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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.37 2005/04/06 10:59:55 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 29</abstract>
14 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
33<license/>
34
15<version>1.0</version> 35<version>2.14</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 36<date>2005-04-06</date>
17 37
18<chapter> 38<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 40<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 42<body>
24 43
44<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50</p>
30 51
52<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 54documents.
55</p>
33 56
34</body> 57</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 58</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 59<section>
60<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 61<body>
40 62
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 63<p>
64 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre> 65test GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri> which
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 67contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre>
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 68</p>
77 69
78</body> 70</body>
79</section> 71</section>
80</chapter> 72</chapter>
73
81<chapter> 74<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 75<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 76<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 77<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 78<body>
86 79
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 80<p>
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 81Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
89XML document: </p> 82tags used in a GuideXML document:
83</p>
90 84
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 85<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 86&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 87&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
88&lt;guide link="<i>relative/link/to/your/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 89&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 90&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 91 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 92&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt;
101 93
94&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 95<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 96our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 97format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 98using GuideXML.</i>
99&lt;/abstract&gt;
100
101&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
102&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
103&lt;license/&gt;
106 104
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 105&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 106&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 107</pre>
110 108
109<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 110On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 111document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 112guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
113The <c>link</c> attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the
114relative path to the document even though the file name alone will work. It is
115mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of your document.
116If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version will either not
117work or point to a wrong document. The <c>lang</c> attribute can be used to
118specify the language code of your document. It is used to format the date and
119insert strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified
120language. The default is English.
121</p>
122
123<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 124Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 125guide document.
126</p>
116 127
128<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 129Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 130about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 131allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 132relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 133particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 134<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 135person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 136more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 137</p>
126 138
139<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 140Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 141<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 142current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
143respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
144appear verbatim in the rendered document.
145</p>
146
147<p>
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 148This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 149document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 150tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 151<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 152required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
153</p>
135 154
136</body> 155<p>
137</section> 156Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the
157document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">Creative
158Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
159link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
160</p>
138 161
162</body>
163</section>
139<section> 164<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 165<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 166<body>
167
168<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 169Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 170structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 171chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 172section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 173consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
174link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 175<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
148(if minimal) guide document: 176guide document:
149</p> 177</p>
150 178
151<pre> 179<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
152&lt;chapter&gt; 180&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 181&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 182&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 183&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 184&lt;body&gt;
185
186&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 187<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
188&lt;/p&gt;
189
158 &lt;/body&gt; 190&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 191&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 192&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 193</pre>
162 194
195<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 196Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 197element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 198adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 199<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 200<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 201is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 202content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 203inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
204</p>
171 205
206<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 207A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 208elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 209<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 210element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
211</note>
176 212
177</body> 213</body>
178</section> 214</section>
179
180<section> 215<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 216<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 217<body>
183<p> 218
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 219<p>
186<pre> 220Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
221an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
222</p>
223
224<pre caption="Example of a body element">
187&lt;p&gt; 225&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 226This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 227&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 228Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
191&lt;/p&gt; 229&lt;/p&gt;
192 230
193&lt;pre&gt; 231&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
194This is text output or code. 232This is text output or code.
195# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 233# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
196 234
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 235Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 236&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 237
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 238&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 239&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 240
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 241&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 242This is a note.
243&lt;/note&gt;
244
245&lt;warn&gt;
246This is a warning.
247&lt;/warn&gt;
248
249&lt;impo&gt;
250This is important.
251&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 252</pre>
253
254<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 255Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
256</p>
207 257
208<p> 258<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 259This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 260<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 261Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
212</p> 262</p>
213 263
214<pre> 264<pre caption="Code Sample">
215This is text output or code. 265This is text output or code.
216# <i>this is user input</i> 266# <i>this is user input</i>
217 267
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 268Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 269&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 270
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 271<comment>(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)</comment>
222</pre> 272</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 273
274<note>
275This is a note.
276</note>
277
278<warn>
279This is a warning.
280</warn>
281
282<impo>
283This is important.
284</impo>
285
286</body>
287</section>
229<section> 288<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 289<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 290<body>
232 291
292<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 293We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 294need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 295block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 296<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 297Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 298these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 299<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 300stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 301<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 302preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
303You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
307&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
308# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
30916:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
310&lt;/pre&gt;
311</pre>
243 312
244</body> 313</body>
245</section> 314</section>
246<section> 315<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 316<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 317<body>
249 318
319<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 320The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 321be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 322<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
323</p>
253 324
325<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 326The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 327<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 328<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 329font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
330</p>
258 331
332<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 333The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 334input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 335that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 336the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 337element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 338not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 339quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 340<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 341necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 342refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 343the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
344adorable!
345</p>
270 346
347<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 348<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 349I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 350offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 351prose more <e>punch</e>!
352</p>
275 353
276</body> 354</body>
277</section> 355</section>
278
279<section> 356<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 357<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 358<body>
282 359
360<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 361We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 362some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
363link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
364</p>
285 365
366<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 367The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 368It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 369displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 370<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 371<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 372when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 373link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 374link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
375Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
376to link to other parts of the Gentoo website. For instance, a link to the <uri
377link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
378link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
379even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
380link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 381</p>
295 382
296</body> 383</body>
297</section> 384</section>
298
299<section> 385<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 386<title>Figures</title>
301
302<body> 387<body>
303 388
389<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 390Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 391link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 392time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 393the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 394the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 395:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 396for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
397</p>
311 398
312</body> 399</body>
313</section> 400</section>
314<section> 401<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 402<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 403<body>
317 404
405<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 406Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 407a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 408tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 409HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 410header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 411block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 412-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 413first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 414be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 415</p>
328 416
417<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 418To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 419<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 420should only appear inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> or
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 421<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> tag.
422</p>
333 423
334</body> 424</body>
335</section> 425</section>
336
337<section> 426<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 427<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 428<body>
340 429
430<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 431Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 432hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 433One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 434One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 435Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 436Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 437link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
438link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 439link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 440adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
441</p>
442
443<p>
444However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
445links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
446<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
447attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
448</p>
449
450<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
451&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
452&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
453...
454&lt;p&gt;
455More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
456&lt;/p&gt;
457</pre>
350 458
351</body> 459</body>
352</section> 460</section>
353</chapter> 461</chapter>
462
463<chapter>
464<title>Coding Style</title>
465<section>
466<title>Introduction</title>
467<body>
468
469<p>
470Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
471most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
472A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
473internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
474regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
475</p>
476
477<p>
478Both sections are described next.
479</p>
480
481</body>
482</section>
483<section>
484<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
485<body>
486
487<p>
488<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
489GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
490<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
491<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
492<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
493<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
494<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
495</p>
496
497<p>
498<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
499<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
500<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
501<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
502<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
503<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
504</p>
505
506<p>
507<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
508<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
509this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
510The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
511</p>
512
513<p>
514<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
515the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
516<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
517is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
518tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
519</p>
520
521<p>
522In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
523<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
524</p>
525
526<p>
527An example for indentation is:
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Indentation Example">
531&lt;table&gt;
532&lt;tr&gt;
533 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
534 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
535&lt;/tr&gt;
536&lt;tr&gt;
537 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
538 &lt;ti&gt;
539 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
540 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
541 &lt;/ti&gt;
542&lt;/tr&gt;
543&lt;/table&gt;
544
545&lt;ul&gt;
546 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
547 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
548&lt;/ul&gt;
549</pre>
550
551<p>
552<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
553&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
554</p>
555
556<pre caption="Attributes">
557<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
558<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
559</pre>
560
561</body>
562</section>
563<section>
564<title>External Coding Style</title>
565<body>
566
567<p>
568Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
569<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
570sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
571other reading marks).
572</p>
573
574<p>
575Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
576with a capital letter.
577</p>
578
579<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
580&lt;ul&gt;
581 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
582 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
583&lt;/ul&gt;
584</pre>
585
586<p>
587Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
588</p>
589
590<p>
591Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
592possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
593Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
594</p>
595
596<p>
597When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
598<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
599that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
600for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
601comment.
602</p>
603
604<pre caption="Comment example">
605<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
606# <i>id john</i>
607</pre>
608
609</body>
610</section>
611</chapter>
612
613<chapter>
614<title>Handbook Format</title>
615<section>
616<title>Guide vs Book</title>
617<body>
618
619<p>
620For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
621link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
622broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
623allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
624</p>
625
626</body>
627</section>
628<section>
629<title>Main File</title>
630<body>
631
632<p>
633The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
634real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
635doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
636</p>
637
638<pre caption="Example book usage">
639&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
640&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
641
642&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
643&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
644
645&lt;author...&gt;
646 ...
647&lt;/author&gt;
648
649&lt;abstract&gt;
650 ...
651&lt;/abstract&gt;
652
653&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
654&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
655&lt;license/&gt;
656
657&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
658&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
659</pre>
660
661<p>
662So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
663<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
664<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
665equivalent of a separate part in a book:
666</p>
667
668<pre caption="Defining a part">
669&lt;part&gt;
670&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
671&lt;abstract&gt;
672 ...
673&lt;/abstract&gt;
674
675<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
676&lt;/part&gt;
677</pre>
678
679<p>
680Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
681<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
682</p>
683
684<p>
685Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
686chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
687special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
688document.
689</p>
690
691<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
692&lt;chapter&gt;
693&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
694&lt;abstract&gt;
695 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
696&lt;/abstract&gt;
697
698 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
699
700&lt;/chapter&gt;
701</pre>
702
703</body>
704</section>
705<section>
706<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
707<body>
708
709<p>
710The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
711</p>
712
713<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
714&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
715&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
716
717&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
718&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
719
720&lt;sections&gt;
721
722&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
723&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
724
725<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
726
727&lt;/sections&gt;
728</pre>
729
730<p>
731Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
732<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
733of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
734</p>
735
736<p>
737Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
738latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
739browses through all parts of the book.
740</p>
741
742</body>
743</section>
744</chapter>
745
354<chapter> 746<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 747<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 748<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 749<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 750<body>
751
752<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 753Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 754spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 755syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 756to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. You might be interested
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 757in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 758Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
365 Have fun!</p> 759questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
760link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
761like to tackle. Have fun!
762</p>
763
366 </body> 764</body>
367</section> 765</section>
368</chapter> 766</chapter>
369</guide> 767</guide>
370

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