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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
9
10 <abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide
11 XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document
12 itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13 </abstract>
14
15 <version>2.0</version>
16 <date>12 May 2003</date>
17
18 <chapter>
19 <title>Guide basics</title>
20
21 <section>
22 <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23 <body>
24
25 <p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27 documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28 This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p>
30
31 <p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32 documents.</p>
33
34 </body>
35 </section>
36
37 <section>
38 <title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42 guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43 file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44 tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
45 exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46 create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
47 is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package. </p>
48
49
50 <pre caption="Installing libxslt">
51 # <c>emerge libxslt</c>
52 </pre>
53
54 <p>Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words,
55 we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
56 that are available for download: </p>
57
58 <p><b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
59 Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any documentation,
60 you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found
61 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.</p>
62
63 <p><b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b> in
64 every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
65 documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want to fully
66 develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful for translators.
67 These tarballs can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
68 </p>
69
70 <p>After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go
71 to the directory where the tarball was extracted, and enter the
72 <path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse around and get comfortable with the
73 layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and <path>doc</path> directories.
74 As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are in <path>xsl</path>,
75 and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing purposes, we
76 will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
77 <path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations
78 of the XSL and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with
79 <c>xsltproc</c>. </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
82 # <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
83 </pre>
84
85 <p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
86 <path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
87 to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
88 <path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
89 as <path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
90 directory.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </section>
95 </chapter>
96 <chapter>
97 <title>Guide XML</title>
98 <section>
99 <title>Basic structure</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
103 the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
104 XML document: </p>
105
106 <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
107 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
108 &lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
109 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
110 &lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
111 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
112 &lt;/author&gt;
113 &lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
114 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
115 &lt;/author&gt;
116
117 &lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
118 our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official
119 format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
120 using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt;
121
122 &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
123 &lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
124 </pre>
125
126 <p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
127 document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
128 guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
129 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
130 guide document. </p>
131
132 <p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
133 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
134 allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
135 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
136 particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
137 <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
138 person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
139 more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
143 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
144 current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
145 respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
146 a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
147 tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
148 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
149 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153
154 <section>
155 <title>Chapters and sections</title>
156 <body>
157 <p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
158 the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
159 chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
160 and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
161 consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous
162 excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
163 (if minimal) guide document:
164 </p>
165
166 <pre>
167 &lt;chapter&gt;
168 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
169 &lt;section&gt;
170 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
171 &lt;body&gt;
172 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt;
173 &lt;/body&gt;
174 &lt;/section&gt;
175 &lt;/chapter&gt;
176 </pre>
177
178 <p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
179 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
180 adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
181 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
182 <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
183 is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
184 content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
185 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p>
186
187 <note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple
188 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain
189 multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
190 element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note>
191
192 </body>
193 </section>
194
195 <section>
196 <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
197 <body>
198 <p>
199 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
200 </p>
201 <pre>
202 &lt;p&gt;
203 This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
204 &lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
205 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
206 &lt;/p&gt;
207
208 &lt;pre&gt;
209 This is text output or code.
210 # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
211
212 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
213 &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
214
215 &lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
216 &lt;/pre&gt;
217 &lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt;
218 &lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt;
219 &lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt;
220 </pre>
221 <p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p>
222
223 <p>
224 This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
225 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
226 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
227 </p>
228
229 <pre>
230 This is text output or code.
231 # <i>this is user input</i>
232
233 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
234 &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
235
236 <codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
237 </pre>
238 <note>This is a note.</note>
239 <warn>This is a warning.</warn>
240 <impo>This is important.</impo>
241 </body>
242 </section>
243
244 <section>
245 <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
246 <body>
247
248 <p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
249 need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
250 block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
251 <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
252 Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
253 these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
254 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
255 stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
256 <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
257 preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
258 You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:</p>
259
260 <pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
261 &lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
262 # &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
263 16:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
264 &lt;/pre&gt;
265 </pre>
266
267 </body>
268 </section>
269 <section>
270 <title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
271 <body>
272
273 <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
274 be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
275 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p>
276
277 <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
278 <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>.
279 This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the
280 standard paragraph type. </p>
281
282 <p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
283 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
284 that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
285 the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
286 element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
287 not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
288 quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
289 <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
290 necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
291 refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
292 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p>
293
294 <p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
295 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
296 offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
297 prose more <e>punch</e>!</p>
298
299 </body>
300 </section>
301
302 <section>
303 <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text
307 with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p>
308
309 <p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
310 Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
311 actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
312 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
313 <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
314 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
315 link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
316 link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
317 </p>
318
319 </body>
320 </section>
321
322 <section>
323 <title>Figures</title>
324
325 <body>
326
327 <p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
328 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
329 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
330 the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
331 the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
332 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
333 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p>
334
335 </body>
336 </section>
337 <section>
338 <title>Tables and lists</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
342 a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
343 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
344 HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
345 header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
346 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> --
347 there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
348 first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
349 be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
350 </p>
351
352 <p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
353 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
354 should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
355 <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p>
356
357 </body>
358 </section>
359
360 <section>
361 <title>Intra-document references</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
365 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
366 One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
367 One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
368 Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
369 Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
370 link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>,
371 type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
372 adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p>
373
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 </chapter>
377 <chapter>
378 <title>Resources</title>
379 <section>
380 <title>Start writing</title>
381 <body>
382 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
383 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
384 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
385 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please
386 post a message to the <mail link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail>
387 stating what you'd like to tackle.
388 Have fun!</p>
389 </body>
390 </section>
391 </chapter>
392 </guide>

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