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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.35 2004/12/24 11:52:37 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 29</abstract>
14 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
33<license/>
34
15<version>1.0</version> 35<version>2.12</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 36<date>2004-12-24</date>
17 37
18<chapter> 38<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 40<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 42<body>
24 43
44<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50</p>
30 51
52<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 54documents.
55</p>
33 56
34</body> 57</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 58</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 59<section>
60<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 61<body>
40 62
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 63<p>
64 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre> 65test GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri> which
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 67contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre>
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 68</p>
77 69
78</body> 70</body>
79</section> 71</section>
80</chapter> 72</chapter>
73
81<chapter> 74<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 75<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 76<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 77<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 78<body>
86 79
80<p>
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 81Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 82the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
89XML document: </p> 83XML document:
84</p>
90 85
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 86<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 87&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 88&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
89&lt;guide link="<i>relative/link/to/your/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 90&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 91&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 92 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 93&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt;
101 94
95&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 96<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 97our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 98format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 99using GuideXML.</i>
100&lt;/abstract&gt;
101
102&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
103&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
104&lt;license/&gt;
106 105
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 106&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 107&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 108</pre>
110 109
110<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 111On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
114The <c>link</c> attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the
115relative path to the document even though the file name alone will work. It is
116mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of your document.
117If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version will either not
118work or point to a wrong document. The <c>lang</c> attribute can be used to
119specify the language code of your document. It is used to format the date and
120insert strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified
121language. The default is English.
122</p>
123
124<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 125Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 126guide document.
127</p>
116 128
129<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 130Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 131about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 132allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 133relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 134particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 135<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 136person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 137more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 138</p>
126 139
140<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 141Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 142<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 143current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
144respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
145appear verbatim in the rendered document.
146</p>
147
148<p>
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 149This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 150document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 151tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 152<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 153required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
154</p>
135 155
136</body> 156<p>
137</section> 157Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
158document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">Creative
159Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
160link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
161</p>
138 162
163</body>
164</section>
139<section> 165<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 166<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 167<body>
168
169<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 170Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 171the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 172chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 173and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 174consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 175excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
148(if minimal) guide document: 176(if minimal) guide document:
149</p> 177</p>
150 178
151<pre> 179<pre>
152&lt;chapter&gt; 180&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 181&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 182&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 183&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 184&lt;body&gt;
185
186&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 187<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
188&lt;/p&gt;
189
158 &lt;/body&gt; 190&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 191&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 192&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 193</pre>
162 194
195<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 196Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 197element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 198adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 199<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 200<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 201is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 202content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 203inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
204</p>
171 205
206<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 207A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 208elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 209<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 210element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
211</note>
176 212
177</body> 213</body>
178</section> 214</section>
179
180<section> 215<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 216<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 217<body>
218
183<p> 219<p>
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 220Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 221</p>
222
186<pre> 223<pre>
187&lt;p&gt; 224&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 225This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 226&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 227Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
191&lt;/p&gt; 228&lt;/p&gt;
192 229
193&lt;pre&gt; 230&lt;pre&gt;
194This is text output or code. 231This is text output or code.
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 234Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 235&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 236
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 237&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 238&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 239
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 240&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 241This is a note.
242&lt;/note&gt;
243
244&lt;warn&gt;
245This is a warning.
246&lt;/warn&gt;
247
248&lt;impo&gt;
249This is important.
250&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 251</pre>
252
253<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 254Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:
255</p>
207 256
208<p> 257<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 258This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 259<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 260Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
212</p> 261</p>
213 262
214<pre> 263<pre>
215This is text output or code. 264This is text output or code.
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 267Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 268&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 269
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 270<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
222</pre> 271</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 272
273<note>
274This is a note.
275</note>
276
277<warn>
278This is a warning.
279</warn>
280
281<impo>
282This is important.
283</impo>
284
285</body>
286</section>
229<section> 287<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 288<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 289<body>
232 290
291<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 292We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 293need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 294block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 295<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 296Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 297these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 298<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 299stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 300<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 301preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
302You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
303</p>
304
305<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
306&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
307# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
30816:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
309&lt;/pre&gt;
310</pre>
243 311
244</body> 312</body>
245</section> 313</section>
246<section> 314<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 315<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 316<body>
249 317
318<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 319The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 320be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 321<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
322</p>
253 323
324<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 325The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 326<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 327<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 328font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
329</p>
258 330
331<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 332The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 333input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 334that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 335the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 336element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 337not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 338quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 339<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 340necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 341refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 342the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
343adorable!
344</p>
270 345
346<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 347<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 348I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 349offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 350prose more <e>punch</e>!
351</p>
275 352
276</body> 353</body>
277</section> 354</section>
278
279<section> 355<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 356<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 357<body>
282 358
359<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 360We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 361some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
362link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
363</p>
285 364
365<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 366The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 367It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 368displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 369<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 370<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 371when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 372link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 373link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
374Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
375to link to other parts of the Gentoo website. For instance, a link to the <uri
376link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
377link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
378even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
379link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 380</p>
295 381
296</body> 382</body>
297</section> 383</section>
298
299<section> 384<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 385<title>Figures</title>
301 386
302<body> 387<body>
303 388
389<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 390Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 391link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 392time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 393the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 394the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 395:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 396for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
397</p>
311 398
312</body> 399</body>
313</section> 400</section>
314<section> 401<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 402<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 403<body>
317 404
405<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 406Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 407a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 408tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 409HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 410header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 411block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 412-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 413first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 414be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 415</p>
328 416
417<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 418To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 419<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 420should only appear inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> or
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 421<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> tag.
422</p>
333 423
334</body> 424</body>
335</section> 425</section>
336
337<section> 426<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 427<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 428<body>
340 429
430<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 431Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 432hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 433One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 434One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 435Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 436Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 437link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
438link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 439link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 440adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
441</p>
442
443<p>
444However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
445links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
446<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
447attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
448</p>
449
450<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
451&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
452&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
453...
454&lt;p&gt;
455More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
456&lt;/p&gt;
457</pre>
350 458
351</body> 459</body>
352</section> 460</section>
353</chapter> 461</chapter>
462
463<chapter>
464<title>Coding Style</title>
465<section>
466<title>Introduction</title>
467<body>
468
469<p>
470Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
471most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
472A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
473internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
474regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
475</p>
476
477<p>
478Both sections are described next.
479</p>
480
481</body>
482</section>
483<section>
484<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
485<body>
486
487<p>
488<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
489GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
490<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
491<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
492<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
493<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
494<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
495</p>
496
497<p>
498<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
499<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
500<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
501<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
502<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
503<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
504</p>
505
506<p>
507<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
508<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
509this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
510The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
511</p>
512
513<p>
514<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
515the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
516<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
517is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
518tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
519</p>
520
521<p>
522In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
523<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
524</p>
525
526<p>
527An example for indentation is:
528</p>
529
530<pre caption = "Indentation Example">
531&lt;table&gt;
532&lt;tr&gt;
533 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
534 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
535&lt;/tr&gt;
536&lt;tr&gt;
537 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
538 &lt;ti&gt;
539 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
540 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
541 &lt;/ti&gt;
542&lt;/tr&gt;
543&lt;/table&gt;
544
545&lt;ul&gt;
546 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
547 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
548&lt;/ul&gt;
549</pre>
550
551<p>
552<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
553&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
554</p>
555
556<pre caption="Attributes">
557<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
558<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
559</pre>
560
561</body>
562</section>
563<section>
564<title>External Coding Style</title>
565<body>
566
567<p>
568Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
569<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
570sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
571other reading marks).
572</p>
573
574<p>
575Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
576with a capital letter.
577</p>
578
579<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
580&lt;ul&gt;
581 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
582 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
583&lt;/ul&gt;
584</pre>
585
586<p>
587Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
588</p>
589
590<p>
591Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
592possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
593Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
594</p>
595
596<p>
597When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use
598<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise,
599use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e>
600the subject of the comment.
601</p>
602
603<pre caption="Comment example">
604<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
605# <i>id john</i>
606</pre>
607
608</body>
609</section>
610</chapter>
611
612<chapter>
613<title>Handbook Format</title>
614<section>
615<title>Guide vs Book</title>
616<body>
617
618<p>
619For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
620link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
621broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
622allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
623</p>
624
625</body>
626</section>
627<section>
628<title>Main File</title>
629<body>
630
631<p>
632The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
633real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
634doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
635</p>
636
637<pre caption="Example book usage">
638&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
639&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
640
641&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
642&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
643
644&lt;author...&gt;
645 ...
646&lt;/author&gt;
647
648&lt;abstract&gt;
649 ...
650&lt;/abstract&gt;
651
652&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
653&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
654&lt;license/&gt;
655
656&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
657&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
658</pre>
659
660<p>
661So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
662<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
663<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
664equivalent of a separate part in a book:
665</p>
666
667<pre caption="Defining a part">
668&lt;part&gt;
669&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
670&lt;abstract&gt;
671 ...
672&lt;/abstract&gt;
673
674<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
675&lt;/part&gt;
676</pre>
677
678<p>
679Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
680<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
681</p>
682
683<p>
684Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
685chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
686special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
687document.
688</p>
689
690<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
691&lt;chapter&gt;
692&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
693&lt;abstract&gt;
694 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
695&lt;/abstract&gt;
696
697 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
698
699&lt;/chapter&gt;
700</pre>
701
702</body>
703</section>
704<section>
705<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
706<body>
707
708<p>
709The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
710</p>
711
712<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
713&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
714&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
715
716&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
717&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
718
719&lt;sections&gt;
720
721&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
722&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
723
724<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
725
726&lt;/sections&gt;
727</pre>
728
729<p>
730Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
731<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
732of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
733</p>
734
735<p>
736Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
737latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
738browses through all parts of the book.
739</p>
740
741</body>
742</section>
743</chapter>
744
354<chapter> 745<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 746<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 747<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 748<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 749<body>
750
751<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 752Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 753spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 754syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 755to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. You might be interested
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 756in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 757Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
365 Have fun!</p> 758questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
759link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
760like to tackle. Have fun!
761</p>
762
366 </body> 763</body>
367</section> 764</section>
368</chapter> 765</chapter>
369</guide> 766</guide>
370

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