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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.36 2005/02/14 16:14:46 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
22 </author>
23
24 <abstract>
25 This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
26 Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
27 documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28 assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
29 </abstract>
30
31 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
33 <license/>
34
35 <version>2.14</version>
36 <date>2005-04-06</date>
37
38 <chapter>
39 <title>Guide basics</title>
40 <section>
41 <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
42 <body>
43
44 <p>
45 The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
46 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
47 documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
48 This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
49 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50 </p>
51
52 <p>
53 The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
54 documents.
55 </p>
56
57 </body>
58 </section>
59 <section>
60 <title>Further Resources</title>
61 <body>
62
63 <p>
64 If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65 test GuideXML, please read the <uri
66 link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri> which
67 contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68 </p>
69
70 </body>
71 </section>
72 </chapter>
73
74 <chapter>
75 <title>Guide XML</title>
76 <section>
77 <title>Basic structure</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
82 tags used in a GuideXML document:
83 </p>
84
85 <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
86 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
87 &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
88 &lt;guide link="<i>relative/link/to/your/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
89 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
90 &lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
91 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
92 &lt;/author&gt;
93
94 &lt;abstract&gt;
95 <i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
96 our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
97 format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
98 using GuideXML.</i>
99 &lt;/abstract&gt;
100
101 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
102 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
103 &lt;license/&gt;
104
105 &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
106 &lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
107 </pre>
108
109 <p>
110 On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
111 document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
112 guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
113 The <c>link</c> attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the
114 relative path to the document even though the file name alone will work. It is
115 mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of your document.
116 If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version will either not
117 work or point to a wrong document. The <c>lang</c> attribute can be used to
118 specify the language code of your document. It is used to format the date and
119 insert strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified
120 language. The default is English.
121 </p>
122
123 <p>
124 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
125 guide document.
126 </p>
127
128 <p>
129 Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
130 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
131 allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
132 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
133 particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
134 <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
135 person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
136 more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
137 </p>
138
139 <p>
140 Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
141 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
142 current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
143 respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
144 appear verbatim in the rendered document.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
149 document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
150 tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
151 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
152 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
157 document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">Creative
158 Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
159 link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </section>
164 <section>
165 <title>Chapters and sections</title>
166 <body>
167
168 <p>
169 Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
170 structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
171 chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
172 section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
173 consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
174 link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
175 <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
176 guide document:
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Minimal guide example">
180 &lt;chapter&gt;
181 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
182 &lt;section&gt;
183 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
184 &lt;body&gt;
185
186 &lt;p&gt;
187 <i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
188 &lt;/p&gt;
189
190 &lt;/body&gt;
191 &lt;/section&gt;
192 &lt;/chapter&gt;
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
197 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
198 adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
199 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
200 <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
201 is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
202 content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
203 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
204 </p>
205
206 <note>
207 A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
208 elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
209 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
210 element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
211 </note>
212
213 </body>
214 </section>
215 <section>
216 <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
217 <body>
218
219 <p>
220 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
221 an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption="Example of a body element">
225 &lt;p&gt;
226 This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
227 &lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
228 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
229 &lt;/p&gt;
230
231 &lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
232 This is text output or code.
233 # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
234
235 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
236 &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
237
238 &lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
239 &lt;/pre&gt;
240
241 &lt;note&gt;
242 This is a note.
243 &lt;/note&gt;
244
245 &lt;warn&gt;
246 This is a warning.
247 &lt;/warn&gt;
248
249 &lt;impo&gt;
250 This is important.
251 &lt;/impo&gt;
252 </pre>
253
254 <p>
255 Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
256 </p>
257
258 <p>
259 This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
260 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
261 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
262 </p>
263
264 <pre caption="Code Sample">
265 This is text output or code.
266 # <i>this is user input</i>
267
268 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
269 &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
270
271 <comment>(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)</comment>
272 </pre>
273
274 <note>
275 This is a note.
276 </note>
277
278 <warn>
279 This is a warning.
280 </warn>
281
282 <impo>
283 This is important.
284 </impo>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 <section>
289 <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
290 <body>
291
292 <p>
293 We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
294 need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
295 block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
296 <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
297 Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
298 these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
299 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
300 stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
301 <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
302 preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
303 You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
307 &lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
308 # &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
309 16:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
310 &lt;/pre&gt;
311 </pre>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section>
316 <title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
321 be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
322 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
323 </p>
324
325 <p>
326 The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
327 <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
328 <e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
329 font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
334 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
335 that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
336 the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
337 element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
338 not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
339 quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
340 <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
341 necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
342 refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
343 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
344 adorable!
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
349 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
350 offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
351 prose more <e>punch</e>!
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section>
357 <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
362 some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
363 link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
368 It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
369 displayed in the body text, such as this link to
370 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
371 <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
372 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
373 link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
374 link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
375 Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
376 to link to other parts of the Gentoo website. For instance, a link to the <uri
377 link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
378 link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
379 even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
380 link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
381 </p>
382
383 </body>
384 </section>
385 <section>
386 <title>Figures</title>
387 <body>
388
389 <p>
390 Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
391 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
392 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
393 the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
394 the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
395 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
396 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
397 </p>
398
399 </body>
400 </section>
401 <section>
402 <title>Tables and lists</title>
403 <body>
404
405 <p>
406 Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
407 a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
408 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
409 HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
410 header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
411 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
412 -- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
413 first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
414 be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
415 </p>
416
417 <p>
418 To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
419 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
420 should only appear inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> or
421 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> tag.
422 </p>
423
424 </body>
425 </section>
426 <section>
427 <title>Intra-document references</title>
428 <body>
429
430 <p>
431 Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
432 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
433 One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
434 One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
435 Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
436 Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
437 link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
438 link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
439 link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
440 adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
441 </p>
442
443 <p>
444 However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
445 links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
446 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
447 attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Using the id attribute">
451 &lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
452 &lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
453 ...
454 &lt;p&gt;
455 More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
456 &lt;/p&gt;
457 </pre>
458
459 </body>
460 </section>
461 </chapter>
462
463 <chapter>
464 <title>Coding Style</title>
465 <section>
466 <title>Introduction</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
471 most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
472 A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
473 internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
474 regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
475 </p>
476
477 <p>
478 Both sections are described next.
479 </p>
480
481 </body>
482 </section>
483 <section>
484 <title>Internal Coding Style</title>
485 <body>
486
487 <p>
488 <b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
489 GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
490 <c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
491 <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
492 <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
493 <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
494 <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
495 </p>
496
497 <p>
498 <b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
499 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
500 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
501 <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
502 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
503 <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 <b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
508 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
509 this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
510 The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
511 </p>
512
513 <p>
514 <b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
515 the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
516 <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
517 is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
518 tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
519 </p>
520
521 <p>
522 In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
523 <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
524 </p>
525
526 <p>
527 An example for indentation is:
528 </p>
529
530 <pre caption="Indentation Example">
531 &lt;table&gt;
532 &lt;tr&gt;
533 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
534 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
535 &lt;/tr&gt;
536 &lt;tr&gt;
537 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
538 &lt;ti&gt;
539 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
540 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
541 &lt;/ti&gt;
542 &lt;/tr&gt;
543 &lt;/table&gt;
544
545 &lt;ul&gt;
546 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
547 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
548 &lt;/ul&gt;
549 </pre>
550
551 <p>
552 <b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
553 &quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="Attributes">
557 <comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
558 <comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
559 </pre>
560
561 </body>
562 </section>
563 <section>
564 <title>External Coding Style</title>
565 <body>
566
567 <p>
568 Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
569 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
570 sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
571 other reading marks).
572 </p>
573
574 <p>
575 Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
576 with a capital letter.
577 </p>
578
579 <pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
580 &lt;ul&gt;
581 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
582 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
583 &lt;/ul&gt;
584 </pre>
585
586 <p>
587 Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
588 </p>
589
590 <p>
591 Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
592 possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
593 Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
594 </p>
595
596 <p>
597 When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
598 <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
599 that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
600 for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
601 comment.
602 </p>
603
604 <pre caption="Comment example">
605 <comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
606 # <i>id john</i>
607 </pre>
608
609 </body>
610 </section>
611 </chapter>
612
613 <chapter>
614 <title>Handbook Format</title>
615 <section>
616 <title>Guide vs Book</title>
617 <body>
618
619 <p>
620 For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
621 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
622 broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
623 allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
624 </p>
625
626 </body>
627 </section>
628 <section>
629 <title>Main File</title>
630 <body>
631
632 <p>
633 The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
634 real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
635 doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
636 </p>
637
638 <pre caption="Example book usage">
639 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
640 &lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
641
642 &lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
643 &lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
644
645 &lt;author...&gt;
646 ...
647 &lt;/author&gt;
648
649 &lt;abstract&gt;
650 ...
651 &lt;/abstract&gt;
652
653 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
654 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
655 &lt;license/&gt;
656
657 &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
658 &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
659 </pre>
660
661 <p>
662 So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
663 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
664 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
665 equivalent of a separate part in a book:
666 </p>
667
668 <pre caption="Defining a part">
669 &lt;part&gt;
670 &lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
671 &lt;abstract&gt;
672 ...
673 &lt;/abstract&gt;
674
675 <comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
676 &lt;/part&gt;
677 </pre>
678
679 <p>
680 Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
681 <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
682 </p>
683
684 <p>
685 Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
686 chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
687 special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
688 document.
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="Defining a chapter">
692 &lt;chapter&gt;
693 &lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
694 &lt;abstract&gt;
695 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
696 &lt;/abstract&gt;
697
698 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
699
700 &lt;/chapter&gt;
701 </pre>
702
703 </body>
704 </section>
705 <section>
706 <title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
707 <body>
708
709 <p>
710 The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
711 </p>
712
713 <pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
714 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
715 &lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
716
717 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
718 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
719
720 &lt;sections&gt;
721
722 &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
723 &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
724
725 <comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
726
727 &lt;/sections&gt;
728 </pre>
729
730 <p>
731 Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
732 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
733 of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
734 </p>
735
736 <p>
737 Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
738 latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
739 browses through all parts of the book.
740 </p>
741
742 </body>
743 </section>
744 </chapter>
745
746 <chapter>
747 <title>Resources</title>
748 <section>
749 <title>Start writing</title>
750 <body>
751
752 <p>
753 Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
754 spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
755 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
756 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. You might be interested
757 in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
758 Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
759 questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
760 link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
761 like to tackle. Have fun!
762 </p>
763
764 </body>
765 </section>
766 </chapter>
767 </guide>

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