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1 cam 1.41 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.57 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.56 2005/12/31 17:17:13 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
6 vapier 1.50 <title>Gentoo XML Guide</title>
7 swift 1.15
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10     </author>
11 swift 1.19 <author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12     John P. Davis
13 swift 1.15 </author>
14     <author title="Editor">
15     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16     </author>
17 swift 1.25 <author title="Editor">
18     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19     </author>
20 neysx 1.35 <author title="Editor">
21     <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
22     </author>
23 drobbins 1.1
24 swift 1.15 <abstract>
25     This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
26 vapier 1.50 Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
27 swift 1.15 documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28     assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
29 drobbins 1.1 </abstract>
30    
31 swift 1.31 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32 swift 1.46 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
33 swift 1.26 <license/>
34    
35 alin 1.54 <version>2.29</version>
36 neysx 1.53 <date>2005-10-13</date>
37 drobbins 1.1
38     <chapter>
39     <title>Guide basics</title>
40     <section>
41     <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
42     <body>
43    
44 swift 1.15 <p>
45     The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
46 drobbins 1.1 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
47     documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
48     This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
49 swift 1.15 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50     </p>
51 drobbins 1.1
52 swift 1.15 <p>
53     The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
54     documents.
55     </p>
56 drobbins 1.1
57     </body>
58     </section>
59     <section>
60 swift 1.20 <title>Further Resources</title>
61 drobbins 1.1 <body>
62    
63 swift 1.15 <p>
64 neysx 1.34 If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65 neysx 1.52 test GuideXML, please read our <uri
66     link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
67     which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68     </p>
69    
70     <p>
71     You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
72     document while you read it.
73 drobbins 1.1 </p>
74    
75     </body>
76     </section>
77     </chapter>
78 swift 1.15
79 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
80 swift 1.15 <title>Guide XML</title>
81 drobbins 1.1 <section>
82     <title>Basic structure</title>
83     <body>
84    
85 swift 1.15 <p>
86 swift 1.36 Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
87     tags used in a GuideXML document:
88 swift 1.15 </p>
89 drobbins 1.1
90     <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
91 cam 1.41 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
92 swift 1.25 &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
93 neysx 1.42 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94    
95 neysx 1.43 &lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
96 vapier 1.50 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
97 neysx 1.49
98 swift 1.33 &lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
99     &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100 drobbins 1.1 &lt;/author&gt;
101    
102 swift 1.15 &lt;abstract&gt;
103     <i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
104     our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
105 vapier 1.50 format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
106 swift 1.15 using GuideXML.</i>
107     &lt;/abstract&gt;
108 drobbins 1.1
109 swift 1.27 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
110 swift 1.46 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
111 swift 1.14 &lt;license/&gt;
112    
113 drobbins 1.1 &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
114 neysx 1.35 &lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
115 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
116    
117 swift 1.15 <p>
118 neysx 1.42 On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
119     document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120     will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121 neysx 1.51 Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
122     enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. The <c>link</c>
123 neysx 1.43 attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the absolute path to the
124     document relatively to the document root even though the file name alone will
125     work. It is mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of
126 neysx 1.51 your document. If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version will
127     either not work or point to a wrong document. Translated documents <e>must</e>
128     specify the full path because it is also used to check whether a more recent
129     original document exists. The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify
130     the language code of your document. It is used to format the date and insert
131     strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language.
132     The default is English.
133 neysx 1.35 </p>
134    
135     <p>
136 drobbins 1.1 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
137 swift 1.15 guide document.
138     </p>
139 drobbins 1.1
140 swift 1.15 <p>
141     Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
142 drobbins 1.1 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
143 neysx 1.52 allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
144 drobbins 1.1 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
145     particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
146     <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
147     person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
148     more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
149     </p>
150    
151 swift 1.15 <p>
152     Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
153 drobbins 1.1 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
154 neysx 1.35 current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
155     respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
156     appear verbatim in the rendered document.
157     </p>
158    
159     <p>
160     This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
161     document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
162     tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
163 drobbins 1.1 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
164 swift 1.15 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
165     </p>
166 swift 1.14
167 swift 1.15 <p>
168 neysx 1.38 Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
169 neysx 1.49 under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
170 neysx 1.38 Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
171     link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
172 swift 1.15 </p>
173 drobbins 1.1
174     </body>
175     </section>
176     <section>
177     <title>Chapters and sections</title>
178     <body>
179 swift 1.15
180     <p>
181 neysx 1.37 Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
182     structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
183     chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
184     section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
185     consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
186     link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
187     <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
188     guide document:
189 drobbins 1.1 </p>
190    
191 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Minimal guide example">
192 drobbins 1.1 &lt;chapter&gt;
193     &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
194     &lt;section&gt;
195 swift 1.15 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
196     &lt;body&gt;
197    
198     &lt;p&gt;
199     <i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
200     &lt;/p&gt;
201    
202     &lt;/body&gt;
203 drobbins 1.1 &lt;/section&gt;
204     &lt;/chapter&gt;
205     </pre>
206    
207 swift 1.15 <p>
208     Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
209 drobbins 1.1 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
210     adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
211     <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
212     <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
213     is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
214     content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
215 swift 1.15 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
216     </p>
217 drobbins 1.1
218 swift 1.15 <note>
219     A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
220     elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
221     <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
222     element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
223     </note>
224 drobbins 1.1
225     </body>
226     </section>
227     <section>
228     <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
229     <body>
230 swift 1.15
231 drobbins 1.1 <p>
232 neysx 1.37 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
233     an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
234 drobbins 1.1 </p>
235 swift 1.15
236 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Example of a body element">
237 drobbins 1.1 &lt;p&gt;
238     This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
239 neysx 1.35 &lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
240 drobbins 1.1 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
241     &lt;/p&gt;
242    
243 neysx 1.37 &lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
244 drobbins 1.1 This is text output or code.
245     # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
246    
247     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
248     &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
249    
250 neysx 1.37 &lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
251 drobbins 1.1 &lt;/pre&gt;
252 swift 1.15
253     &lt;note&gt;
254     This is a note.
255     &lt;/note&gt;
256    
257     &lt;warn&gt;
258     This is a warning.
259     &lt;/warn&gt;
260    
261     &lt;impo&gt;
262     This is important.
263     &lt;/impo&gt;
264 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
265 swift 1.15
266     <p>
267 neysx 1.37 Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
268 swift 1.15 </p>
269 drobbins 1.1
270     <p>
271     This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
272 swift 1.45 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
273 drobbins 1.1 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
274     </p>
275    
276 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Code Sample">
277 drobbins 1.1 This is text output or code.
278     # <i>this is user input</i>
279    
280     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
281     &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
282    
283 neysx 1.37 <comment>(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)</comment>
284 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
285 swift 1.15
286     <note>
287     This is a note.
288     </note>
289    
290     <warn>
291     This is a warning.
292     </warn>
293    
294     <impo>
295     This is important.
296     </impo>
297    
298 drobbins 1.1 </body>
299     </section>
300     <section>
301     <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
302     <body>
303    
304 swift 1.15 <p>
305 neysx 1.52 We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
306     to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
307     <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
308     (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
309     <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
310     <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
311     only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
312     Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
313     don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
314     you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
315     exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
316 neysx 1.53 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
317 swift 1.15 </p>
318 swift 1.12
319 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
320 neysx 1.51 &lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
321 swift 1.12 # &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
322     16:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
323     &lt;/pre&gt;
324     </pre>
325 drobbins 1.1
326     </body>
327     </section>
328     <section>
329 neysx 1.52 <title>Epigraphs</title>
330     <body>
331    
332     <p by="Anonymous student">
333     Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
334     Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
335     of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
336     and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
337     1790 and is still dead.
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
342     to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
343     the signature.
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Short epigraph">
347     &lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
348     Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
349     &lt;/p&gt;
350     </pre>
351    
352     </body>
353     </section>
354     <section>
355     <title>
356     &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;i&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
357     </title>
358 drobbins 1.1 <body>
359    
360 swift 1.15 <p>
361 neysx 1.52 The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
362     <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
363     <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. The <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>
364     element can only be used inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
365 swift 1.15 </p>
366 drobbins 1.1
367 swift 1.15 <p>
368     The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
369     <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
370 swift 1.45 <e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
371 swift 1.15 font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
372     </p>
373 drobbins 1.1
374 swift 1.15 <p>
375     The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
376 drobbins 1.1 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
377     that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
378     the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
379     element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
380     not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
381     quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
382     <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
383     necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
384     refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
385 swift 1.15 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
386     adorable!
387     </p>
388 drobbins 1.1
389 swift 1.15 <p>
390 swift 1.44 When you want to highlight some text as user input inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>,
391     use <c>&lt;i&gt;</c> instead.
392     </p>
393    
394     <p>
395 neysx 1.51 As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
396     text.
397     </p>
398    
399     <p>
400 swift 1.15 <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
401 drobbins 1.1 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
402     offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
403 swift 1.15 prose more <e>punch</e>!
404     </p>
405 drobbins 1.1
406 neysx 1.52 <p>
407     The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
408     <sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
409     </p>
410    
411 drobbins 1.1 </body>
412     </section>
413     <section>
414     <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
415     <body>
416    
417 swift 1.15 <p>
418 neysx 1.51 We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
419     some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
420     link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
421     email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo@bar.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
422     would be displayed as <mail>foo@bar.com</mail>.
423 swift 1.15 </p>
424 drobbins 1.1
425 swift 1.15 <p>
426 neysx 1.35 The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
427     It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
428     displayed in the body text, such as this link to
429     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
430     <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
431 drobbins 1.1 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
432 neysx 1.35 link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
433     link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
434     Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
435 swift 1.45 to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site. For instance, a link to the <uri
436 neysx 1.35 link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
437     link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
438     even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
439     link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
440 drobbins 1.1 </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </section>
444     <section>
445     <title>Figures</title>
446     <body>
447    
448 swift 1.15 <p>
449     Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
450 drobbins 1.1 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
451 neysx 1.52 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
452     the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
453     the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
454 drobbins 1.1 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
455 swift 1.15 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
456     </p>
457 drobbins 1.1
458     </body>
459     </section>
460     <section>
461 neysx 1.52 <title>Tables</title>
462 drobbins 1.1 <body>
463    
464 swift 1.15 <p>
465 neysx 1.52 Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
466 neysx 1.51 table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
467 neysx 1.52 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
468 drobbins 1.1 HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
469     header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
470 neysx 1.51 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
471     -- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
472     first row.
473 drobbins 1.1 </p>
474    
475 swift 1.15 <p>
476 neysx 1.52 Besides, the table header tag (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) accepts the <c>colspan</c>
477     and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to span titles across rows, columns or both as
478     shown below:
479     </p>
480    
481     <table>
482     <tr>
483     <th colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
484     </tr>
485     <tr>
486     <th rowspan="3">This title spans 3 rows</th>
487     <ti>Item A1</ti>
488     <ti>Item A2</ti>
489     <ti>Item A3</ti>
490     </tr>
491     <tr>
492     <ti>Item B1</ti>
493     <th colspan="2" rowspan="2">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
494     </tr>
495     <tr>
496     <ti>Item C1</ti>
497     </tr>
498     </table>
499    
500     </body>
501     </section>
502     <section>
503     <title>Lists</title>
504     <body>
505    
506     <p>
507 swift 1.39 To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
508 neysx 1.52 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
509     appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
510     that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
511     that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
512 swift 1.15 </p>
513 drobbins 1.1
514 neysx 1.52 <p>
515     Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
516     neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
517     (<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
518 neysx 1.53 admonitions. A definition list comprises:
519 neysx 1.52 </p>
520    
521     <dl>
522     <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
523     <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
524     <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
525     <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
526     <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
527     <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
528     </dl>
529    
530     <p>
531     The following list copied from <uri
532     link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
533     that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
534     contain another definition list though.
535     </p>
536    
537     <dl>
538     <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
539     <dd>
540     <ul>
541     <li>100 g. flour</li>
542     <li>10 g. sugar</li>
543     <li>1 cup water</li>
544     <li>2 eggs</li>
545     <li>salt, pepper</li>
546     </ul>
547     </dd>
548     <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
549     <dd>
550     <ol>
551 neysx 1.53 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
552     <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
553     <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
554     <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
555 neysx 1.52 </ol>
556     </dd>
557     <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
558 neysx 1.53 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
559 neysx 1.52 </dl>
560    
561 drobbins 1.1 </body>
562     </section>
563     <section>
564     <title>Intra-document references</title>
565     <body>
566    
567 swift 1.15 <p>
568     Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
569 drobbins 1.1 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
570     One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
571     One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
572     Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
573     Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
574 swift 1.40 link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
575 swift 1.15 link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
576 neysx 1.52 link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
577 swift 1.17 </p>
578 swift 1.23
579     <p>
580     However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
581     links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
582 neysx 1.47 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
583     the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
584 swift 1.23 </p>
585    
586     <pre caption="Using the id attribute">
587     &lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
588     &lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
589     ...
590     &lt;p&gt;
591     More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
592     &lt;/p&gt;
593     </pre>
594 swift 1.17
595     </body>
596     </section>
597 neysx 1.51 <section>
598     <title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
599     <body>
600    
601     <p>
602 alin 1.54 A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
603     a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
604     are:
605 neysx 1.51 </p>
606    
607     <ul>
608     <li>
609     <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
610     articles</uri>
611     </li>
612     <li>
613     <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
614     should not be considered official
615     </li>
616     <li>
617     <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
618     anymore
619     </li>
620     <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
621     </ul>
622    
623     <p>
624     When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
625     version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
626     automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
627     behaviour.
628     </p>
629    
630     <pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
631     &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
632     &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
633     &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
634    
635     &lt;guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml" disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
636     &lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
637    
638     &lt;author title="Author"&gt;
639     ...
640     </pre>
641    
642     </body>
643     </section>
644 swift 1.17 </chapter>
645    
646     <chapter>
647     <title>Coding Style</title>
648     <section>
649     <title>Introduction</title>
650     <body>
651    
652     <p>
653     Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
654     most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
655     A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
656 swift 1.45 internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
657 swift 1.17 regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
658     </p>
659    
660     <p>
661     Both sections are described next.
662     </p>
663    
664     </body>
665     </section>
666     <section>
667     <title>Internal Coding Style</title>
668     <body>
669    
670     <p>
671     <b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
672     GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
673     <c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
674     <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
675     <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
676 swift 1.44 <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
677 neysx 1.37 <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
678 swift 1.17 </p>
679    
680     <p>
681     <b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
682     <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
683     <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
684 swift 1.18 <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
685     <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
686     <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
687 swift 1.17 </p>
688    
689     <p>
690     <b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
691 neysx 1.51 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
692     choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
693     editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
694     keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
695     columns to help console users.
696 swift 1.17 </p>
697    
698     <p>
699 neysx 1.51 <b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
700     parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
701 neysx 1.53 <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
702     <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
703     each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
704     Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
705 swift 1.17 </p>
706    
707     <p>
708 neysx 1.53 In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
709 neysx 1.57 <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
710 neysx 1.53 the content.
711 swift 1.17 </p>
712    
713     <p>
714     An example for indentation is:
715     </p>
716    
717 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Indentation Example">
718 swift 1.17 &lt;table&gt;
719     &lt;tr&gt;
720     &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
721     &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
722     &lt;/tr&gt;
723     &lt;tr&gt;
724 swift 1.48 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
725 swift 1.17 &lt;ti&gt;
726     In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
727 swift 1.48 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
728 swift 1.17 &lt;/ti&gt;
729     &lt;/tr&gt;
730     &lt;/table&gt;
731    
732     &lt;ul&gt;
733     &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
734     &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
735     &lt;/ul&gt;
736     </pre>
737    
738     <p>
739 neysx 1.53 <b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
740     and the attribute value. As an example:
741 swift 1.17 </p>
742    
743     <pre caption="Attributes">
744     <comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
745     <comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
746     </pre>
747    
748     </body>
749     </section>
750     <section>
751     <title>External Coding Style</title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755 neysx 1.53 Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
756     <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
757     unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
758     with a period (or other reading marks).
759 swift 1.17 </p>
760    
761     <p>
762     Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
763     with a capital letter.
764     </p>
765    
766     <pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
767     &lt;ul&gt;
768     &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
769     &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
770     &lt;/ul&gt;
771     </pre>
772    
773     <p>
774     Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
775     </p>
776    
777     <p>
778     Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
779 neysx 1.35 possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
780     Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
781 swift 1.15 </p>
782 swift 1.18
783     <p>
784 neysx 1.37 When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
785     <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
786     that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
787     for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
788     comment.
789 swift 1.18 </p>
790    
791     <pre caption="Comment example">
792     <comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
793     # <i>id john</i>
794     </pre>
795 drobbins 1.1
796     </body>
797     </section>
798     </chapter>
799 swift 1.15
800 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
801 swift 1.25 <title>Handbook Format</title>
802     <section>
803     <title>Guide vs Book</title>
804     <body>
805    
806     <p>
807     For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
808 neysx 1.29 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
809 swift 1.25 broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
810     allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
811     </p>
812    
813     </body>
814     </section>
815     <section>
816     <title>Main File</title>
817     <body>
818    
819     <p>
820     The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
821     real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
822     doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
823     </p>
824    
825     <pre caption="Example book usage">
826     &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
827     &lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
828 neysx 1.42 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
829 swift 1.25
830     &lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
831     &lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
832    
833     &lt;author...&gt;
834     ...
835     &lt;/author&gt;
836    
837     &lt;abstract&gt;
838     ...
839     &lt;/abstract&gt;
840    
841     &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
842 neysx 1.49 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
843 swift 1.25 &lt;license/&gt;
844    
845     &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
846     &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
847     </pre>
848    
849     <p>
850     So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
851     <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
852 neysx 1.56 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
853 swift 1.25 equivalent of a separate part in a book:
854     </p>
855    
856     <pre caption="Defining a part">
857     &lt;part&gt;
858     &lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
859     &lt;abstract&gt;
860     ...
861     &lt;/abstract&gt;
862    
863     <comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
864     &lt;/part&gt;
865     </pre>
866    
867     <p>
868     Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
869     <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
870     </p>
871    
872     <p>
873 neysx 1.56 Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
874     chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
875     a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
876 swift 1.25 document.
877     </p>
878    
879     <pre caption="Defining a chapter">
880     &lt;chapter&gt;
881     &lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
882     &lt;abstract&gt;
883     This is a small explanation on chapter one.
884     &lt;/abstract&gt;
885    
886     &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
887    
888     &lt;/chapter&gt;
889     </pre>
890    
891     </body>
892     </section>
893     <section>
894     <title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
895     <body>
896    
897     <p>
898     The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
899     </p>
900    
901     <pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
902     &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
903     &lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
904 neysx 1.42 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
905 swift 1.25
906     &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
907 neysx 1.49 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
908 swift 1.25
909     &lt;sections&gt;
910    
911 neysx 1.35 &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
912     &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
913    
914 swift 1.25 <comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
915    
916     &lt;/sections&gt;
917     </pre>
918    
919     <p>
920 neysx 1.56 Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
921     <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
922 swift 1.25 of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
923     </p>
924    
925 neysx 1.35 <p>
926     Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
927     latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
928     browses through all parts of the book.
929     </p>
930    
931 swift 1.25 </body>
932     </section>
933     </chapter>
934    
935     <chapter>
936 drobbins 1.1 <title>Resources</title>
937     <section>
938 swift 1.15 <title>Start writing</title>
939     <body>
940    
941     <p>
942 neysx 1.35 Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
943     spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
944 swift 1.15 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
945 vapier 1.50 to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested
946 neysx 1.35 in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
947     Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
948     questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
949     link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
950 neysx 1.55 like to tackle. Have fun!
951 swift 1.15 </p>
952    
953     </body>
954 drobbins 1.1 </section>
955     </chapter>
956     </guide>

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