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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.25 2004/02/09 19:25:39 swift Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author>
20
21<license/>
22
23<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 24This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 25Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 26documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
27assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 28</abstract>
14 29
15<version>1.0</version> 30<version>2.7</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 31<date>February 9, 2004</date>
17 32
18<chapter> 33<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 34<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 35<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 36<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 37<body>
24 38
39<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 40The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 41learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 42documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 43This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 44XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
45</p>
30 46
47<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 48The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 49documents.
50</p>
33 51
34</body> 52</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 53</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 54<section>
55<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 56<body>
40 57
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 58<p>
64 59If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to test
65<pre> 60GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 61link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/gdp/tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri>
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 62which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre>
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 63</p>
77 64
78</body> 65</body>
79</section> 66</section>
80</chapter> 67</chapter>
68
81<chapter> 69<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 70<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 71<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 72<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 73<body>
86 74
75<p>
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 76Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 77the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
89XML document: </p> 78XML document:
79</p>
90 80
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 81<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 82&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 83&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
84&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 85&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 86&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 87 &lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 88&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 89&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 90 &lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt; 91&lt;/author&gt;
101 92
93&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 94<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 95our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 96format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 97using GuideXML.</i>
98&lt;/abstract&gt;
99
100&lt;license/&gt;
106 101
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 102&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 103&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 104</pre>
110 105
106<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 107On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 108document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 109guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 110Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 111guide document.
112</p>
116 113
114<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 115Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 116about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 117allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 118relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 119particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 120<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 121person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 122more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 123</p>
126 124
125<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 126Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 127<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 128current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 129respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 130a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 131tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 132<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 133required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
134</p>
135 135
136</body> 136<p>
137</section> 137Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
138document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/">Creative
139Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
140link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
141</p>
138 142
143</body>
144</section>
139<section> 145<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 146<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 147<body>
148
149<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 150Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 151the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 152chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 153and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 154consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 155excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
148(if minimal) guide document: 156(if minimal) guide document:
149</p> 157</p>
150 158
151<pre> 159<pre>
152&lt;chapter&gt; 160&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 161&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 162&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 163&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 164&lt;body&gt;
165
166&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 167<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
168&lt;/p&gt;
169
158 &lt;/body&gt; 170&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 171&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 172&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 173</pre>
162 174
175<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 176Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 177element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 178adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 179<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 180<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 181is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 182content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 183inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
184</p>
171 185
186<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 187A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 188elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 189<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 190element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
191</note>
176 192
177</body> 193</body>
178</section> 194</section>
179
180<section> 195<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 196<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 197<body>
198
183<p> 199<p>
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 200Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 201</p>
202
186<pre> 203<pre>
187&lt;p&gt; 204&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 205This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 206&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 207Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 214Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 215&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 216
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 217&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 218&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 219
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 220&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 221This is a note.
222&lt;/note&gt;
223
224&lt;warn&gt;
225This is a warning.
226&lt;/warn&gt;
227
228&lt;impo&gt;
229This is important.
230&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 231</pre>
232
233<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 234Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:
235</p>
207 236
208<p> 237<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 238This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 239<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 240Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 247Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 248&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 249
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 250<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
222</pre> 251</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 252
253<note>
254This is a note.
255</note>
256
257<warn>
258This is a warning.
259</warn>
260
261<impo>
262This is important.
263</impo>
264
265</body>
266</section>
229<section> 267<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 268<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 269<body>
232 270
271<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 272We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 273need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 274block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 275<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 276Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 277these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 278<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 279stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 280<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 281preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
282You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
283</p>
284
285<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
286&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
287# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
28816:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
289&lt;/pre&gt;
290</pre>
243 291
244</body> 292</body>
245</section> 293</section>
246<section> 294<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 295<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 296<body>
249 297
298<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 299The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 300be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 301<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
302</p>
253 303
304<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 305The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 306<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 307<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 308font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
309</p>
258 310
311<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 312The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 313input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 314that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 315the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 316element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 317not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 318quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 319<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 320necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 321refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 322the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
323adorable!
324</p>
270 325
326<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 327<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 328I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 329offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 330prose more <e>punch</e>!
331</p>
275 332
276</body> 333</body>
277</section> 334</section>
278
279<section> 335<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 336<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 337<body>
282 338
339<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 340We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 341some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
342link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
343</p>
285 344
345<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 346The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 347Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 348actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 349<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 350<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 351when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 352link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 353<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the
354Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 355</p>
295 356
296</body> 357</body>
297</section> 358</section>
298
299<section> 359<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 360<title>Figures</title>
301 361
302<body> 362<body>
303 363
364<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 365Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 366link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 367time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 368the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 369the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 370:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 371for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
372</p>
311 373
312</body> 374</body>
313</section> 375</section>
314<section> 376<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 377<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 378<body>
317 379
380<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 381Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 382a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 383tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 384HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 385header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 386block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 387-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 388first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 389be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 390</p>
328 391
392<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 393To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 394<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 395should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 396<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag.
397</p>
333 398
334</body> 399</body>
335</section> 400</section>
336
337<section> 401<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 402<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 403<body>
340 404
405<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 406Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 407hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 408One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 409One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 410Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 411Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 412link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
413link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 414link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 415adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
416</p>
417
418<p>
419However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
420links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
421<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
422attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
426&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
427&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
428...
429&lt;p&gt;
430More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
431&lt;/p&gt;
432</pre>
350 433
351</body> 434</body>
352</section> 435</section>
353</chapter> 436</chapter>
437
438<chapter>
439<title>Coding Style</title>
440<section>
441<title>Introduction</title>
442<body>
443
444<p>
445Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
446most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
447A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
448internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
449regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453Both sections are described next.
454</p>
455
456</body>
457</section>
458<section>
459<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
460<body>
461
462<p>
463<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
464GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
465<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
466<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
467<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
468<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
469<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
470</p>
471
472<p>
473<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
474<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
475<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
476<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
477<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
478<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
479</p>
480
481<p>
482<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
483<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
484this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
485The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
486</p>
487
488<p>
489<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
490the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
491<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
492is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
493tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
498<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
499</p>
500
501<p>
502An example for indentation is:
503</p>
504
505<pre caption = "Indentation Example">
506&lt;table&gt;
507&lt;tr&gt;
508 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
509 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
510&lt;/tr&gt;
511&lt;tr&gt;
512 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
513 &lt;ti&gt;
514 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
515 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
516 &lt;/ti&gt;
517&lt;/tr&gt;
518&lt;/table&gt;
519
520&lt;ul&gt;
521 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
522 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
523&lt;/ul&gt;
524</pre>
525
526<p>
527<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
528&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
529</p>
530
531<pre caption="Attributes">
532<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
533<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
534</pre>
535
536</body>
537</section>
538<section>
539<title>External Coding Style</title>
540<body>
541
542<p>
543Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
544<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
545sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
546other reading marks).
547</p>
548
549<p>
550Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
551with a capital letter.
552</p>
553
554<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
555&lt;ul&gt;
556 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
557 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
558&lt;/ul&gt;
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
563</p>
564
565<p>
566Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
567possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">Gentoo
568Website</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>.
569</p>
570
571<p>
572When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use
573<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise,
574use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parantheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e>
575the subject of the comment.
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Comment example">
579<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
580# <i>id john</i>
581</pre>
582
583</body>
584</section>
585</chapter>
586
587<chapter>
588<title>Handbook Format</title>
589<section>
590<title>Guide vs Book</title>
591<body>
592
593<p>
594For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
595link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
596broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
597allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
598</p>
599
600</body>
601</section>
602<section>
603<title>Main File</title>
604<body>
605
606<p>
607The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
608real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
609doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
610</p>
611
612<pre caption="Example book usage">
613&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
614&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
615
616&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
617&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
618
619&lt;author...&gt;
620 ...
621&lt;/author&gt;
622
623&lt;abstract&gt;
624 ...
625&lt;/abstract&gt;
626
627&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
628&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
629&lt;license/&gt;
630
631&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
632&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
633</pre>
634
635<p>
636So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
637<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
638<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
639equivalent of a separate part in a book:
640</p>
641
642<pre caption="Defining a part">
643&lt;part&gt;
644&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
645&lt;abstract&gt;
646 ...
647&lt;/abstract&gt;
648
649<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
650&lt;/part&gt;
651</pre>
652
653<p>
654Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
655<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
656</p>
657
658<p>
659Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
660chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
661special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
662document.
663</p>
664
665<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
666&lt;chapter&gt;
667&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
668&lt;abstract&gt;
669 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
670&lt;/abstract&gt;
671
672 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
673
674&lt;/chapter&gt;
675</pre>
676
677</body>
678</section>
679<section>
680<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
681<body>
682
683<p>
684The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
685</p>
686
687<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
688&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
689&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
690
691&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
692&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
693
694&lt;sections&gt;
695
696<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
697
698&lt;/sections&gt;
699</pre>
700
701<p>
702Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
703<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
704of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
705</p>
706
707</body>
708</section>
709</chapter>
710
354<chapter> 711<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 712<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 713<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 714<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 715<body>
716
717<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 718Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 719can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 720syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 721to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 722have any questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 723link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
365 Have fun!</p> 724like to tackle. Have fun!
725</p>
726
366 </body> 727</body>
367</section> 728</section>
368</chapter> 729</chapter>
369</guide> 730</guide>
370 731

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