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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.43 2005/05/12 16:57:02 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis
13</author>
14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 29</abstract>
14 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
33<license/>
34
15<version>1.0</version> 35<version>2.20</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 36<date>2005-05-12</date>
17 37
18<chapter> 38<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>Guide basics</title>
20
21<section> 40<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23<body> 42<body>
24 43
44<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50</p>
30 51
52<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32documents.</p> 54documents.
55</p>
33 56
34</body> 57</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 58</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 59<section>
60<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 61<body>
40 62
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 63<p>
64 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre> 65test GuideXML, please read the <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri> which
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 67contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre>
69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 68</p>
77 69
78</body> 70</body>
79</section> 71</section>
80</chapter> 72</chapter>
73
81<chapter> 74<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 75<title>Guide XML</title>
83<section> 76<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 77<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 78<body>
86 79
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 80<p>
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 81Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
89XML document: </p> 82tags used in a GuideXML document:
83</p>
90 84
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 85<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 86&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 87&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
88&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
89
90&lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 91&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 92&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 93 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 94&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt;
101 95
96&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 97<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 98our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 99format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 100using GuideXML.</i>
101&lt;/abstract&gt;
102
103&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
104&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
105&lt;license/&gt;
106 106
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 108&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 109</pre>
110 110
111<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 112On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 113document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
114will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
115Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 116enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. The <c>link</c>
117attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the absolute path to the
118document relatively to the document root even though the file name alone will
119work. It is mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of
120your document. If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version
121will either not work or point to a wrong document. The <c>lang</c> attribute
122can be used to specify the language code of your document. It is used to format
123the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the
124specified language. The default is English.
125</p>
126
127<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 128Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 129guide document.
130</p>
116 131
132<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 133Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 134about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 135allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 136relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 137particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 138<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 139person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 140more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
125</p> 141</p>
126 142
143<p>
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 144Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 145<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 146current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
147respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
148appear verbatim in the rendered document.
149</p>
150
151<p>
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 152This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 153document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 154tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 155<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 156required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
157</p>
135 158
136</body> 159<p>
137</section> 160Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
161under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">Creative
162Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
163link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
164</p>
138 165
166</body>
167</section>
139<section> 168<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 169<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 170<body>
171
172<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 173Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 174structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 175chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 176section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 177consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
178link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 179<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
148(if minimal) guide document: 180guide document:
149</p> 181</p>
150 182
151<pre> 183<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
152&lt;chapter&gt; 184&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 185&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 186&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 187&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 188&lt;body&gt;
189
190&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 191<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
192&lt;/p&gt;
193
158 &lt;/body&gt; 194&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 195&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 196&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 197</pre>
162 198
199<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 200Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 201element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 202adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 203<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 204<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 205is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 206content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 207inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
208</p>
171 209
210<note>
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 211A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 212elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 213<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 214element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
215</note>
176 216
177</body> 217</body>
178</section> 218</section>
179
180<section> 219<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 220<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 221<body>
183<p> 222
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 223<p>
186<pre> 224Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
225an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
226</p>
227
228<pre caption="Example of a body element">
187&lt;p&gt; 229&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 230This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 231&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 232Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
191&lt;/p&gt; 233&lt;/p&gt;
192 234
193&lt;pre&gt; 235&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
194This is text output or code. 236This is text output or code.
195# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 237# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
196 238
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 239Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 240&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 241
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 242&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 243&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 244
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 245&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 246This is a note.
247&lt;/note&gt;
248
249&lt;warn&gt;
250This is a warning.
251&lt;/warn&gt;
252
253&lt;impo&gt;
254This is important.
255&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 256</pre>
257
258<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 259Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
260</p>
207 261
208<p> 262<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 263This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 264<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 265Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
212</p> 266</p>
213 267
214<pre> 268<pre caption="Code Sample">
215This is text output or code. 269This is text output or code.
216# <i>this is user input</i> 270# <i>this is user input</i>
217 271
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 272Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 273&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 274
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 275<comment>(This is how to insert an inline note into the code block)</comment>
222</pre> 276</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 277
278<note>
279This is a note.
280</note>
281
282<warn>
283This is a warning.
284</warn>
285
286<impo>
287This is important.
288</impo>
289
290</body>
291</section>
229<section> 292<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 293<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 294<body>
232 295
296<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 297We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 298need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 299block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 300<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 301Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 302these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 303<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 304stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 305<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 306preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.
307You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:
308</p>
309
310<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
311&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt;
312# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
31316:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
314&lt;/pre&gt;
315</pre>
243 316
244</body> 317</body>
245</section> 318</section>
246<section> 319<section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 320<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
248<body> 321<body>
249 322
323<p>
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 324The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 325be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 326<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
327</p>
253 328
329<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 330The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 331<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 332<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 333font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
334</p>
258 335
336<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 337The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 338input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 339that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 340the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 341element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 342not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 343quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 344<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 345necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 346refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 347the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
348adorable!
349</p>
270 350
351<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 352<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 353I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 354offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 355prose more <e>punch</e>!
356</p>
275 357
276</body> 358</body>
277</section> 359</section>
278
279<section> 360<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 361<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 362<body>
282 363
364<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 365We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 366some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
367link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.
368</p>
285 369
370<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 371The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 372It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 373displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 374<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 375<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 376when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 377link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 378link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
379Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
380to link to other parts of the Gentoo website. For instance, a link to the <uri
381link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
382link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
383even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
384link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
294</p> 385</p>
295 386
296</body> 387</body>
297</section> 388</section>
298
299<section> 389<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 390<title>Figures</title>
301
302<body> 391<body>
303 392
393<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 394Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 395link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 396time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 397the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 398the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 399:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 400for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
401</p>
311 402
312</body> 403</body>
313</section> 404</section>
314<section> 405<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 406<title>Tables and lists</title>
316<body> 407<body>
317 408
409<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 410Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 411a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 412tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 413HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 414header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 415block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 416-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 417first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 418be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
327</p> 419</p>
328 420
421<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 422To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 423<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 424should only appear inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> or
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 425<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> tag. You need to close the tags as well (which is a general
426XML requirement).
427</p>
333 428
334</body> 429</body>
335</section> 430</section>
336
337<section> 431<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 432<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 433<body>
340 434
435<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 436Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 437hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 438One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 439One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 440Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 441Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 442link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
443link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 444link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 445adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
446</p>
447
448<p>
449However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
450links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
451<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c>
452attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
453</p>
454
455<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
456&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
457&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
458...
459&lt;p&gt;
460More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
461&lt;/p&gt;
462</pre>
350 463
351</body> 464</body>
352</section> 465</section>
353</chapter> 466</chapter>
467
468<chapter>
469<title>Coding Style</title>
470<section>
471<title>Introduction</title>
472<body>
473
474<p>
475Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
476most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
477A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
478internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is
479regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
480</p>
481
482<p>
483Both sections are described next.
484</p>
485
486</body>
487</section>
488<section>
489<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
490<body>
491
492<p>
493<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
494GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
495<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
496<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
497<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
498<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>,
499<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
500</p>
501
502<p>
503<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
504<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
505<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
506<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
507<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
508<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
509</p>
510
511<p>
512<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
513<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from
514this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters).
515The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs.
516</p>
517
518<p>
519<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which
520the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
521<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation
522is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e>
523tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces.
524</p>
525
526<p>
527In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or
528<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content.
529</p>
530
531<p>
532An example for indentation is:
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Indentation Example">
536&lt;table&gt;
537&lt;tr&gt;
538 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
539 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
540&lt;/tr&gt;
541&lt;tr&gt;
542 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt;
543 &lt;ti&gt;
544 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
545 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it.
546 &lt;/ti&gt;
547&lt;/tr&gt;
548&lt;/table&gt;
549
550&lt;ul&gt;
551 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
552 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
553&lt;/ul&gt;
554</pre>
555
556<p>
557<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the
558&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example:
559</p>
560
561<pre caption="Attributes">
562<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
563<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
564</pre>
565
566</body>
567</section>
568<section>
569<title>External Coding Style</title>
570<body>
571
572<p>
573Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and
574<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple
575sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or
576other reading marks).
577</p>
578
579<p>
580Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
581with a capital letter.
582</p>
583
584<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
585&lt;ul&gt;
586 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
587 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
588&lt;/ul&gt;
589</pre>
590
591<p>
592Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
593</p>
594
595<p>
596Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
597possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
598Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
599</p>
600
601<p>
602When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
603<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
604that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
605for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
606comment.
607</p>
608
609<pre caption="Comment example">
610<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
611# <i>id john</i>
612</pre>
613
614</body>
615</section>
616</chapter>
617
618<chapter>
619<title>Handbook Format</title>
620<section>
621<title>Guide vs Book</title>
622<body>
623
624<p>
625For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
626link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
627broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
628allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
629</p>
630
631</body>
632</section>
633<section>
634<title>Main File</title>
635<body>
636
637<p>
638The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
639real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
640doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
641</p>
642
643<pre caption="Example book usage">
644&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
645&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
646&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
647
648&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
649&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
650
651&lt;author...&gt;
652 ...
653&lt;/author&gt;
654
655&lt;abstract&gt;
656 ...
657&lt;/abstract&gt;
658
659&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
660&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
661&lt;license/&gt;
662
663&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
664&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
665</pre>
666
667<p>
668So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
669<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
670<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
671equivalent of a separate part in a book:
672</p>
673
674<pre caption="Defining a part">
675&lt;part&gt;
676&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
677&lt;abstract&gt;
678 ...
679&lt;/abstract&gt;
680
681<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
682&lt;/part&gt;
683</pre>
684
685<p>
686Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
687<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
688</p>
689
690<p>
691Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
692chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
693special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
694document.
695</p>
696
697<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
698&lt;chapter&gt;
699&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
700&lt;abstract&gt;
701 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
702&lt;/abstract&gt;
703
704 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
705
706&lt;/chapter&gt;
707</pre>
708
709</body>
710</section>
711<section>
712<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
713<body>
714
715<p>
716The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
717</p>
718
719<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
720&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
721&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
722&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
723
724&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
725&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --&gt;
726
727&lt;sections&gt;
728
729&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
730&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
731
732<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
733
734&lt;/sections&gt;
735</pre>
736
737<p>
738Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
739<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
740of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
741</p>
742
743<p>
744Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
745latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
746browses through all parts of the book.
747</p>
748
749</body>
750</section>
751</chapter>
752
354<chapter> 753<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 754<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 755<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 756<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 757<body>
758
759<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 760Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 761spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 762syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 763to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. You might be interested
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 764in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 765Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
365 Have fun!</p> 766questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
767link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
768like to tackle. Have fun!
769</p>
770
366 </body> 771</body>
367</section> 772</section>
368</chapter> 773</chapter>
369</guide> 774</guide>
370

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