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19 19
20<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 20<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 21<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22<license/> 22<license/>
23 23
24<version>1.2</version> 24<version>1.3</version>
25<date>2007-02-18</date> 25<date>2007-03-11</date>
26 26
27<chapter> 27<chapter>
28<title>Introduction</title> 28<title>Introduction</title>
29<section> 29<section>
30<title>The Xfce desktop environment</title> 30<title>The Xfce desktop environment</title>
46 46
47<p> 47<p>
48This guide will not only show you how to install and configure a minimal Xfce 48This guide will not only show you how to install and configure a minimal Xfce
49environment, but will also explore options to create a full-featured desktop in 49environment, but will also explore options to create a full-featured desktop in
50keeping with the Xfce philosophy: light, fast, and modular. 50keeping with the Xfce philosophy: light, fast, and modular.
51</p>
52
53<p>
54Additionally, this guide will show you how to <uri link="#upgrade">upgrade</uri>
55from version 4.2 to 4.4.
51</p> 56</p>
52 57
53</body> 58</body>
54</section> 59</section>
55</chapter> 60</chapter>
79 <ti> 84 <ti>
80 A screensaver with powersaving features and the ability to lock the screen 85 A screensaver with powersaving features and the ability to lock the screen
81 for security 86 for security
82 </ti> 87 </ti>
83</tr> 88</tr>
84<tr>
85 <ti>hal</ti>
86 <ti>
87 A Hardware Abstraction Layer. HAL enables desktop applications to locate and
88 use hardware devices. This makes it easy for you to work with removable
89 media, such as USB sticks and CD/DVD drives. Installing <c>hal</c> will also
90 install <c>dbus</c>, a simple way for applications to talk to each other.
91 </ti>
92</tr>
93<tr>
94 <ti>gamin</ti>
95 <ti>
96 This file alteration monitor keeps track of file changes; it's very handy
97 when used in conjunction with a graphical file browser
98 </ti>
99</tr>
100</table> 89</table>
101 90
102<p> 91<p>
103You're free to install any other packages you wish, but for now, we'll stick 92You're free to install any other packages you wish, but for now, we'll stick
104with these suggestions for a fast, minimal working environment. Double check 93with these suggestions for a fast, minimal working environment. Double check
105your USE flags in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>; you'll probably at least want 94your USE flags in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>; you'll probably at least want
106<c>USE="-gnome"</c> to avoid pulling in unnecessary dependencies. 95<c>USE="dbus -gnome hal startup-notification"</c>.
96</p>
97
98<p>
99Now, let's install Xfce.
107</p> 100</p>
108 101
109<pre caption="Installing Xfce"> 102<pre caption="Installing Xfce">
110# <i>emerge -avt xfce4 xscreensaver hal gamin</i> 103# <i>emerge -avt xfce4 xscreensaver</i>
111</pre> 104</pre>
112 105
113<p> 106<p>
114Next, add your regular user(s) to the <c>plugdev</c>, <c>cdrom</c>, <c>cdrw</c>, 107Next, add your regular user(s) to the <c>plugdev</c>, <c>cdrom</c>, <c>cdrw</c>,
115and <c>usb</c> groups, so that they can take full advantage of <c>hal</c> and be 108and <c>usb</c> groups, so that they can take full advantage of <c>hal</c> and be
238<p> 231<p>
239There are many plugins for the panel available in Portage; see for yourself with 232There are many plugins for the panel available in Portage; see for yourself with
240<c>emerge --search xfce</c>. Though for the most part their names are self 233<c>emerge --search xfce</c>. Though for the most part their names are self
241explanatory, a few deserve some attention, as they are quite helpful. To use 234explanatory, a few deserve some attention, as they are quite helpful. To use
242them, simply <c>emerge</c> them. They'll be added to the list of available items 235them, simply <c>emerge</c> them. They'll be added to the list of available items
243in the "Add New Item" menu. 236in the "Add New Item" menu shown when you right-click on the panel.
244</p> 237</p>
245 238
246<ul> 239<ul>
247 <li> 240 <li>
248 <c>xfce4-mount</c> gives you a handy method of mounting devices listed in 241 <c>xfce4-mount</c> gives you a handy method of mounting devices listed in
249 <path>/etc/fstab</path> just by clicking your mouse 242 <path>/etc/fstab</path> just by clicking your mouse
250 </li>
251<!-- xfce4-taskbar is integrated into the panel in 4.4; remove when stable -->
252 <li>
253 <c>xfce4-taskbar</c> can replace the windowlist panel entirely. It's
254 useful if you want to conserve screen space (for small monitors), or don't
255 want your desktop cluttered with more than one panel. Add the taskbar to
256 your main panel, and then you can remove the separate windowlist panel by
257 running <c>killall -9 xftaskbar4</c> from an xterm, thus displaying your
258 application launchers, Xfce menu, clock, etc. all on just one panel.
259 </li> 243 </li>
260 <li> 244 <li>
261 <c>xfce4-battery</c> is perfect for laptop users. It displays battery 245 <c>xfce4-battery</c> is perfect for laptop users. It displays battery
262 percentage, time remaining, power source (AC or battery), fan status, 246 percentage, time remaining, power source (AC or battery), fan status,
263 warnings, and can even be configured to execute commands at certain power 247 warnings, and can even be configured to execute commands at certain power
264 levels. This feature can be used to put the laptop into hibernate mode when 248 levels. This feature can be used to put the laptop into hibernate mode when
265 the battery is almost exhausted. 249 the battery is almost exhausted.
266 </li> 250 </li>
267 <li> 251 <li>
268<!-- xfce4-minicmd has been superceded by verve in 4.4; remove when stable -->
269 <c>xfce4-minicmd</c> is a small command line embedded into the panel. It's 252 <c>verve</c> is a small command line embedded into the panel. It's quicker
270 quicker than opening up another terminal when you want to run a command. 253 than opening up another terminal when you want to run a command.
254 </li>
255 <li>
256 <c>xfce4-mixer</c> is a volume control. It works with both ALSA and OSS
257 sound applications.
271 </li> 258 </li>
272</ul> 259</ul>
273 260
261<p>
262If you can't find what you're looking for in the plugins specifically made for
263Xfce, try searching through the list of Gnome panel applets! That's right, by
264first emerging <c>xfce4-xfapplet</c>, you can install and run any applet made
265for Gnome.
266</p>
267
274</body> 268</body>
275</section> 269</section>
276<section> 270<section>
277<title>Useful programs</title> 271<title>Useful programs</title>
278<body> 272<body>
279 273
280<p> 274<p>
281Now let's see about adding some useful yet lightweight applications, in keeping 275Xfce bundles a few useful applications, including <c>thunar</c>,
282with Xfce's philosophy. 276<c>terminal</c>, <c>orage</c>, and <c>mousepad</c>. Note that the last three
283</p> 277will not be installed if you built <c>xfce4</c> with the <c>minimal</c> USE
284 278flag. However, these are all very small, yet terrific applications, so they're
279well worth installing.
285<p> 280</p>
286First, let's replace the plain, boring old <c>xterm</c> with 281
287<c>xfce-extra/terminal</c>. <c>Terminal</c> is far more configurable and useful
288than xterm, and supports Unicode text, pseudo-transparency and accelerated
289transparency via Xfce's built-in compositor, all out-of-the-box.
290</p> 282<p>
291<!-- Remove the warning about ~arch once 4.4 and terminal go stable --> 283<c>orage</c> is a simple, handy calendar. <c>mousepad</c> is a barebones text
292<note> 284editor that starts up extremely quickly. <c>terminal</c> is far more
293At the time of writing, <c>Terminal</c> may not be marked stable for your 285configurable and useful than xterm, and supports Unicode text,
294architecture, so you will need to add it to 286pseudo-transparency and accelerated transparency via Xfce's built-in
295<path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> before emerging it. 287compositor, all out-of-the-box. Just make sure that the default action on the
296</note>
297
298<pre caption="Installing a better terminal">
299<comment>(Only run this command if you receive a warning about Terminal being masked)</comment>
300# <i>echo "xfce-extra/terminal" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
301
302<comment>(Otherwise, you can emerge Terminal without any extra steps)</comment>
303# <i>emerge -av xfce-extra/terminal</i>
304</pre>
305
306<p>
307Once it's installed, you may want to change the default action of the terminal
308launcher on your panel to run <path>/usr/bin/Terminal</path> instead. Just 288terminal launcher of your panel runs <path>/usr/bin/Terminal</path> instead of
309right-click the launcher and choose "Properties" to change the command. 289xterm. Right click the launcher and choose "Properties" to change the command.
310</p>
311
312<p> 290</p>
313You may want to replace the rather confusing default filemanager, <c>xffm</c>, 291
314with one that's more intuitive and helpful. The <c>rox</c> file manager is
315icon-based and behaves much more like a traditional file manager. If you're
316looking for something even more minimal, yet still extremely flexible, then try
317out the <c>gentoo</c> file manager. (The <c>gentoo</c> file manager is not
318related to the Gentoo Linux distribution.) Both file managers are lightweight
319and fully configurable, and are only a short <c>emerge</c> away.
320</p> 292<p>
321 293<c>thunar</c> is Xfce's built-in graphical file manager. It's fast yet quite
322<!-- Remove the note about masked thunar once 4.4 is stable --> 294powerful, can support a few plugins for even more functionality; just install
295them with <c>emerge</c>. Let's take a look:
323<p> 296</p>
324In the future, <c>thunar</c> will replace <c>xffm</c> as Xfce's default file 297
325manager, but it is still masked at the time of this writing. However, the most 298<ul>
326recent versions have been quite useful for daily work, and show great promise. 299 <li>
327If you're feeling brave, you can try out the release candidates. Please read 300 <c>thunar-archive</c> lets you create and extract archive files using the
328<uri link="doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=3#doc_chap3">Using 301 right-click menu. It works even better when paired with the new graphical
329Masked Packages</uri> to learn how to unmask it and its dependencies. Note that 302 archiving <uri
330this software is still unfinished. You have been warned! 303 link="http://www.foo-projects.org/~benny/projects/thunar-archive-plugin/">tool</uri>
304 developed for Xfce, <c>xarchiver</c>.
305 </li>
306 <li>
307 <c>thunar-media-tags</c> lets you intelligently rename multiple media files
308 at once, and lets you <uri
309 link="http://thunar.xfce.org/pwiki/projects/thunar-media-tags-plugin">edit</uri>
310 their information tags, such as id3 tags.
311 </li>
312 <li>
313 <c>thunar-thumbnailers</c> lets you <uri
314 link="http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/thunar-plugins/thunar-thumbnailers">preview</uri>
315 certain types of files from within Thunar, such as images and fonts.
316 </li>
317 <li>
318 <c>thunar-volman</c> automatically <uri
319 link="http://foo-projects.org/~benny/projects/thunar-volman/">manages</uri>
320 removable media and drives.
321 </li>
322</ul>
323
331</p> 324<p>
332<!-- remove mousepad once 4.4 is stable; right now it's included by default --> 325Next, let's see about adding some useful but lightweight desktop applications,
326in keeping with Xfce's philosophy.
333<p> 327</p>
334Let's install a simple graphical text editor. It's easier to use than 328
335<c>gvim</c> or <c>xemacs</c>, and has fewer dependencies.
336</p> 329<p>
337 330Though <c>mousepad</c> is nice enough, if you need a full-featured word
338<pre caption="Adding a text editor"> 331processor but don't want the bloat of OpenOffice, try emerging <c>abiword</c>.
339# <i>emerge mousepad</i>
340</pre>
341
342<p>
343If you need a full-featured word processor but don't want the bloat of
344OpenOffice, try emerging <c>abiword</c>. <uri
345link="http://www.abisource.com">AbiWord</uri> is lighter, faster, and is 332<uri link="http://www.abisource.com">AbiWord</uri> is lighter, faster, and is
346completely interoperable with industry-standard document types. 333completely interoperable with industry-standard document types.
347</p> 334</p>
348 335
349<pre caption="Adding a word processor"> 336<pre caption="Adding a word processor">
350# <i>emerge -avt abiword</i> 337# <i>emerge -avt abiword</i>
351</pre> 338</pre>
352 339
353<p> 340<p>
354Need a nice email client/newsreader that isn't as demanding as 341Need a nice email client/newsreader that isn't as demanding as
355<c>mozilla-thunderbird</c> or <c>evolution</c>? Try <c>sylpheed-claws</c>: 342<c>mozilla-thunderbird</c> or <c>evolution</c>? Try emerging
356</p> 343<c>sylpheed-claws</c> or <c>claws-mail</c>.
357<!-- replacement seems to be called claws-mail, but still in ~arch -->
358<pre caption="Adding an email client">
359# <i>emerge -avt sylpheed-claws</i>
360</pre> 344</p>
361 345
362<p> 346<p>
363For your internet chat needs, <c>irssi</c> is an excellent, tiny, incredibly 347For your internet chat needs, <c>irssi</c> is an excellent, tiny, incredibly
364configurable IRC client that runs in your terminal. If you prefer a compact 348configurable IRC client that runs in your terminal. If you prefer a compact
365all-in-one client that handles nearly all chat protocols, you may want to 349all-in-one client that handles nearly all chat protocols, you may want to
437</p> 421</p>
438 422
439<pre caption="Editing /etc/conf.d/xdm"> 423<pre caption="Editing /etc/conf.d/xdm">
440DISPLAYMANAGER="xdm" 424DISPLAYMANAGER="xdm"
441</pre> 425</pre>
426
427<p>
428<c>xdm</c> can automatically start your Xfce session if you add XSESSION="Xfce4"
429to <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
430</p>
442 431
443<p> 432<p>
444While you can choose to stick with (the rather ugly) <c>xdm</c>, why not try 433While you can choose to stick with (the rather ugly) <c>xdm</c>, why not try
445<c>gdm</c> instead? It's far more configurable, and much, much prettier. First, 434<c>gdm</c> instead? It's far more configurable, and much, much prettier. First,
446let's <c>emerge</c> it. Note that though it has a few dependencies, they're 435let's <c>emerge</c> it. Note that though it has a few dependencies, they're
502 491
503<p> 492<p>
504Finally, Xfce has its own built-in compositor to manage window transparency. 493Finally, Xfce has its own built-in compositor to manage window transparency.
505This option can be found in Menu --> Settings --> Window Manager. For best 494This option can be found in Menu --> Settings --> Window Manager. For best
506performance, you will need to be running a graphics card with drivers that 495performance, you will need to be running a graphics card with drivers that
507support hardware-accelerated rendering, and you will need to enable 496support hardware-accelerated rendering. Make sure you emerged <c>xfwm4</c> with
497the <c>xcomposite</c> USE flag. Next, you will need to enable compositing in
508compositing in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by adding the following section: 498<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by adding the following section:
509</p> 499</p>
510 500
511<pre caption="Enabling composite in xorg.conf"> 501<pre caption="Enabling composite in xorg.conf">
512Section "Extensions" 502Section "Extensions"
513 Option "Composite" "Enable" 503 Option "Composite" "Enable"
525 515
526</body> 516</body>
527</section> 517</section>
528</chapter> 518</chapter>
529 519
520<chapter id="upgrade">
521<title>Upgrading</title>
522<section>
523<title>Upgrading from 4.2 to 4.4</title>
524<body>
525
526<p>
527Upgrading from Xfce 4.2 to 4.4 isn't hard, but neither is it as simple as most
528upgrades. With the release of 4.4, many older packages are either deprecated, or
529their functionality has been included into the desktop in some other manner.
530</p>
531
532<p>
533First, update your Portage tree (<c>emerge --sync</c>), then see what Xfce
534updates are available (<c>emerge -pvtuD world</c>).
535</p>
536
537<p>
538You'll notice that there will be a list of packages that block upgrading, as
539most 4.2 packages cannot coexist with 4.4 packages. Here, the solution is pretty
540straightforward: just unmerge the blocking packages, as described in the <uri
541link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Portage
542Handbook</uri> and <c>man emerge</c>, then continue with the update.
543</p>
544
545<p>
546Next, you may need to rebuild certain packages, such as applications linked
547against <c>dbus</c>. You'll need to first install <c>gentoolkit</c> for this.
548Then, once <c>gentoolkit</c> is installed, run:
549</p>
550
551<pre caption="Rebuilding packages">
552# <i>revdep-rebuild -p</i>
553<comment>(If you see any output about broken packages, run this next command)</comment>
554# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
555</pre>
556
557<note>
558For more information, please read <c>man revdep-rebuild</c> and our <uri
559link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
560</note>
561
562<p>
563Once the rebuild has finished, run <c>revdep-rebuild -p</c> again, just to make
564sure you have a clean and consistent world. If anything still shows up, keep
565repeating <c>revdep-rebuild -p</c> and <c>revdep-rebuild</c> until there's no
566more output about broken packages. Most Xfce update problems stem from
567<c>dbus</c> issues, as Xfce uses <c>dbus</c> quite extensively.
568</p>
569
570<p>
571Next, restart <c>dbus</c> and/or <c>hal</c>.
572</p>
573
574<pre caption="Restarting dbus and hal">
575# <i>/etc/init.d/dbus restart</i>
576# <i>/etc/init.d/hald restart</i>
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580Finally, give yourself a fresh environment.
581</p>
582
583<pre caption="Updating the environment variables">
584# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
585</pre>
586
587</body>
588</section>
589<section>
590<title>Settings</title>
591<body>
592
593<p>
594Make sure you familiarize yourself with all the new options available in the new
595Settings Manager. Of interest are the options in the Desktop screen; Xfce can
596now manage your desktop and place icons on it.
597</p>
598
599<p>
600There's also a Window Manager Tweaks screen, in which you can adjust the
601behavior of windows, workspaces, and transparency (if enabled).
602</p>
603
604<p>
605Be sure to read the <uri link="http://www.xfce.org/documentation/">Xfce
606Documentation</uri> and take the <uri link="http://www.xfce.org/about/tour">Xfce
607Tour</uri> to learn more about 4.4 and how to configure it.
608</p>
609
610</body>
611</section>
612</chapter>
613
530<chapter> 614<chapter>
531<title>Summary</title> 615<title>Summary</title>
532<section> 616<section>
533<body> 617<body>
534 618
544<title>Resources</title> 628<title>Resources</title>
545<body> 629<body>
546 630
547<p> 631<p>
548Need additional help on configuring and using Xfce? Need more lightweight 632Need additional help on configuring and using Xfce? Need more lightweight
549application suggestions? Try asking the folks in: 633application suggestions? Try checking out:
550</p> 634</p>
551 635
552<ul> 636<ul>
553 <li><uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">The Gentoo forums</uri></li> 637 <li><uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">The Gentoo forums</uri></li>
554 <li>#xfce on irc.freenode.net</li> 638 <li>#xfce on irc.freenode.net</li>
639 <li><uri link="http://www.xfce.org">Xfce's home page</uri></li>
555</ul> 640</ul>
556
557<p>
558Finally, Gentoo's Xfce team is responsible for making Xfce available in Portage.
559Send comments, thanks, and suggestions to <mail>xfce@gentoo.org</mail>.
560</p>
561 641
562</body> 642</body>
563</section> 643</section>
564</chapter> 644</chapter>
565</guide> 645</guide>

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