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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.23 2003/11/17 17:05:58 swift Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17
18<license/>
19<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 20This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 21Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 22documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
23assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 24</abstract>
14 25
15<version>1.0</version> 26<version>2.5</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 27<date>November 17, 2003</date>
17 28
18<chapter> 29<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 30<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 31<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 32<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 33<body>
24 34
35<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 36The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 37learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 38documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 39This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 40XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
41</p>
30 42
43<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 44The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 45documents.
46</p>
33 47
34</body> 48</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 49</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 50<section>
51<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 52<body>
40 53
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 54<p>
64 55If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to test
65<pre> 56GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 57link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/gdp/doc/en/docdev.xml">Documentation
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 58Developer Guide</uri> which contains tips and tricks for documentation
68</pre> 59development.
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 60</p>
77 61
78</body> 62</body>
79</section> 63</section>
80</chapter> 64</chapter>
65
81<chapter> 66<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 67<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 68<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 69<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 70<body>
86 71
72<p>
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 73Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 74the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
89XML document: </p> 75XML document:
76</p>
90 77
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 78<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 79&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 80&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 81&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 82&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 83 &lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 84&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 85&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 86 &lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt; 87&lt;/author&gt;
101 88
89&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 90<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 91our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 92format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 93using GuideXML.</i>
94&lt;/abstract&gt;
95
96&lt;license/&gt;
106 97
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 98&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 99&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 100</pre>
110 101
102<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 103On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 104document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 105guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 106Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 107guide document.
108</p>
116 109
110<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 111Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 112about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 113allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 114relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 115particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 116<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 117person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 118more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 119</p>
126 120
121<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 122Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 123<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 124current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 125respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 126a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 127tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 128<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 129required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
130</p>
135 131
136</body> 132<p>
137</section> 133Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
134document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/">Creative
135Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
136link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
137</p>
138 138
139</body>
140</section>
139<section> 141<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 142<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 143<body>
144
145<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 146Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 147the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 148chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 149and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 150consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 151excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
148(if minimal) guide document: 152(if minimal) guide document:
149</p> 153</p>
150 154
151<pre> 155<pre>
152&lt;chapter&gt; 156&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 157&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 158&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 159&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 160&lt;body&gt;
161
162&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 163<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
164&lt;/p&gt;
165
158 &lt;/body&gt; 166&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 167&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 168&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 169</pre>
162 170
171<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 172Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 173element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 174adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 175<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 176<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 177is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 178content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 179inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
180</p>
171 181
182<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 183A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 184elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 185<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 186element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
187</note>
176 188
177</body> 189</body>
178</section> 190</section>
179
180<section> 191<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 192<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 193<body>
194
183<p> 195<p>
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 196Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 197</p>
198
186<pre> 199<pre>
187&lt;p&gt; 200&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 201This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 202&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 203Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 210Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 211&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 212
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 213&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 214&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 215
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 216&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 217This is a note.
218&lt;/note&gt;
219
220&lt;warn&gt;
221This is a warning.
222&lt;/warn&gt;
223
224&lt;impo&gt;
225This is important.
226&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 227</pre>
228
229<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 230Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:
231</p>
207 232
208<p> 233<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 234This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 235<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 236Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 243Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 244&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 245
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 246<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
222</pre> 247</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 248
249<note>
250This is a note.
251</note>
252
253<warn>
254This is a warning.
255</warn>
256
257<impo>
258This is important.
259</impo>
260
261</body>
262</section>
229<section> 263<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 264<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 265<body>
232 266
267<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 268We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 269need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 270block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 271<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 272Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 273these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 274<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 275stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 276<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 277preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
278You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
279</p>
280
281<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
282&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
283# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
28416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
285&lt;/pre&gt;
286</pre>
243 287
244</body> 288</body>
245</section> 289</section>
246<section> 290<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 291<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 292<body>
249 293
294<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 295The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 296be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 297<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
298</p>
253 299
300<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 301The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 302<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 303<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 304font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
305</p>
258 306
307<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 308The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 309input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 310that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 311the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 312element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 313not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 314quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 315<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 316necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 317refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 318the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
319adorable!
320</p>
270 321
322<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 323<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 324I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 325offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 326prose more <e>punch</e>!
327</p>
275 328
276</body> 329</body>
277</section> 330</section>
278
279<section> 331<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 332<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 333<body>
282 334
335<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 336We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 337some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
338link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
339</p>
285 340
341<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 342The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 343Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 344actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 345<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 346<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 347when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 348link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 349<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the
350Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 351</p>
295 352
296</body> 353</body>
297</section> 354</section>
298
299<section> 355<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 356<title>Figures</title>
301 357
302<body> 358<body>
303 359
360<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 361Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 362link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 363time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 364the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 365the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 366:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 367for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
368</p>
311 369
312</body> 370</body>
313</section> 371</section>
314<section> 372<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 373<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 374<body>
317 375
376<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 377Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 378a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 379tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 380HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 381header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 382block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 383-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 384first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 385be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 386</p>
328 387
388<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 389To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 390<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 391should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 392<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag.
393</p>
333 394
334</body> 395</body>
335</section> 396</section>
336
337<section> 397<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 398<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 399<body>
340 400
401<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 402Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 403hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 404One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 405One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 406Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 407Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 408link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
409link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 410link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 411adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
412</p>
413
414<p>
415However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
416links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
417<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
418attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
422&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
423&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
424...
425&lt;p&gt;
426More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
427&lt;/p&gt;
428</pre>
350 429
351</body> 430</body>
352</section> 431</section>
353</chapter> 432</chapter>
433
434<chapter>
435<title>Coding Style</title>
436<section>
437<title>Introduction</title>
438<body>
439
440<p>
441Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
442most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
443A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
444internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
445regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
446</p>
447
448<p>
449Both sections are described next.
450</p>
451
452</body>
453</section>
454<section>
455<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
456<body>
457
458<p>
459<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
460GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
461<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
462<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
463<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
464<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
465<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
466</p>
467
468<p>
469<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
470<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
471<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
472<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
473<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
474<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
475</p>
476
477<p>
478<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
479<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
480this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
481The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
486the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
487<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
488is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
489tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
490</p>
491
492<p>
493In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
494<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
495</p>
496
497<p>
498An example for indentation is:
499</p>
500
501<pre caption = "Indentation Example">
502&lt;table&gt;
503&lt;tr&gt;
504 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
505 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
506&lt;/tr&gt;
507&lt;tr&gt;
508 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
509 &lt;ti&gt;
510 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
511 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
512 &lt;/ti&gt;
513&lt;/tr&gt;
514&lt;/table&gt;
515
516&lt;ul&gt;
517 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
518 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
519&lt;/ul&gt;
520</pre>
521
522<p>
523<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
524&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Attributes">
528<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
529<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
530</pre>
531
532</body>
533</section>
534<section>
535<title>External Coding Style</title>
536<body>
537
538<p>
539Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
540<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
541sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
542other reading marks).
543</p>
544
545<p>
546Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
547with a capital letter.
548</p>
549
550<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
551&lt;ul&gt;
552 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
553 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
554&lt;/ul&gt;
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
559</p>
560
561<p>
562Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
563possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">Gentoo
564Website</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>.
565</p>
566
567<p>
568When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use
569<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise,
570use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parantheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e>
571the subject of the comment.
572</p>
573
574<pre caption="Comment example">
575<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
576# <i>id john</i>
577</pre>
578
579</body>
580</section>
581</chapter>
582
354<chapter> 583<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 584<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 585<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 586<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 587<body>
588
589<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 590Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 591can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 592syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 593to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 594have any questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 595link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
365 Have fun!</p> 596like to tackle. Have fun!
597</p>
598
366 </body> 599</body>
367</section> 600</section>
368</chapter> 601</chapter>
369</guide> 602</guide>
370 603

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