
1083
1084<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
684 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1085# <i>apache2ctl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
685 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1086# <i>apache2ctl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
686 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1087# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1088# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
688</pre> 1089</pre>
1090
689</body> 1091</body>
690</section>
691<section> 1092</section>
1093<section>
692<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1094<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
693<body> 1095<body>
694<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1096
695<pre> 1097<p>
1098Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1099logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1100logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1101logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1102in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1103figure out which component is having the problem.
1104</p>
1105
1106<pre caption="Checking the logs">
696 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1107# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
697 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1108# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
698 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1109# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
699 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1110# <i>tail /var/log/apache2/error_log</i>
1111</pre>
1112
1113<p>
1114You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1115will increase log output over just verbose mode.
700</pre> 1116</p>
701<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1117
702<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1118<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1119# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
704 debug_peer_level = 5 1120debug_peer_level = 5
705 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1121debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
706 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1122<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
707 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1123commands as well.)</comment>
708</pre> 1124</pre>
1125
709</body> 1126</body>
710</section>
711<section> 1127</section>
1128<section>
712<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1129<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
713<body> 1130<body>
714<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1131
715<pre> 1132<p>
1133SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1134we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1135to the service itself and see what's happening.
1136</p>
1137
1138<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
716 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1139# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
717<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1140<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
718<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1141letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
719 1142
720 Trying 127.0.0.1... 1143Trying 127.0.0.1...
721 Connected to localhost. 1144Connected to localhost.
722 Escape character is '^]'. 1145Escape character is '^]'.
723 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 1146* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
724 </pre> 1147</pre>
1148
725</body> 1149</body>
726</section>
727<section> 1150</section>
1151<section>
728<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1152<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
729<body> 1153<body>
730<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1154
731<pre> 1155<p>
1156You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1157software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1158all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1159information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1160transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1161</p>
1162
1163<pre caption="Using strace">
732 # <i>emerge strace</i> 1164# <i>emerge strace</i>
733 # <i>strace $command</i> 1165# <i>strace $command</i>
734 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1166# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
735</pre> 1167</pre>
1168
736</body> 1169</body>
737</section> 1170</section>
738<section> 1171<section>
739<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1172<title>Step 7: Research</title>
740<body> 1173<body>
741<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1174
1175<p>
1176Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1177If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1178help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1179already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1180which contains some great debugging ideas.
742<p> 1181</p>
1182
743<ul> 1183<ul>
744<li>
745<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1184 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
746<li> 1185 <li>
747<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1186 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
748<li> 1187 to look for specific errors
1188 </li>
749<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1189 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
750<li> 1190 <li>
751<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1191 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1192 lists - searchable
1193 </li>
752<li> 1194 <li>
753<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1195 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1196 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1197 </li>
754<li> 1198 <li>
755<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1199 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1200 google, which has never failed me
1201 </li>
1202 <li>
756<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1203 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1204 place to go for help.
1205 </li>
757</ul> 1206</ul>
758</p> 1207
759</body> 1208</body>
760</section> 1209</section>
761</chapter> 1210</chapter>
762</guide> 1211</guide>
763

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