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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.67 2007/10/04 19:37:23 neysx Exp $ -->
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide>
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
13</author>
14<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
15 John P. Davis
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23
24<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 29</abstract>
14 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
33<license/>
34
15<version>1.0</version> 35<version>8</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 36<date>2007-10-04</date>
17 37
18<chapter> 38<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>GuideXML basics</title>
20
21<section> 40<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>GuideXML design goals</title>
23<body> 42<body>
24 43
44<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50</p>
30 51
52<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
32documents.</p> 54documents.
55</p>
33 56
34</body> 57</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 58</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 59<section>
60<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 61<body>
40 62
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 63<p>
64 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre> 65test GuideXML, please read our <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 67which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre> 68</p>
69 69
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of 70<p>
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document 71You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from 72document while you read it.
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 73</p>
77 74
78</body> 75</body>
79</section> 76</section>
80</chapter> 77</chapter>
78
81<chapter> 79<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 80<title>GuideXML</title>
83<section> 81<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 82<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 83<body>
86 84
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 85<p>
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 86Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
89XML document: </p> 87tags used in a GuideXML document:
88</p>
90 89
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 90<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 91&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 92&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
93&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94
95&lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 96&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 97
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 98&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
99 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 100&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt;
101 101
102&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 103<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 104our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 105format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 106using GuideXML.</i>
107&lt;/abstract&gt;
108
109&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
110&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
111&lt;license/&gt;
106 112
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 113&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 114&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 115</pre>
110 116
117<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 118On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 119document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 122enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
123<br/>
124The <c>link</c> attribute is optional and should preferably contain the
125absolute path to the document relatively to the document root even though the
126file name alone will work. It is only used to generate a link to a
127printer-friendly version of your document and check whether a translation is
128up-to-date. Our XSL back-engine passes the actual path to our XSL stylesheet.
129The link attribute is only used as a fall-back value in case the XML is
130processed by other means.
131<br/>
132The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
133document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
134"<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
135</p>
136
137<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 138Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 139guide document.
140</p>
116 141
142<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 143Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 144about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 145allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 146relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 147particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 148<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 149person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 150least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
151</p>
152
125</p> 153<p>
126
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 154Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 155<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 156current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 157respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
158appear verbatim in the rendered document.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 163Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 164shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 165<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 166required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
167</p>
135 168
136</body> 169<p>
137</section> 170Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
171under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
172Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
173link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
174</p>
138 175
176</body>
177</section>
139<section> 178<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 179<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 180<body>
181
182<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 183Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 184structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 185chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 186section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 187consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
188link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 189<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
148(if minimal) guide document: 190guide document:
149</p> 191</p>
150 192
151<pre> 193<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
152&lt;chapter&gt; 194&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 195&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 196&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 197&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 198&lt;body&gt;
199
200&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 201<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
202&lt;/p&gt;
203
158 &lt;/body&gt; 204&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 205&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 206&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 207</pre>
162 208
209<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 210Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 211element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 212adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 213<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 214<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 215is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 216content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 217inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
218</p>
171 219
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 220<note>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 221A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
222elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 223<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 224contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
225</note>
176 226
177</body> 227</body>
178</section> 228</section>
179
180<section> 229<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 230<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 231<body>
183<p> 232
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 233<p>
186<pre> 234Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
235an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
236</p>
237
238<pre caption="Example of a body element">
187&lt;p&gt; 239&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 240This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 241&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 242Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
191&lt;/p&gt; 243&lt;/p&gt;
192 244
193&lt;pre&gt; 245&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
194This is text output or code. 246This is text output or code.
195# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 247# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
196 248
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 249Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 250&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 251
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 252&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 253&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 254
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 255&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 256This is a note.
257&lt;/note&gt;
258
259&lt;warn&gt;
260This is a warning.
261&lt;/warn&gt;
262
263&lt;impo&gt;
264This is important.
265&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 266</pre>
267
268<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 269Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
270</p>
207 271
208<p> 272<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 273This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 274<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 275Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
212</p> 276</p>
213 277
214<pre> 278<pre caption="Code Sample">
215This is text output or code. 279This is text output or code.
216# <i>this is user input</i> 280# <i>this is user input</i>
217 281
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 282Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 283&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 284
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 285<comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
222</pre> 286</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 287
288<note>
289This is a note.
290</note>
291
292<warn>
293This is a warning.
294</warn>
295
296<impo>
297This is important.
298</impo>
299
300</body>
301</section>
229<section> 302<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 303<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 304<body>
232 305
306<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 307We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 308to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 309<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 310(important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
311<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 312<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 313only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 314Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 315don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 316you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 317exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
318<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
319</p>
243 320
321<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
322&lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
323# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
32416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
325&lt;/pre&gt;
326</pre>
327
244</body> 328</body>
245</section>
246<section> 329</section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 330<section>
331<title>Epigraphs</title>
332<body>
333
334<p by="Anonymous student">
335Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
336Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
337of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
338and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
3391790 and is still dead.
340</p>
341
342<p>
343Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
344to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
345the signature.
346</p>
347
348<pre caption="Short epigraph">
349&lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
350Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
351&lt;/p&gt;
352</pre>
353
248<body> 354</body>
355</section>
356<section>
357<title>
358 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
359</title>
360<body>
249 361
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 362<p>
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 363The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 364<c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
365<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
366</p>
253 367
368<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 369The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 370<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 371<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 372font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
373</p>
258 374
375<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 376The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 377input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 378that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 379the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 380element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 381not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 382quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 383<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 384necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 385refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 386the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
387adorable!
388</p>
270 389
390<p>
391As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
392text.
393</p>
394
395<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 396<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 397I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 398offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 399prose more <e>punch</e>!
400</p>
275 401
402<p>
403The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
404<sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
405</p>
406
276</body> 407</body>
408</section>
277</section> 409<section>
410<title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
411<body>
278 412
413<p>
414To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
415inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
416</p>
417
418<dl>
419 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
420 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
421 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
422 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for an identifier
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a constant
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a statement
434 </dd>
435 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
436 <dd>Used for a variable
437 </dd>
438</dl>
439
440<note>
441Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
442<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
443</note>
444
445<p>
446Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="My first ebuild">
450<comment># Copyright 1999-2006 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
451# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
452# &#36;Header: $</comment>
453
454<ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
455<ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
456<ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
457
458<ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
459<ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
460<ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
461<ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
462
463<stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
464 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"econf failed"</const>
465 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
466}
467
468<stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
469 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
470
471 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
472 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
473}
474</pre>
475
476</body>
477</section>
279<section> 478<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 479<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 480<body>
282 481
482<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 483We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 484some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
485link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
486email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
487would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
488</p>
285 489
490<p>
491Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
492<c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
493would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
494with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
495content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
496link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
497link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
498<br/>
499This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
500contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
501</p>
502
503<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 504The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 505It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 506displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 507<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 508<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 509when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 510link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 511<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
512Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
513<c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
514For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
515should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
516index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
517directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
518index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
519</p>
520
294</p> 521<p>
522You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
523starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
524</p>
295 525
296</body> 526<p>
297</section> 527Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
528syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
529link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
530</p>
298 531
532</body>
533</section>
299<section> 534<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 535<title>Figures</title>
301
302<body> 536<body>
303 537
538<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 539Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 540link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 541time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 542the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 543the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 544:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 545for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
546</p>
311 547
312</body> 548</body>
313</section>
314<section> 549</section>
550<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 551<title>Tables</title>
316<body> 552<body>
317 553
554<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 555GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 556table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 557tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 558&lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 559header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 560block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 561-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 562first row.
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 563</p>
564
327</p> 565<p>
566Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
567(<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
568span their content across rows, columns or both.
569</p>
328 570
571<p>
572Furthermore, table items (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) can be right-aligned or centered
573with the <c>align</c> attribute. Table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) are
574automatically centered.
575</p>
576
577<table>
578 <tr>
579 <th colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
580 </tr>
581 <tr>
582 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
583 <ti>Item A1</ti>
584 <ti>Item A2</ti>
585 <ti>Item A3</ti>
586 </tr>
587 <tr>
588 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
589 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
590 </tr>
591 <tr>
592 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
593 </tr>
594 <tr>
595 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
596 </tr>
597 <tr>
598 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
599 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
600 </tr>
601 <tr>
602 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
603 </tr>
604</table>
605
606</body>
607</section>
608<section>
609<title>Lists</title>
610<body>
611
612<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 613To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 614<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 615appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 616that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
617that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
618</p>
333 619
334</body> 620<p>
335</section> 621Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
622neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
623(<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
624admonitions. A definition list comprises:
625</p>
336 626
627<dl>
628 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
629 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
630 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
631 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
632 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
633 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
634</dl>
635
636<p>
637The following list copied from <uri
638link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
639that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
640contain another definition list though.
641</p>
642
643<dl>
644 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
645 <dd>
646 <ul>
647 <li>100 g. flour</li>
648 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
649 <li>1 cup water</li>
650 <li>2 eggs</li>
651 <li>salt, pepper</li>
652 </ul>
653 </dd>
654 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
655 <dd>
656 <ol>
657 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
658 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
659 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
660 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
661 </ol>
662 </dd>
663 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
664 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
665</dl>
666
667</body>
668</section>
337<section> 669<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 670<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 671<body>
340 672
673<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 674GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 675hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 676One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 677One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 678Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 679Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 680<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
681to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 682<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 683</p>
684
685<p>
686However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
687links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
688<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
689the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
690</p>
691
692<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
693&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
694&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
695...
696&lt;p&gt;
697More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
698&lt;/p&gt;
699</pre>
700
701</body>
702</section>
703<section>
704<title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
705<body>
706
707<p>
708A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
709a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
710are:
711</p>
712
713<ul>
714 <li>
715 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
716 articles</uri>
717 </li>
718 <li>
719 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
720 should not be considered official
721 </li>
722 <li>
723 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
724 anymore
725 </li>
726 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
727</ul>
728
729<p>
730When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
731version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
732automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
733behaviour.
734</p>
735
736<pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
737&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
738&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
739&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
740
741&lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
742&lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
743
744&lt;author title="Author"&gt;
745...
746</pre>
747
748</body>
749</section>
750<section>
751<title>FAQs</title>
752<body>
753
754<p>
755FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
756answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
757can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
758chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
759<c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
760is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
761sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
762element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
763section per chapter and one link per question.
764</p>
765
766<p>
767A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
768link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
769obvious.
770</p>
350 771
351</body> 772</body>
352</section> 773</section>
353</chapter> 774</chapter>
775
776<chapter>
777<title>Handbook Format</title>
778<section>
779<title>Guide vs Book</title>
780<body>
781
782<p>
783For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
784link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
785broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
786allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
787</p>
788
789</body>
790</section>
791<section>
792<title>Main File</title>
793<body>
794
795<p>
796The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
797real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
798doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
799</p>
800
801<pre caption="Example book usage">
802&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
803&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
804&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
805
806&lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
807&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
808
809&lt;author...&gt;
810 ...
811&lt;/author&gt;
812
813&lt;abstract&gt;
814 ...
815&lt;/abstract&gt;
816
817&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
818&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
819&lt;license/&gt;
820
821&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
822&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
823</pre>
824
825<p>
826So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
827<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
828<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
829equivalent of a separate part in a book:
830</p>
831
832<pre caption="Defining a part">
833&lt;part&gt;
834&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
835&lt;abstract&gt;
836 ...
837&lt;/abstract&gt;
838
839<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
840&lt;/part&gt;
841</pre>
842
843<p>
844Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
845<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
846</p>
847
848<p>
849Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
850chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
851a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
852document.
853</p>
854
855<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
856&lt;chapter&gt;
857&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
858
859 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
860
861&lt;/chapter&gt;
862</pre>
863
864</body>
865</section>
866<section>
867<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
868<body>
869
870<p>
871The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
872</p>
873
874<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
875&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
876&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
877&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
878
879&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
880&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
881
882&lt;sections&gt;
883
884&lt;abstract&gt;
885 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
886&lt;/abstract&gt;
887
888&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
889&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
890
891<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
892
893&lt;/sections&gt;
894</pre>
895
896<p>
897Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
898<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
899of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
900</p>
901
902<p>
903Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
904latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
905browses through all parts of the book.
906</p>
907
908</body>
909</section>
910</chapter>
911
912<chapter>
913<title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
914<section>
915<title>Global Values</title>
916<body>
917
918<p>
919Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
920handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
921unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
922used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
923</p>
924
925<p>
926Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
927chapters.
928</p>
929
930<p>
931To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
932master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
933<c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
934The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
935</p>
936
937<p>
938The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
939</p>
940
941<pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
942&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
943&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
944&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
945
946&lt;book&gt;
947&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
948
949<i>&lt;values>
950 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
951 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
952 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
953&lt;/values&gt;</i>
954
955&lt;author...&gt;
956 ...
957&lt;/author&gt;
958
959...
960</pre>
961
962<p>
963The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
964<c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
965<c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
966"install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
967</p>
968
969<pre caption="Using defined values">
970&lt;p&gt;
971The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
972and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
973Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
974connection.
975&lt;/p&gt;
976</pre>
977
978<p>
979To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
980that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
981<c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
982</p>
983
984</body>
985</section>
986<section>
987<title>Conditional Elements</title>
988<body>
989
990<p>
991Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
992link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
993differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
994content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
995the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
996<c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
997<c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
998<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
999and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
1000</p>
1001
1002<p>
1003The condition must be an <uri
1004link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1005evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1006element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1007<c>test</c> attribute.
1008</p>
1009
1010<p>
1011The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1012handbook master file to condition some content:
1013</p>
1014
1015<pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1016&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1017
1018&lt;p&gt;
1019This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1020&lt;/p&gt;
1021
1022&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1023This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1024&lt;/p&gt;
1025
1026&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1027This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1028&lt;/p&gt;
1029
1030&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1031This paragraph will never be seen!
1032The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1033&lt;/p&gt;
1034
1035&lt;/body&gt;
1036
1037&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1038
1039&lt;p&gt;
1040This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1041the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1042&lt;/p&gt;
1043
1044&lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1045This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1046&lt;/note&gt;
1047
1048&lt;/body&gt;
1049</pre>
1050
1051</body>
1052</section>
1053</chapter>
1054
1055<chapter id="codingstyle">
1056<title>Coding Style</title>
1057<section>
1058<title>Introduction</title>
1059<body>
1060
1061<p>
1062Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
1063most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
1064A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
1065internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
1066regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
1067</p>
1068
1069<p>
1070Both sections are described next.
1071</p>
1072
1073</body>
1074</section>
1075<section>
1076<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
1077<body>
1078
1079<p>
1080<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1081GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
1082<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
1083<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
1084<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
1085<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
1086<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
1087</p>
1088
1089<p>
1090<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1091<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
1092<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
1093<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1094<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
1095<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
1096</p>
1097
1098<p>
1099<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
1100<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
1101choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
1102editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
1103keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
1104columns to help console users.
1105</p>
1106
1107<p>
1108<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
1109parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
1110<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
1111<c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
1112each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
1113Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
1114</p>
1115
1116<p>
1117In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
1118<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1119the content.
1120</p>
1121
1122<p>
1123An example for indentation is:
1124</p>
1125
1126<pre caption="Indentation Example">
1127&lt;table&gt;
1128&lt;tr&gt;
1129 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
1130 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
1131&lt;/tr&gt;
1132&lt;tr&gt;
1133 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
1134 &lt;ti&gt;
1135 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
1136 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
1137 &lt;/ti&gt;
1138&lt;/tr&gt;
1139&lt;/table&gt;
1140
1141&lt;ul&gt;
1142 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
1143 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
1144&lt;/ul&gt;
1145</pre>
1146
1147<p>
1148<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
1149and the attribute value. As an example:
1150</p>
1151
1152<pre caption="Attributes">
1153<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
1154<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
1155</pre>
1156
1157</body>
1158</section>
1159<section>
1160<title>External Coding Style</title>
1161<body>
1162
1163<p>
1164Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1165<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
1166unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
1167with a period (or other reading marks).
1168</p>
1169
1170<p>
1171Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
1172with a capital letter.
1173</p>
1174
1175<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
1176&lt;ul&gt;
1177 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
1178 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
1179&lt;/ul&gt;
1180</pre>
1181
1182<p>
1183Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
1184</p>
1185
1186<p>
1187Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
1188possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1189Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1190</p>
1191
1192<p>
1193When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
1194<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
1195that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
1196for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1197comment.
1198</p>
1199
1200<pre caption="Comment example">
1201<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
1202# <i>id john</i>
1203</pre>
1204
1205</body>
1206</section>
1207</chapter>
1208
354<chapter> 1209<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 1210<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 1211<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 1212<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 1213<body>
1214
1215<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 1216GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 1217can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 1218syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 1219to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 1220<uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 1221&amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
365 Have fun!</p> 1222GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1223link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
1224to tackle. Have fun!
1225</p>
1226
366 </body> 1227</body>
367</section> 1228</section>
368</chapter> 1229</chapter>
369</guide> 1230</guide>
370

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