/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.3 Revision 1.36
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.36 2005/02/14 16:14:46 swift Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 29</abstract>
14 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
33<license/>
34
15<version>1.0</version> 35<version>2.13</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 36<date>2005-02-14</date>
17 37
18<chapter> 38<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 40<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 42<body>
24 43
44<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50</p>
30 51
52<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 54documents.
55</p>
33 56
34</body> 57</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 58</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 59<section>
60<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 61<body>
40 62
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 63<p>
64 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre> 65test GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri> which
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 67contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre>
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 68</p>
77 69
78</body> 70</body>
79</section> 71</section>
80</chapter> 72</chapter>
73
81<chapter> 74<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 75<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 76<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 77<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 78<body>
86 79
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 80<p>
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 81Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
89XML document: </p> 82tags used in a GuideXML document:
83</p>
90 84
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 85<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 86&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 87&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
88&lt;guide link="<i>relative/link/to/your/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 89&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 90&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 91 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 92&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt;
101 93
94&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 95<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 96our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 97format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 98using GuideXML.</i>
99&lt;/abstract&gt;
100
101&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
102&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
103&lt;license/&gt;
106 104
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 105&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 106&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 107</pre>
110 108
109<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 110On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 111document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 112guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
113The <c>link</c> attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the
114relative path to the document even though the file name alone will work. It is
115mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of your document.
116If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version will either not
117work or point to a wrong document. The <c>lang</c> attribute can be used to
118specify the language code of your document. It is used to format the date and
119insert strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified
120language. The default is English.
121</p>
122
123<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 124Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 125guide document.
126</p>
116 127
128<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 129Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 130about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 131allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 132relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 133particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 134<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 135person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 136more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 137</p>
126 138
139<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 140Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 141<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 142current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
143respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
144appear verbatim in the rendered document.
145</p>
146
147<p>
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 148This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 149document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 150tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 151<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 152required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
153</p>
135 154
136</body> 155<p>
137</section> 156Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
157document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">Creative
158Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
159link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
160</p>
138 161
162</body>
163</section>
139<section> 164<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 165<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 166<body>
167
168<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 169Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 170the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 171chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 172and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 173consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 174excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
148(if minimal) guide document: 175(if minimal) guide document:
149</p> 176</p>
150 177
151<pre> 178<pre>
152&lt;chapter&gt; 179&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 180&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 181&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 182&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 183&lt;body&gt;
184
185&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 186<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
187&lt;/p&gt;
188
158 &lt;/body&gt; 189&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 190&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 191&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 192</pre>
162 193
194<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 195Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 196element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 197adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 198<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 199<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 200is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 201content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 202inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
203</p>
171 204
205<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 206A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 207elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 208<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 209element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
210</note>
176 211
177</body> 212</body>
178</section> 213</section>
179
180<section> 214<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 215<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 216<body>
217
183<p> 218<p>
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 219Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 220</p>
221
186<pre> 222<pre>
187&lt;p&gt; 223&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 224This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 225&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 226Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
191&lt;/p&gt; 227&lt;/p&gt;
192 228
193&lt;pre&gt; 229&lt;pre&gt;
194This is text output or code. 230This is text output or code.
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 233Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 234&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 235
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 236&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 237&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 238
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 239&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 240This is a note.
241&lt;/note&gt;
242
243&lt;warn&gt;
244This is a warning.
245&lt;/warn&gt;
246
247&lt;impo&gt;
248This is important.
249&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 250</pre>
251
252<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 253Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:
254</p>
207 255
208<p> 256<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 257This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 258<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 259Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
212</p> 260</p>
213 261
214<pre> 262<pre>
215This is text output or code. 263This is text output or code.
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 266Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 267&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 268
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 269<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
222</pre> 270</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 271
272<note>
273This is a note.
274</note>
275
276<warn>
277This is a warning.
278</warn>
279
280<impo>
281This is important.
282</impo>
283
284</body>
285</section>
229<section> 286<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 287<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 288<body>
232 289
290<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 291We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 292need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 293block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 294<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 295Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 296these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 297<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 298stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 299<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 300preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
301You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
302</p>
303
304<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;">
305&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
306# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
30716:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
308&lt;/pre&gt;
309</pre>
243 310
244</body> 311</body>
245</section> 312</section>
246<section> 313<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 314<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 315<body>
249 316
317<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 318The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 319be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 320<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
321</p>
253 322
323<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 324The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 325<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 326<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 327font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
328</p>
258 329
330<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 331The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 332input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 333that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 334the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 335element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 336not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 337quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 338<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 339necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 340refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 341the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
342adorable!
343</p>
270 344
345<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 346<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 347I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 348offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 349prose more <e>punch</e>!
350</p>
275 351
276</body> 352</body>
277</section> 353</section>
278
279<section> 354<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 355<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 356<body>
282 357
358<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 359We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 360some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
361link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
362</p>
285 363
364<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 365The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 366It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 367displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 368<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 369<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 370when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 371link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 372link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
373Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
374to link to other parts of the Gentoo website. For instance, a link to the <uri
375link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
376link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
377even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
378link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 379</p>
295 380
296</body> 381</body>
297</section> 382</section>
298
299<section> 383<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 384<title>Figures</title>
301 385
302<body> 386<body>
303 387
388<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 389Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 390link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 391time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 392the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 393the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 394:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 395for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
396</p>
311 397
312</body> 398</body>
313</section> 399</section>
314<section> 400<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 401<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 402<body>
317 403
404<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 405Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 406a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 407tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 408HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 409header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 410block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 411-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 412first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 413be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 414</p>
328 415
416<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 417To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 418<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 419should only appear inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> or
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 420<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> tag.
421</p>
333 422
334</body> 423</body>
335</section> 424</section>
336
337<section> 425<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 426<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 427<body>
340 428
429<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 430Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 431hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 432One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 433One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 434Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 435Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 436link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
437link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 438link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 439adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
440</p>
441
442<p>
443However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
444links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
445<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
446attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
450&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
451&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
452...
453&lt;p&gt;
454More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
455&lt;/p&gt;
456</pre>
350 457
351</body> 458</body>
352</section> 459</section>
353</chapter> 460</chapter>
461
462<chapter>
463<title>Coding Style</title>
464<section>
465<title>Introduction</title>
466<body>
467
468<p>
469Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
470most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
471A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
472internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
473regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
474</p>
475
476<p>
477Both sections are described next.
478</p>
479
480</body>
481</section>
482<section>
483<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
484<body>
485
486<p>
487<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
488GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
489<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
490<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
491<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
492<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
493<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
498<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
499<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
500<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
501<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
502<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
503</p>
504
505<p>
506<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
507<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
508this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
509The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
510</p>
511
512<p>
513<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
514the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
515<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
516is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
517tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
518</p>
519
520<p>
521In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
522<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
523</p>
524
525<p>
526An example for indentation is:
527</p>
528
529<pre caption = "Indentation Example">
530&lt;table&gt;
531&lt;tr&gt;
532 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
533 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
534&lt;/tr&gt;
535&lt;tr&gt;
536 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
537 &lt;ti&gt;
538 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
539 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
540 &lt;/ti&gt;
541&lt;/tr&gt;
542&lt;/table&gt;
543
544&lt;ul&gt;
545 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
546 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
547&lt;/ul&gt;
548</pre>
549
550<p>
551<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
552&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
553</p>
554
555<pre caption="Attributes">
556<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
557<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
558</pre>
559
560</body>
561</section>
562<section>
563<title>External Coding Style</title>
564<body>
565
566<p>
567Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
568<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
569sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
570other reading marks).
571</p>
572
573<p>
574Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
575with a capital letter.
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
579&lt;ul&gt;
580 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
581 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
582&lt;/ul&gt;
583</pre>
584
585<p>
586Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
587</p>
588
589<p>
590Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
591possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
592Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
593</p>
594
595<p>
596When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use
597<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise,
598use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e>
599the subject of the comment.
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Comment example">
603<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
604# <i>id john</i>
605</pre>
606
607</body>
608</section>
609</chapter>
610
611<chapter>
612<title>Handbook Format</title>
613<section>
614<title>Guide vs Book</title>
615<body>
616
617<p>
618For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
619link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
620broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
621allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
622</p>
623
624</body>
625</section>
626<section>
627<title>Main File</title>
628<body>
629
630<p>
631The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
632real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
633doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
634</p>
635
636<pre caption="Example book usage">
637&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
638&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
639
640&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
641&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
642
643&lt;author...&gt;
644 ...
645&lt;/author&gt;
646
647&lt;abstract&gt;
648 ...
649&lt;/abstract&gt;
650
651&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
652&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
653&lt;license/&gt;
654
655&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
656&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
657</pre>
658
659<p>
660So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
661<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
662<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
663equivalent of a separate part in a book:
664</p>
665
666<pre caption="Defining a part">
667&lt;part&gt;
668&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
669&lt;abstract&gt;
670 ...
671&lt;/abstract&gt;
672
673<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
674&lt;/part&gt;
675</pre>
676
677<p>
678Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
679<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
680</p>
681
682<p>
683Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
684chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
685special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
686document.
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
690&lt;chapter&gt;
691&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
692&lt;abstract&gt;
693 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
694&lt;/abstract&gt;
695
696 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
697
698&lt;/chapter&gt;
699</pre>
700
701</body>
702</section>
703<section>
704<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
705<body>
706
707<p>
708The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
709</p>
710
711<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
712&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
713&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
714
715&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
716&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
717
718&lt;sections&gt;
719
720&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
721&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
722
723<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
724
725&lt;/sections&gt;
726</pre>
727
728<p>
729Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
730<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
731of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
732</p>
733
734<p>
735Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
736latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
737browses through all parts of the book.
738</p>
739
740</body>
741</section>
742</chapter>
743
354<chapter> 744<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 745<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 746<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 747<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 748<body>
749
750<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 751Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 752spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 753syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 754to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. You might be interested
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 755in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 756Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
365 Have fun!</p> 757questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
758link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
759like to tackle. Have fun!
760</p>
761
366 </body> 762</body>
367</section> 763</section>
368</chapter> 764</chapter>
369</guide> 765</guide>
370

Legend:
Removed from v.1.3  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.36

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20