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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.29 2004/04/04 15:07:02 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author>
20
21<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 22This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 23Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 24documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
25assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 26</abstract>
14 27
28<license/>
29
15<version>1.0</version> 30<version>2.9</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 31<date>March 13, 2004</date>
17 32
18<chapter> 33<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 34<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 35<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 36<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 37<body>
24 38
39<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 40The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 41learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 42documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 43This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 44XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
45</p>
30 46
47<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 48The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 49documents.
50</p>
33 51
34</body> 52</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 53</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 54<section>
55<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 56<body>
40 57
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 58<p>
64 59If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to test
65<pre> 60GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 61link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri>
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 62which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre>
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 63</p>
77 64
78</body> 65</body>
79</section> 66</section>
80</chapter> 67</chapter>
68
81<chapter> 69<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 70<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 71<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 72<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 73<body>
86 74
75<p>
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 76Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 77the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
89XML document: </p> 78XML document:
79</p>
90 80
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 81<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 82&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 83&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
84&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 85&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 86&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 87 &lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 88&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 89&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 90 &lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt; 91&lt;/author&gt;
101 92
93&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 94<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 95our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 96format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 97using GuideXML.</i>
98&lt;/abstract&gt;
99
100&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
101&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
102&lt;license/&gt;
106 103
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 104&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 105&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 106</pre>
110 107
108<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 109On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 110document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 111guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 112Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 113guide document.
114</p>
116 115
116<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 117Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 125</p>
126 126
127<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 128Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 129<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 130current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 131respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 132a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 133tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 134<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 135required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
136</p>
135 137
136</body> 138<p>
137</section> 139Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
140document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/">Creative
141Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
142link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
143</p>
138 144
145</body>
146</section>
139<section> 147<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 148<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 149<body>
150
151<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 152Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 153the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 154chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 155and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 156consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 157excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
148(if minimal) guide document: 158(if minimal) guide document:
149</p> 159</p>
150 160
151<pre> 161<pre>
152&lt;chapter&gt; 162&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 163&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 164&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 165&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 166&lt;body&gt;
167
168&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 169<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
170&lt;/p&gt;
171
158 &lt;/body&gt; 172&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 173&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 174&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 175</pre>
162 176
177<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 178Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 179element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 180adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 181<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 182<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 183is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 184content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 185inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
186</p>
171 187
188<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 189A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 190elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 191<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 192element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
193</note>
176 194
177</body> 195</body>
178</section> 196</section>
179
180<section> 197<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 198<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 199<body>
200
183<p> 201<p>
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 202Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 203</p>
204
186<pre> 205<pre>
187&lt;p&gt; 206&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 207This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 208&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 209Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 216Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 217&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 218
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 219&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 220&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 221
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 222&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 223This is a note.
224&lt;/note&gt;
225
226&lt;warn&gt;
227This is a warning.
228&lt;/warn&gt;
229
230&lt;impo&gt;
231This is important.
232&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 233</pre>
234
235<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 236Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:
237</p>
207 238
208<p> 239<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 240This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 241<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 242Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 249Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 250&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 251
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 252<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
222</pre> 253</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 254
255<note>
256This is a note.
257</note>
258
259<warn>
260This is a warning.
261</warn>
262
263<impo>
264This is important.
265</impo>
266
267</body>
268</section>
229<section> 269<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 270<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 271<body>
232 272
273<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 274We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 275need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 276block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 277<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 278Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 279these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 280<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 281stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 282<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 283preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
284You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
285</p>
286
287<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
288&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
289# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
29016:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
291&lt;/pre&gt;
292</pre>
243 293
244</body> 294</body>
245</section> 295</section>
246<section> 296<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 297<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 298<body>
249 299
300<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 301The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 302be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 303<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
304</p>
253 305
306<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 307The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 308<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 309<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 310font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
311</p>
258 312
313<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 314The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 315input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 316that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 317the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 318element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 319not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 320quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 321<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 322necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 323refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 324the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
325adorable!
326</p>
270 327
328<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 329<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 330I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 331offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 332prose more <e>punch</e>!
333</p>
275 334
276</body> 335</body>
277</section> 336</section>
278
279<section> 337<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 338<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 339<body>
282 340
341<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 342We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 343some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
344link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
345</p>
285 346
347<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 348The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 349Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 350actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 351<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 352<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 353when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 354link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 355<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the
356Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 357</p>
295 358
296</body> 359</body>
297</section> 360</section>
298
299<section> 361<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 362<title>Figures</title>
301 363
302<body> 364<body>
303 365
366<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 367Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 368link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 369time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 370the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 371the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 372:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 373for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
374</p>
311 375
312</body> 376</body>
313</section> 377</section>
314<section> 378<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 379<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 380<body>
317 381
382<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 383Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 384a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 385tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 386HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 387header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 388block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 389-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 390first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 391be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 392</p>
328 393
394<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 395To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 396<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 397should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 398<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag.
399</p>
333 400
334</body> 401</body>
335</section> 402</section>
336
337<section> 403<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 404<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 405<body>
340 406
407<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 408Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 409hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 410One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 411One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 412Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 413Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 414link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
415link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 416link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 417adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
418</p>
419
420<p>
421However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
422links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
423<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
424attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
425</p>
426
427<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
428&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
429&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
430...
431&lt;p&gt;
432More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
433&lt;/p&gt;
434</pre>
350 435
351</body> 436</body>
352</section> 437</section>
353</chapter> 438</chapter>
439
440<chapter>
441<title>Coding Style</title>
442<section>
443<title>Introduction</title>
444<body>
445
446<p>
447Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
448most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
449A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
450internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
451regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
452</p>
453
454<p>
455Both sections are described next.
456</p>
457
458</body>
459</section>
460<section>
461<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
462<body>
463
464<p>
465<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
466GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
467<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
468<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
469<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
470<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
471<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
472</p>
473
474<p>
475<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
476<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
477<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
478<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
479<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
480<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
481</p>
482
483<p>
484<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
485<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
486this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
487The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
492the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
493<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
494is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
495tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
496</p>
497
498<p>
499In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
500<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
501</p>
502
503<p>
504An example for indentation is:
505</p>
506
507<pre caption = "Indentation Example">
508&lt;table&gt;
509&lt;tr&gt;
510 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
511 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
512&lt;/tr&gt;
513&lt;tr&gt;
514 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
515 &lt;ti&gt;
516 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
517 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
518 &lt;/ti&gt;
519&lt;/tr&gt;
520&lt;/table&gt;
521
522&lt;ul&gt;
523 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
524 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
525&lt;/ul&gt;
526</pre>
527
528<p>
529<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
530&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
531</p>
532
533<pre caption="Attributes">
534<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
535<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
536</pre>
537
538</body>
539</section>
540<section>
541<title>External Coding Style</title>
542<body>
543
544<p>
545Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
546<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
547sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
548other reading marks).
549</p>
550
551<p>
552Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
553with a capital letter.
554</p>
555
556<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
557&lt;ul&gt;
558 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
559 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
560&lt;/ul&gt;
561</pre>
562
563<p>
564Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
565</p>
566
567<p>
568Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
569possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">Gentoo
570Website</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>.
571</p>
572
573<p>
574When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use
575<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise,
576use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parantheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e>
577the subject of the comment.
578</p>
579
580<pre caption="Comment example">
581<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
582# <i>id john</i>
583</pre>
584
585</body>
586</section>
587</chapter>
588
589<chapter>
590<title>Handbook Format</title>
591<section>
592<title>Guide vs Book</title>
593<body>
594
595<p>
596For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
597link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
598broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
599allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
600</p>
601
602</body>
603</section>
604<section>
605<title>Main File</title>
606<body>
607
608<p>
609The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
610real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
611doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
612</p>
613
614<pre caption="Example book usage">
615&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
616&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
617
618&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
619&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
620
621&lt;author...&gt;
622 ...
623&lt;/author&gt;
624
625&lt;abstract&gt;
626 ...
627&lt;/abstract&gt;
628
629&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
630&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
631&lt;license/&gt;
632
633&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
634&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
635</pre>
636
637<p>
638So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
639<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
640<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
641equivalent of a separate part in a book:
642</p>
643
644<pre caption="Defining a part">
645&lt;part&gt;
646&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
647&lt;abstract&gt;
648 ...
649&lt;/abstract&gt;
650
651<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
652&lt;/part&gt;
653</pre>
654
655<p>
656Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
657<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
658</p>
659
660<p>
661Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
662chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
663special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
664document.
665</p>
666
667<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
668&lt;chapter&gt;
669&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
670&lt;abstract&gt;
671 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
672&lt;/abstract&gt;
673
674 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
675
676&lt;/chapter&gt;
677</pre>
678
679</body>
680</section>
681<section>
682<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
683<body>
684
685<p>
686The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
690&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
691&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
692
693&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
694&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
695
696&lt;sections&gt;
697
698<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
699
700&lt;/sections&gt;
701</pre>
702
703<p>
704Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
705<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
706of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
707</p>
708
709</body>
710</section>
711</chapter>
712
354<chapter> 713<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 714<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 715<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 716<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 717<body>
718
719<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 720Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 721can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 722syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 723to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 724have any questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 725link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
365 Have fun!</p> 726like to tackle. Have fun!
727</p>
728
366 </body> 729</body>
367</section> 730</section>
368</chapter> 731</chapter>
369</guide> 732</guide>
370 733

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