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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
9
10 <license/>
11
12 <abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide
13 XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document
14 itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>2.0</version>
18 <date>12 May 2003</date>
19
20 <chapter>
21 <title>Guide basics</title>
22
23 <section>
24 <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
25 <body>
26
27 <p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
28 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
29 documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
30 This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
31 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p>
32
33 <p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
34 documents.</p>
35
36 </body>
37 </section>
38
39 <section>
40 <title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title>
41 <body>
42
43 <p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
44 guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
45 file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
46 tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
47 exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
48 create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
49 is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package. </p>
50
51
52 <pre caption="Installing libxslt">
53 # <c>emerge libxslt</c>
54 </pre>
55
56 <p>Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words,
57 we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
58 that are available for download: </p>
59
60 <p><b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
61 Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any documentation,
62 you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found
63 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.</p>
64
65 <p><b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b> in
66 every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
67 documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want to fully
68 develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful for translators.
69 These tarballs can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
70 </p>
71
72 <p>After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go
73 to the directory where the tarball was extracted, and enter the
74 <path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse around and get comfortable with the
75 layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and <path>doc</path> directories.
76 As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are in <path>xsl</path>,
77 and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing purposes, we
78 will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
79 <path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations
80 of the XSL and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with
81 <c>xsltproc</c>. </p>
82
83 <pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
84 # <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
85 </pre>
86
87 <p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
88 <path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
89 to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
90 <path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
91 as <path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
92 directory.
93 </p>
94
95 </body>
96 </section>
97 </chapter>
98 <chapter>
99 <title>Guide XML</title>
100 <section>
101 <title>Basic structure</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
105 the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
106 XML document: </p>
107
108 <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
109 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
110 &lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
111 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
112 &lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
113 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
114 &lt;/author&gt;
115 &lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
116 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
117 &lt;/author&gt;
118
119 &lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
120 our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official
121 format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
122 using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt;
123
124 &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
125 &lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
126 </pre>
127
128 <p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
129 document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
130 guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
131 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
132 guide document. </p>
133
134 <p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
135 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
136 allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
137 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
138 particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
139 <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
140 person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
141 more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
142 </p>
143
144 <p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
145 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
146 current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
147 respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
148 a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
149 tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
150 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
151 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p>
152
153 </body>
154 </section>
155
156 <section>
157 <title>Chapters and sections</title>
158 <body>
159 <p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
160 the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
161 chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
162 and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
163 consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous
164 excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
165 (if minimal) guide document:
166 </p>
167
168 <pre>
169 &lt;chapter&gt;
170 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
171 &lt;section&gt;
172 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
173 &lt;body&gt;
174 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt;
175 &lt;/body&gt;
176 &lt;/section&gt;
177 &lt;/chapter&gt;
178 </pre>
179
180 <p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
181 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
182 adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
183 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
184 <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
185 is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
186 content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
187 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p>
188
189 <note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple
190 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain
191 multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
192 element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note>
193
194 </body>
195 </section>
196
197 <section>
198 <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
199 <body>
200 <p>
201 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
202 </p>
203 <pre>
204 &lt;p&gt;
205 This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
206 &lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
207 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
208 &lt;/p&gt;
209
210 &lt;pre&gt;
211 This is text output or code.
212 # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
213
214 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
215 &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
216
217 &lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
218 &lt;/pre&gt;
219 &lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt;
220 &lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt;
221 &lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt;
222 </pre>
223 <p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p>
224
225 <p>
226 This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
227 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
228 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
229 </p>
230
231 <pre>
232 This is text output or code.
233 # <i>this is user input</i>
234
235 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
236 &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
237
238 <codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
239 </pre>
240 <note>This is a note.</note>
241 <warn>This is a warning.</warn>
242 <impo>This is important.</impo>
243 </body>
244 </section>
245
246 <section>
247 <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
248 <body>
249
250 <p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
251 need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
252 block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
253 <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
254 Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
255 these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
256 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
257 stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
258 <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
259 preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
260 You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:</p>
261
262 <pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
263 &lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
264 # &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
265 16:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
266 &lt;/pre&gt;
267 </pre>
268
269 </body>
270 </section>
271 <section>
272 <title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
276 be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
277 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p>
278
279 <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
280 <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>.
281 This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the
282 standard paragraph type. </p>
283
284 <p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
285 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
286 that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
287 the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
288 element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
289 not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
290 quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
291 <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
292 necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
293 refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
294 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p>
295
296 <p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
297 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
298 offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
299 prose more <e>punch</e>!</p>
300
301 </body>
302 </section>
303
304 <section>
305 <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
306 <body>
307
308 <p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text
309 with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p>
310
311 <p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
312 Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
313 actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
314 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
315 <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
316 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
317 link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
318 link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
319 </p>
320
321 </body>
322 </section>
323
324 <section>
325 <title>Figures</title>
326
327 <body>
328
329 <p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
330 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
331 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
332 the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
333 the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
334 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
335 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p>
336
337 </body>
338 </section>
339 <section>
340 <title>Tables and lists</title>
341 <body>
342
343 <p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
344 a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
345 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
346 HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
347 header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
348 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> --
349 there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
350 first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
351 be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
352 </p>
353
354 <p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
355 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
356 should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
357 <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p>
358
359 </body>
360 </section>
361
362 <section>
363 <title>Intra-document references</title>
364 <body>
365
366 <p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
367 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
368 One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
369 One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
370 Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
371 Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
372 link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>,
373 type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
374 adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p>
375
376 </body>
377 </section>
378 </chapter>
379 <chapter>
380 <title>Resources</title>
381 <section>
382 <title>Start writing</title>
383 <body>
384 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
385 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
386 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
387 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please
388 post a message to the <mail link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail>
389 stating what you'd like to tackle.
390 Have fun!</p>
391 </body>
392 </section>
393 </chapter>
394 </guide>

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