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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.71 2011/11/29 19:02:45 swift Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
15 John P. Davis
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22 </author>
23 <author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
25 </author>
26
27 <abstract>
28 This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
29 Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
30 documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
31 assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
32 </abstract>
33
34 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
35 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
36 <license/>
37
38 <version>13</version>
39 <date>2012-10-07</date>
40
41 <chapter>
42 <title>GuideXML basics</title>
43 <section>
44 <title>GuideXML design goals</title>
45 <body>
46
47 <p>
48 The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
49 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
50 documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
51 This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
52 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
53 </p>
54
55 <p>
56 The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
57 documents.
58 </p>
59
60 </body>
61 </section>
62 <section>
63 <title>Further Resources</title>
64 <body>
65
66 <p>
67 If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
68 test GuideXML, please read our <uri
69 link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
70 which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
71 </p>
72
73 <p>
74 You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
75 document while you read it.
76 </p>
77
78 </body>
79 </section>
80 </chapter>
81
82 <chapter>
83 <title>GuideXML</title>
84 <section>
85 <title>Basic structure</title>
86 <body>
87
88 <p>
89 Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
90 tags used in a GuideXML document:
91 </p>
92
93 <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
94 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
95 &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
96 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
97
98 &lt;guide lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
99 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
100
101 &lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
102 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
103 &lt;/author&gt;
104
105 &lt;abstract&gt;
106 <i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
107 our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
108 format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
109 using GuideXML.</i>
110 &lt;/abstract&gt;
111
112 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
113 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 --&gt;
114 &lt;license version="3.0"/&gt;
115
116 &lt;version&gt;<i>1</i>&lt;/version&gt;
117 &lt;date&gt;<i>2011-11-29</i>&lt;/date&gt;
118 </pre>
119
120 <p>
121 On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
122 document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
123 will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
124 Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
125 enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
126 <br/>
127 The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
128 document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
129 "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
130 </p>
131
132 <p>
133 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
134 guide document.
135 </p>
136
137 <p>
138 Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
139 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
140 allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
141 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
142 particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
143 <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
144 person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
145 least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
146 </p>
147
148 <p>
149 Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
150 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
151 current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
152 respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
153 appear verbatim in the rendered document.
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
158 Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
159 shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
160 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
161 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
162 </p>
163
164 <p>
165 Finally we have the <c>&lt;license version="3.0"/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish
166 the document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative
167 Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
168 link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>. Historically,
169 the tag <c>&lt;license /&gt;</c> was used, which denoted the 2.5 version of the
170 license. This is still accepted/allowed.
171 </p>
172
173 </body>
174 </section>
175 <section>
176 <title>Chapters and sections</title>
177 <body>
178
179 <p>
180 Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
181 structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
182 chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
183 section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
184 consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
185 link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
186 <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
187 guide document:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Minimal guide example">
191 &lt;chapter&gt;
192 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
193 &lt;section&gt;
194 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
195 &lt;body&gt;
196
197 &lt;p&gt;
198 <i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
199 &lt;/p&gt;
200
201 &lt;/body&gt;
202 &lt;/section&gt;
203 &lt;/chapter&gt;
204 </pre>
205
206 <p>
207 Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
208 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
209 adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
210 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
211 <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
212 is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
213 content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
214 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
215 </p>
216
217 <note>
218 A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
219 elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
220 <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
221 contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
222 </note>
223
224 </body>
225 </section>
226 <section>
227 <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
232 an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Example of a body element">
236 &lt;p&gt;
237 This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
238 &lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
239 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
240 &lt;/p&gt;
241
242 &lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
243 This is text output or code.
244 # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
245
246 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
247 &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
248
249 &lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
250 &lt;/pre&gt;
251
252 &lt;note&gt;
253 This is a note.
254 &lt;/note&gt;
255
256 &lt;warn&gt;
257 This is a warning.
258 &lt;/warn&gt;
259
260 &lt;impo&gt;
261 This is important.
262 &lt;/impo&gt;
263 </pre>
264
265 <p>
266 Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
267 </p>
268
269 <p>
270 This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
271 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
272 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
273 </p>
274
275 <pre caption="Code Sample">
276 This is text output or code.
277 # <i>this is user input</i>
278
279 Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
280 &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
281
282 <comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
283 </pre>
284
285 <note>
286 This is a note.
287 </note>
288
289 <warn>
290 This is a warning.
291 </warn>
292
293 <impo>
294 This is important.
295 </impo>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 <section>
300 <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
305 to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
306 <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
307 (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
308 <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
309 <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
310 only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
311 Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
312 don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
313 you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
314 exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
315 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
319 &lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
320 # &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
321 16:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
322 &lt;/pre&gt;
323 </pre>
324
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section>
328 <title>Epigraphs</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p by="Anonymous student">
332 Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
333 Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
334 of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
335 and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
336 1790 and is still dead.
337 </p>
338
339 <p>
340 Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
341 to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
342 the signature.
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="Short epigraph">
346 &lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
347 Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
348 &lt;/p&gt;
349 </pre>
350
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 <section>
354 <title>
355 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
356 </title>
357 <body>
358
359 <p>
360 The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
361 <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
362 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
363 </p>
364
365 <p>
366 The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
367 <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
368 <e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
369 font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
370 </p>
371
372 <p>
373 The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
374 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
375 that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
376 the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
377 element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
378 not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
379 quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
380 <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
381 necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
382 refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
383 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
384 adorable!
385 </p>
386
387 <p>
388 As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
389 text.
390 </p>
391
392 <p>
393 <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
394 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
395 offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
396 prose more <e>punch</e>!
397 </p>
398
399 <p>
400 The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
401 <sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
402 </p>
403
404 </body>
405 </section>
406 <section>
407 <title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
408 <body>
409
410 <p>
411 To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
412 inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
413 </p>
414
415 <dl>
416 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
417 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
418 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
419 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
420 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
421 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
422 </dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Used for an identifier
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for a constant
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a statement
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a variable
434 </dd>
435 </dl>
436
437 <note>
438 Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
439 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
440 </note>
441
442 <p>
443 Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
444 </p>
445
446 <pre caption="My first ebuild">
447 <comment># Copyright 1999-2009 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
448 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
449 # &#36;Header: $</comment>
450
451 <ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
452 <ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
453 <ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
454
455 <ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
456 <ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
457 <ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
458 <ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
459
460 <stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
461 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex
462 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
463 }
464
465 <stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
466 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
467
468 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
469 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
470 }
471 </pre>
472
473 </body>
474 </section>
475 <section>
476 <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
477 <body>
478
479 <p>
480 We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
481 some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
482 link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
483 email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
484 would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
489 <c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
490 would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
491 with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
492 content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
493 link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
494 link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
495 <br/>
496 This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
497 contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
498 </p>
499
500 <p>
501 The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
502 It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
503 displayed in the body text, such as this link to
504 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
505 <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
506 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
507 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
508 <e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
509 Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
510 <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
511 For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
512 should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
513 index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
514 directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
515 index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
516 </p>
517
518 <p>
519 You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
520 starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
521 </p>
522
523 <p>
524 Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
525 syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
526 link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
527 </p>
528
529 </body>
530 </section>
531 <section>
532 <title>Figures</title>
533 <body>
534
535 <p>
536 Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
537 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
538 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
539 the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
540 the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
541 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
542 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
543 </p>
544
545 </body>
546 </section>
547 <section>
548 <title>Tables</title>
549 <body>
550
551 <p>
552 GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
553 table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
554 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
555 &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
556 header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
557 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
558 -- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
559 first row.
560 </p>
561
562 <p>
563 Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
564 (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
565 span their content across rows, columns or both.
566 </p>
567
568 <p>
569 Furthermore, table cells (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> &amp; <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) can be
570 right-aligned, left-aligned or centered with the <c>align</c> attribute.
571 </p>
572
573 <table>
574 <tr>
575 <th align="center" colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
576 </tr>
577 <tr>
578 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
579 <ti>Item A1</ti>
580 <ti>Item A2</ti>
581 <ti>Item A3</ti>
582 </tr>
583 <tr>
584 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
585 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2" align="right">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
586 </tr>
587 <tr>
588 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
589 </tr>
590 <tr>
591 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
595 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
596 </tr>
597 <tr>
598 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
599 </tr>
600 </table>
601
602 </body>
603 </section>
604 <section>
605 <title>Lists</title>
606 <body>
607
608 <p>
609 To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
610 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
611 appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
612 that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
613 that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
614 </p>
615
616 <p>
617 Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
618 neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
619 (<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
620 admonitions. A definition list comprises:
621 </p>
622
623 <dl>
624 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
625 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
626 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
627 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
628 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
629 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
630 </dl>
631
632 <p>
633 The following list copied from <uri
634 link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
635 that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
636 contain another definition list though.
637 </p>
638
639 <dl>
640 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
641 <dd>
642 <ul>
643 <li>100 g. flour</li>
644 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
645 <li>1 cup water</li>
646 <li>2 eggs</li>
647 <li>salt, pepper</li>
648 </ul>
649 </dd>
650 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
651 <dd>
652 <ol>
653 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
654 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
655 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
656 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
657 </ol>
658 </dd>
659 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
660 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
661 </dl>
662
663 </body>
664 </section>
665 <section>
666 <title>Intra-document references</title>
667 <body>
668
669 <p>
670 GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
671 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
672 One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
673 One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
674 Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
675 Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
676 <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
677 to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
678 <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
679 </p>
680
681 <p>
682 However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
683 links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
684 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
685 the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
686 </p>
687
688 <pre caption="Using the id attribute">
689 &lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
690 &lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
691 ...
692 &lt;p&gt;
693 More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
694 &lt;/p&gt;
695 </pre>
696
697 </body>
698 </section>
699 <section>
700 <title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
701 <body>
702
703 <p>
704 A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
705 a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
706 are:
707 </p>
708
709 <ul>
710 <li>
711 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
712 articles</uri>
713 </li>
714 <li>
715 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
716 should not be considered official
717 </li>
718 <li>
719 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
720 anymore
721 </li>
722 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
723 </ul>
724
725 <p>
726 When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
727 version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
728 automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
729 behaviour.
730 </p>
731
732 <pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
733 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
734 &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
735 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
736
737 &lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
738 &lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
739
740 &lt;author title="Author"&gt;
741 ...
742 </pre>
743
744 </body>
745 </section>
746 <section>
747 <title>FAQs</title>
748 <body>
749
750 <p>
751 FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
752 answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
753 can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
754 chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
755 <c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
756 is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
757 sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
758 element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
759 section per chapter and one link per question.
760 </p>
761
762 <p>
763 A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
764 link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
765 obvious.
766 </p>
767
768 </body>
769 </section>
770 </chapter>
771
772 <chapter>
773 <title>Handbook Format</title>
774 <section>
775 <title>Guide vs Book</title>
776 <body>
777
778 <p>
779 For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
780 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
781 broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
782 allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
783 </p>
784
785 </body>
786 </section>
787 <section>
788 <title>Main File</title>
789 <body>
790
791 <p>
792 The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
793 real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
794 doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
795 </p>
796
797 <pre caption="Example book usage">
798 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
799 &lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
800 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
801
802 &lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
803 &lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
804
805 &lt;author...&gt;
806 ...
807 &lt;/author&gt;
808
809 &lt;abstract&gt;
810 ...
811 &lt;/abstract&gt;
812
813 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
814 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 --&gt;
815 &lt;license version="3.0"/&gt;
816
817 &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
818 &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
819 </pre>
820
821 <p>
822 So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
823 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
824 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
825 equivalent of a separate part in a book:
826 </p>
827
828 <pre caption="Defining a part">
829 &lt;part&gt;
830 &lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
831 &lt;abstract&gt;
832 ...
833 &lt;/abstract&gt;
834
835 <comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
836 &lt;/part&gt;
837 </pre>
838
839 <p>
840 Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
841 <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
842 </p>
843
844 <p>
845 Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
846 chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
847 a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
848 document.
849 </p>
850
851 <pre caption="Defining a chapter">
852 &lt;chapter&gt;
853 &lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
854
855 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
856
857 &lt;/chapter&gt;
858 </pre>
859
860 </body>
861 </section>
862 <section>
863 <title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
864 <body>
865
866 <p>
867 The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
868 </p>
869
870 <pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
871 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
872 &lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
873 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
874
875 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
876 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 --&gt;
877
878 &lt;sections&gt;
879
880 &lt;abstract&gt;
881 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
882 &lt;/abstract&gt;
883
884 &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
885 &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
886
887 <comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
888
889 &lt;/sections&gt;
890 </pre>
891
892 <p>
893 Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
894 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
895 of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
896 </p>
897
898 <p>
899 Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
900 latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
901 browses through all parts of the book.
902 </p>
903
904 </body>
905 </section>
906 </chapter>
907
908 <chapter>
909 <title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
910 <section>
911 <title>Global Values</title>
912 <body>
913
914 <p>
915 Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
916 handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
917 unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
918 used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
919 </p>
920
921 <p>
922 Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
923 chapters.
924 </p>
925
926 <p>
927 To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
928 master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
929 <c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
930 The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
931 </p>
932
933 <p>
934 The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
935 </p>
936
937 <pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
938 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
939 &lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
940 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
941
942 &lt;book&gt;
943 &lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
944
945 <i>&lt;values>
946 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
947 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
948 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
949 &lt;/values&gt;</i>
950
951 &lt;author...&gt;
952 ...
953 &lt;/author&gt;
954
955 ...
956 </pre>
957
958 <p>
959 The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
960 <c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
961 <c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
962 "install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
963 </p>
964
965 <pre caption="Using defined values">
966 &lt;p&gt;
967 The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
968 and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
969 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
970 connection.
971 &lt;/p&gt;
972 </pre>
973
974 <p>
975 To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
976 that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
977 <c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
978 </p>
979
980 </body>
981 </section>
982 <section>
983 <title>Conditional Elements</title>
984 <body>
985
986 <p>
987 Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
988 link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
989 differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
990 content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
991 the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
992 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
993 <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
994 <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
995 and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
996 </p>
997
998 <p>
999 The condition must be an <uri
1000 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1001 evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1002 element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1003 <c>test</c> attribute.
1004 </p>
1005
1006 <p>
1007 The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1008 handbook master file to condition some content:
1009 </p>
1010
1011 <pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1012 &lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1013
1014 &lt;p&gt;
1015 This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1016 &lt;/p&gt;
1017
1018 &lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1019 This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1020 &lt;/p&gt;
1021
1022 &lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1023 This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1024 &lt;/p&gt;
1025
1026 &lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1027 This paragraph will never be seen!
1028 The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1029 &lt;/p&gt;
1030
1031 &lt;/body&gt;
1032
1033 &lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1034
1035 &lt;p&gt;
1036 This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1037 the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1038 &lt;/p&gt;
1039
1040 &lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1041 This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1042 &lt;/note&gt;
1043
1044 &lt;/body&gt;
1045 </pre>
1046
1047 </body>
1048 </section>
1049 </chapter>
1050
1051 <chapter id="codingstyle">
1052 <title>Coding Style</title>
1053 <section>
1054 <title>Introduction</title>
1055 <body>
1056
1057 <p>
1058 Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
1059 most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
1060 A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
1061 internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
1062 regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
1063 </p>
1064
1065 <p>
1066 Both sections are described next.
1067 </p>
1068
1069 </body>
1070 </section>
1071 <section>
1072 <title>Internal Coding Style</title>
1073 <body>
1074
1075 <p>
1076 <b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1077 GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
1078 <c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
1079 <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
1080 <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
1081 <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
1082 <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
1083 </p>
1084
1085 <p>
1086 <b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1087 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
1088 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
1089 <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1090 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
1091 <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
1092 </p>
1093
1094 <p>
1095 <b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
1096 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
1097 choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
1098 editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
1099 keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
1100 columns to help console users.
1101 </p>
1102
1103 <p>
1104 <b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
1105 parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
1106 <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
1107 <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
1108 each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
1109 Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
1110 </p>
1111
1112 <p>
1113 In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
1114 <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1115 the content.
1116 </p>
1117
1118 <p>
1119 An example for indentation is:
1120 </p>
1121
1122 <pre caption="Indentation Example">
1123 &lt;table&gt;
1124 &lt;tr&gt;
1125 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
1126 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
1127 &lt;/tr&gt;
1128 &lt;tr&gt;
1129 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
1130 &lt;ti&gt;
1131 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
1132 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
1133 &lt;/ti&gt;
1134 &lt;/tr&gt;
1135 &lt;/table&gt;
1136
1137 &lt;ul&gt;
1138 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
1139 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
1140 &lt;/ul&gt;
1141 </pre>
1142
1143 <p>
1144 <b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
1145 and the attribute value. As an example:
1146 </p>
1147
1148 <pre caption="Attributes">
1149 <comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
1150 <comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
1151 </pre>
1152
1153 </body>
1154 </section>
1155 <section>
1156 <title>External Coding Style</title>
1157 <body>
1158
1159 <p>
1160 Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1161 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
1162 unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
1163 with a period (or other reading marks).
1164 </p>
1165
1166 <p>
1167 Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
1168 with a capital letter.
1169 </p>
1170
1171 <pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
1172 &lt;ul&gt;
1173 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
1174 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
1175 &lt;/ul&gt;
1176 </pre>
1177
1178 <p>
1179 Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
1180 </p>
1181
1182 <p>
1183 Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
1184 possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1185 Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1186 </p>
1187
1188 <p>
1189 When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
1190 <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
1191 that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
1192 for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1193 comment.
1194 </p>
1195
1196 <pre caption="Comment example">
1197 <comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
1198 # <i>id john</i>
1199 </pre>
1200
1201 </body>
1202 </section>
1203 </chapter>
1204
1205 <chapter>
1206 <title>Resources</title>
1207 <section>
1208 <title>Start writing</title>
1209 <body>
1210
1211 <p>
1212 GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
1213 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
1214 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
1215 to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
1216 <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
1217 &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
1218 GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1219 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
1220 to tackle. Have fun!
1221 </p>
1222
1223 </body>
1224 </section>
1225 </chapter>
1226 </guide>

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