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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
9
10 <abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide
11 XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document
12 itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13 </abstract>
14
15 <version>2.0</version>
16 <date>15 April 2003</date>
17
18 <chapter>
19 <title>Guide basics</title>
20
21 <section>
22 <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27 documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28 This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p>
30
31 <p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32 documents.</p>
33
34 </body>
35 </section>
36
37 <section>
38 <title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42 guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43 file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44 tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
45 exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46 create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
47 is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package. </p>
48
49
50 <pre caption="Installing libxslt">
51 # <c>emerge libxslt</c>
52 </pre>
53
54 <p>Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words,
55 we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
56 that are available for download: </p>
57
58 <p><b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
59 Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any documentation,
60 you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found
61 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.</p>
62
63 <p><b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b> in
64 every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
65 documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want to fully
66 develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful for translators.
67 These tarballs can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
68 </p>
69
70 <p>After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go
71 to the directory where the tarball was extracted, and enter the
72 <path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse around and get comfortable with the
73 layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and <path>doc</path> directories.
74 As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are in <path>xsl</path>,
75 and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing purposes, we
76 will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
77 <path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations
78 of the XSL and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with
79 <c>xsltproc</c>. </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
82 # <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
83 </pre>
84
85 <p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
86 <path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
87 to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
88 <path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
89 as <path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
90 directory.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </section>
95 </chapter>
96 <chapter>
97 <title>Guide XML</title>
98 <section>
99 <title>Basic structure</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
103 the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
104 XML document: </p>
105
106 <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
107 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
108 &lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
109 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
110 &lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
111 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
112 &lt;/author&gt;
113 &lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
114 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
115 &lt;/author&gt;
116
117 &lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
118 our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official
119 format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
120 using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt;
121
122 &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
123 &lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
124 </pre>
125
126 <p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
127 document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
128 guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
129 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
130 guide document. </p>
131
132 <p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
133 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
134 allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
135 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
136 particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
137 <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
138 person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
139 more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
143 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
144 current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
145 respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
146 a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
147 tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
148 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
149 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153
154 <section>
155 <title>Chapters and sections</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
158 the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
159 chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
160 and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
161 consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous
162 excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
163 (if minimal) guide document:
164 </p>
165
166 <pre>
167 &lt;chapter&gt;
168 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
169 &lt;section&gt;
170 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
171 &lt;body&gt;
172 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt;
173 &lt;/body&gt;
174 &lt;/section&gt;
175 &lt;/chapter&gt;
176 </pre>
177
178 <p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
179 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
180 adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
181 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
182 <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
183 is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
184 content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
185 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p>
186
187 <note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple
188 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain
189 multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
190 element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note>
191
192 </body>
193 </section>
194
195 <section>
196 <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
197 <body>
198 <p>
199 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
200 </p>
201 <pre>
202 &lt;p&gt;
203 This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
204 &lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
205 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
206 &lt;/p&gt;
207
208 &lt;pre&gt;
209 This is text output or code.
210 # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
211
212 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
213 &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
214
215 &lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
216 &lt;/pre&gt;
217 &lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt;
218 &lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt;
219 &lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt;
220 </pre>
221 <p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p>
222
223 <p>
224 This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
225 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
226 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
227 </p>
228
229 <pre>
230 This is text output or code.
231 # <i>this is user input</i>
232
233 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
234 &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
235
236 <codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
237 </pre>
238 <note>This is a note.</note>
239 <warn>This is a warning.</warn>
240 <impo>This is important.</impo>
241 </body>
242 </section>
243
244 <section>
245 <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
246 <body>
247
248 <p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
249 need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
250 block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
251 <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
252 Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
253 these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
254 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
255 stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
256 <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
257 preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p>
258
259 </body>
260 </section>
261 <section>
262 <title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
263 <body>
264
265 <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
266 be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
267 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p>
268
269 <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
270 <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>.
271 This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the
272 standard paragraph type. </p>
273
274 <p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
275 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
276 that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
277 the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
278 element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
279 not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
280 quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
281 <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
282 necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
283 refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
284 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p>
285
286 <p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
287 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
288 offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
289 prose more <e>punch</e>!</p>
290
291 </body>
292 </section>
293
294 <section>
295 <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
296 <body>
297
298 <p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text
299 with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p>
300
301 <p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
302 Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
303 actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
304 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
305 <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
306 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
307 link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
308 link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
309 </p>
310
311 </body>
312 </section>
313
314 <section>
315 <title>Figures</title>
316
317 <body>
318
319 <p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
320 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
321 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
322 the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
323 the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
324 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
325 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p>
326
327 </body>
328 </section>
329 <section>
330 <title>Tables and lists</title>
331 <body>
332
333 <p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
334 a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
335 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
336 HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
337 header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
338 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> --
339 there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
340 first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
341 be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
342 </p>
343
344 <p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
345 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
346 should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
347 <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </section>
351
352 <section>
353 <title>Intra-document references</title>
354 <body>
355
356 <p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
357 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
358 One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
359 One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
360 Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
361 Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
362 link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>,
363 type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
364 adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p>
365
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 </chapter>
369 <chapter>
370 <title>Resources</title>
371 <section>
372 <title>Start writing</title>
373 <body>
374 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
375 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
376 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
377 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please
378 post a message to the <mail link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail>
379 stating what you'd like to tackle.
380 Have fun!</p>
381 </body>
382 </section>
383 </chapter>
384 </guide>

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