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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.72 2012/10/07 08:19:42 swift Exp $ -->
5 4
6<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide>
7<title>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
8<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
13</author>
14<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
15 John P. Davis
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23<author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
25</author>
26
27<abstract>
10<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide 28This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
11XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document 29Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
12itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 30documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
31assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13</abstract> 32</abstract>
14 33
34<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
35<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
36<license/>
37
15<version>1.0</version> 38<version>13</version>
16<date>07 Mar 2002</date> 39<date>2012-10-07</date>
17 40
18<chapter> 41<chapter>
19<title>Guide basics</title> 42<title>GuideXML basics</title>
20
21<section> 43<section>
22<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 44<title>GuideXML design goals</title>
23<body> 45<body>
24 46
47<p>
25<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 48The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 49learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 50documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 51This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 52XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
53</p>
30 54
55<p>
31<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 56The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
32documents.</p> 57documents.
58</p>
33 59
34</body> 60</body>
35</section>
36
37<section> 61</section>
38<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 62<section>
63<title>Further Resources</title>
39<body> 64<body>
40 65
41<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43file called <path>guide-main.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide-main.xsl</path> file describes
45exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46create the target HTML file. Two popular XSLT processors are <c>sabcmd</c>
47(included in the <path>app-text/sablotron</path> package) and <c>xsltproc</c>
48(found in the <path>dev-libs/libxslt</path> package). From experience, we've
49found that <c>xsltproc</c> is the higher-quality and more feature-rich XSLT
50processor. </p>
51
52<p> Once you have either <c>xsltproc</c> or <c>sabcmd</c> installed, you're
53ready to convert guide XML into web-ready HTML. Here's how it works. First,
54download the latest snapshot of our Web site from
55<uri>http://www.gentoo.org/projects/xml.html</uri>, found in the <uri
56link="http://www.gentoo.org/projects/guide-xml-latest.tar.gz">xml-guide-latest.tar.gz</uri>
57file. Extract the tarball. Inside it, you'll find a <path>gentoo-src</path>
58directory, as well as a <path>gentoo-src/xml</path> directory, etc. Now, find
59<path>gentoo-src/xml/install.xml</path>. (The new user installation guide).
60This will be our source XML guide document. The easiest way to perform the
61transformation is to change directories to the location of the
62<path>guide-main.xsl</path> file. Then, execute <c>xsltproc</c> as follows:
63</p> 66<p>
64 67If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre> 68test GuideXML, please read our <uri
66# <i>cd gentoo-web/xsl</i> 69link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
67# <i>xsltproc guide-main.xsl ../xml/install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</i> 70which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68</pre> 71</p>
69 72
70<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of 73<p>
71<path>install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document 74You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
72to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from 75document while you read it.
73<path>gentoo-web</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
74as <path>css/main-new.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
75directory.
76</p> 76</p>
77 77
78</body> 78</body>
79</section> 79</section>
80</chapter> 80</chapter>
81
81<chapter> 82<chapter>
82 <title>Guide XML</title> 83<title>GuideXML</title>
83<section> 84<section>
84<title>Basic structure</title> 85<title>Basic structure</title>
85<body> 86<body>
86 87
87<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 88<p>
88the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 89Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
89XML document: </p> 90tags used in a GuideXML document:
91</p>
90 92
91<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 93<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
92&lt;?xml version='1.0'?&gt; 94&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
93&lt;guide&gt; 95&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
96&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
97
98&lt;guide lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
94&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 99&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
95&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 100
96 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 101&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
102 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
97&lt;/author&gt; 103&lt;/author&gt;
98&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
99 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100&lt;/author&gt;
101 104
105&lt;abstract&gt;
102&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 106<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
103our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 107our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
104format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 108format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
105using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 109using GuideXML.</i>
110&lt;/abstract&gt;
106 111
112&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
113&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 --&gt;
114&lt;license version="3.0"/&gt;
115
107&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 116&lt;version&gt;<i>1</i>&lt;/version&gt;
108&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 117&lt;date&gt;<i>2011-11-29</i>&lt;/date&gt;
109</pre> 118</pre>
110 119
120<p>
111<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 121On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 122document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
123will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
124Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 125enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
126<br/>
127The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
128document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
129"<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
130</p>
131
132<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 133Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. </p> 134guide document.
135</p>
116 136
137<p>
117<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 138Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
118about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 139about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
119allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 140allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
120relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 141relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
121particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 142particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
122<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 143<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
123person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 144person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
124more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 145least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
146</p>
147
125</p> 148<p>
126
127<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 149Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
128<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 150<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
129current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 151current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
130respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 152respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
153appear verbatim in the rendered document.
154</p>
155
156<p>
157This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
131a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 158Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
132tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 159shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
133<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 160<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
134required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 161required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
162</p>
135 163
136</body> 164<p>
137</section> 165Finally we have the <c>&lt;license version="3.0"/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish
166the document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/">Creative
167Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
168link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>. Historically,
169the tag <c>&lt;license /&gt;</c> was used, which denoted the 2.5 version of the
170license. This is still accepted/allowed.
171</p>
138 172
173</body>
174</section>
139<section> 175<section>
140<title>Chapters and sections</title> 176<title>Chapters and sections</title>
141<body> 177<body>
178
179<p>
142<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 180Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
143the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 181structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
144chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 182chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
145and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 183section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
146consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 184consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
185link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
147excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 186<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
148(if minimal) guide document: 187guide document:
149</p> 188</p>
150 189
151<pre> 190<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
152&lt;chapter&gt; 191&lt;chapter&gt;
153&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 192&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
154&lt;section&gt; 193&lt;section&gt;
155 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 194&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
156 &lt;body&gt; 195&lt;body&gt;
196
197&lt;p&gt;
157 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 198<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
199&lt;/p&gt;
200
158 &lt;/body&gt; 201&lt;/body&gt;
159&lt;/section&gt; 202&lt;/section&gt;
160&lt;/chapter&gt; 203&lt;/chapter&gt;
161</pre> 204</pre>
162 205
206<p>
163<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 207Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
164element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 208element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
165adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 209adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
166<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 210<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
167<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 211<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
168is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 212is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
169content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 213content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
170inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 214inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
215</p>
171 216
172<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 217<note>
173<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 218A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
219elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
174multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 220<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
175element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 221contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
222</note>
176 223
177</body> 224</body>
178</section> 225</section>
179
180<section> 226<section>
181<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 227<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
182<body> 228<body>
183<p> 229
184Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
185</p> 230<p>
186<pre> 231Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
232an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
233</p>
234
235<pre caption="Example of a body element">
187&lt;p&gt; 236&lt;p&gt;
188This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 237This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
189&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 238&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
190Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 239Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
191&lt;/p&gt; 240&lt;/p&gt;
192 241
193&lt;pre&gt; 242&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
194This is text output or code. 243This is text output or code.
195# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 244# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
196 245
197Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 246Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
198&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 247&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
199 248
200&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 249&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
201&lt;/pre&gt; 250&lt;/pre&gt;
202&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 251
203&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 252&lt;note&gt;
204&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 253This is a note.
254&lt;/note&gt;
255
256&lt;warn&gt;
257This is a warning.
258&lt;/warn&gt;
259
260&lt;impo&gt;
261This is important.
262&lt;/impo&gt;
205</pre> 263</pre>
264
265<p>
206<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 266Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
267</p>
207 268
208<p> 269<p>
209This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 270This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
210<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 271<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
211Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 272Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
212</p> 273</p>
213 274
214<pre> 275<pre caption="Code Sample">
215This is text output or code. 276This is text output or code.
216# <i>this is user input</i> 277# <i>this is user input</i>
217 278
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 279Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 280&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
220 281
221<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 282<comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
222</pre> 283</pre>
223<note>This is a note.</note>
224<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
225<impo>This is important.</impo>
226</body>
227</section>
228 284
285<note>
286This is a note.
287</note>
288
289<warn>
290This is a warning.
291</warn>
292
293<impo>
294This is important.
295</impo>
296
297</body>
298</section>
229<section> 299<section>
230<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 300<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
231<body> 301<body>
232 302
303<p>
233<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 304We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
234need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 305to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
235block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 306<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
236<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 307(important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
308<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
237Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 309<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
238these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 310only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
239<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 311Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
240stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 312don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
241<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 313you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
242preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p> 314exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
315<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
316</p>
243 317
318<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
319&lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
320# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
32116:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
322&lt;/pre&gt;
323</pre>
324
244</body> 325</body>
245</section>
246<section> 326</section>
247<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 327<section>
328<title>Epigraphs</title>
329<body>
330
331<p by="Anonymous student">
332Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
333Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
334of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
335and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
3361790 and is still dead.
337</p>
338
339<p>
340Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
341to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
342the signature.
343</p>
344
345<pre caption="Short epigraph">
346&lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
347Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
348&lt;/p&gt;
349</pre>
350
248<body> 351</body>
352</section>
353<section>
354<title>
355 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
356</title>
357<body>
249 358
250<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 359<p>
251be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 360The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
252<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 361<c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
362<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
363</p>
253 364
365<p>
254<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 366The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
255<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 367<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
256This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 368<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
257standard paragraph type. </p> 369font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
370</p>
258 371
372<p>
259<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 373The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
260input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 374input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
261that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 375that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
262the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 376the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
263element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 377element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
264not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 378not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
265quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 379quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
266<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 380<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
267necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 381necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
268refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 382refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
269the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 383the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
384adorable!
385</p>
270 386
387<p>
388As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
389text.
390</p>
391
392<p>
271<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 393<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
272I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 394I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
273offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 395offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
274prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 396prose more <e>punch</e>!
397</p>
275 398
399<p>
400The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
401<sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
402</p>
403
276</body> 404</body>
405</section>
277</section> 406<section>
407<title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
408<body>
278 409
410<p>
411To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
412inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
413</p>
414
415<dl>
416 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
417 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
418 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
419 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
420 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
421 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
422 </dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Used for an identifier
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for a constant
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a statement
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a variable
434 </dd>
435</dl>
436
437<note>
438Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
439<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
440</note>
441
442<p>
443Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
444</p>
445
446<pre caption="My first ebuild">
447<comment># Copyright 1999-2009 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
448# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
449# &#36;Header: $</comment>
450
451<ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
452<ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
453<ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
454
455<ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
456<ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
457<ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
458<ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
459
460<stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
461 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex
462 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
463}
464
465<stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
466 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
467
468 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
469 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
470}
471</pre>
472
473</body>
474</section>
279<section> 475<section>
280<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 476<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
281<body> 477<body>
282 478
479<p>
283<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 480We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
284with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 481some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
482link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
483email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
484would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
485</p>
285 486
487<p>
488Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
489<c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
490would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
491with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
492content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
493link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
494link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
495<br/>
496This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
497contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
498</p>
499
500<p>
286<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 501The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
287Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 502It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
288actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 503displayed in the body text, such as this link to
289<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 504<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
290<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 505<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
291when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 506when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
292link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 507link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
293link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 508<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
509Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
510<c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
511For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
512should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
513index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
514directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
515index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
516</p>
517
294</p> 518<p>
519You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
520starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
521</p>
295 522
296</body> 523<p>
297</section> 524Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
525syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
526link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
527</p>
298 528
529</body>
530</section>
299<section> 531<section>
300<title>Figures</title> 532<title>Figures</title>
301
302<body> 533<body>
303 534
535<p>
304<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 536Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
305link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 537link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
306time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 538time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
307the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 539the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
308the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 540the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
309:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 541:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
310for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 542for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
543</p>
311 544
312</body> 545</body>
313</section>
314<section> 546</section>
547<section>
315<title>Tables and lists</title> 548<title>Tables</title>
316<body> 549<body>
317 550
551<p>
318<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 552GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
319a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 553table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
320tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 554tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
321HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 555&lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
322header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 556header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
323block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 557block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
324there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 558-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
325first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 559first row.
326be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 560</p>
561
327</p> 562<p>
563Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
564(<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
565span their content across rows, columns or both.
566</p>
328 567
568<p>
569Furthermore, table cells (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> &amp; <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) can be
570right-aligned, left-aligned or centered with the <c>align</c> attribute.
571</p>
572
573<table>
574 <tr>
575 <th align="center" colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
576 </tr>
577 <tr>
578 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
579 <ti>Item A1</ti>
580 <ti>Item A2</ti>
581 <ti>Item A3</ti>
582 </tr>
583 <tr>
584 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
585 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2" align="right">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
586 </tr>
587 <tr>
588 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
589 </tr>
590 <tr>
591 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
595 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
596 </tr>
597 <tr>
598 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
599 </tr>
600</table>
601
602</body>
603</section>
604<section>
605<title>Lists</title>
606<body>
607
608<p>
329<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 609To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
330<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 610<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
331should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 611appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
332<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 612that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
613that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
614</p>
333 615
334</body> 616<p>
335</section> 617Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
618neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
619(<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
620admonitions. A definition list comprises:
621</p>
336 622
623<dl>
624 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
625 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
626 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
627 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
628 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
629 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
630</dl>
631
632<p>
633The following list copied from <uri
634link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
635that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
636contain another definition list though.
637</p>
638
639<dl>
640 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
641 <dd>
642 <ul>
643 <li>100 g. flour</li>
644 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
645 <li>1 cup water</li>
646 <li>2 eggs</li>
647 <li>salt, pepper</li>
648 </ul>
649 </dd>
650 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
651 <dd>
652 <ol>
653 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
654 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
655 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
656 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
657 </ol>
658 </dd>
659 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
660 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
661</dl>
662
663</body>
664</section>
337<section> 665<section>
338<title>Intra-document references</title> 666<title>Intra-document references</title>
339<body> 667<body>
340 668
669<p>
341<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 670GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
342hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 671hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
343One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 672One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
344One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 673One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
345Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 674Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
346Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 675Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
347link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 676<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
677to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
348type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 678<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
349adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 679</p>
680
681<p>
682However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
683links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
684<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
685the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
686</p>
687
688<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
689&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
690&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
691...
692&lt;p&gt;
693More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
694&lt;/p&gt;
695</pre>
696
697</body>
698</section>
699<section>
700<title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
701<body>
702
703<p>
704A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
705a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
706are:
707</p>
708
709<ul>
710 <li>
711 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
712 articles</uri>
713 </li>
714 <li>
715 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
716 should not be considered official
717 </li>
718 <li>
719 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
720 anymore
721 </li>
722 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
723</ul>
724
725<p>
726When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
727version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
728automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
729behaviour.
730</p>
731
732<pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
733&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
734&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
735&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
736
737&lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
738&lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
739
740&lt;author title="Author"&gt;
741...
742</pre>
743
744</body>
745</section>
746<section>
747<title>FAQs</title>
748<body>
749
750<p>
751FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
752answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
753can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
754chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
755<c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
756is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
757sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
758element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
759section per chapter and one link per question.
760</p>
761
762<p>
763A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
764link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
765obvious.
766</p>
350 767
351</body> 768</body>
352</section> 769</section>
353</chapter> 770</chapter>
771
772<chapter>
773<title>Handbook Format</title>
774<section>
775<title>Guide vs Book</title>
776<body>
777
778<p>
779For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
780link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
781broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
782allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
783</p>
784
785</body>
786</section>
787<section>
788<title>Main File</title>
789<body>
790
791<p>
792The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
793real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
794doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
795</p>
796
797<pre caption="Example book usage">
798&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
799&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
800&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
801
802&lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
803&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
804
805&lt;author...&gt;
806 ...
807&lt;/author&gt;
808
809&lt;abstract&gt;
810 ...
811&lt;/abstract&gt;
812
813&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
814&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 --&gt;
815&lt;license version="3.0"/&gt;
816
817&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
818&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
819</pre>
820
821<p>
822So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
823<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
824<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
825equivalent of a separate part in a book:
826</p>
827
828<pre caption="Defining a part">
829&lt;part&gt;
830&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
831&lt;abstract&gt;
832 ...
833&lt;/abstract&gt;
834
835<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
836&lt;/part&gt;
837</pre>
838
839<p>
840Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
841<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
842</p>
843
844<p>
845Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
846chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
847a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
848document.
849</p>
850
851<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
852&lt;chapter&gt;
853&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
854
855 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
856
857&lt;/chapter&gt;
858</pre>
859
860</body>
861</section>
862<section>
863<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
864<body>
865
866<p>
867The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
868</p>
869
870<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
871&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
872&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
873&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
874
875&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
876&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 --&gt;
877
878&lt;sections&gt;
879
880&lt;abstract&gt;
881 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
882&lt;/abstract&gt;
883
884&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
885&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
886
887<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
888
889&lt;/sections&gt;
890</pre>
891
892<p>
893Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
894<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
895of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
896</p>
897
898<p>
899Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
900latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
901browses through all parts of the book.
902</p>
903
904</body>
905</section>
906</chapter>
907
908<chapter>
909<title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
910<section>
911<title>Global Values</title>
912<body>
913
914<p>
915Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
916handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
917unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
918used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
919</p>
920
921<p>
922Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
923chapters.
924</p>
925
926<p>
927To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
928master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
929<c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
930The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
931</p>
932
933<p>
934The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
935</p>
936
937<pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
938&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
939&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
940&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
941
942&lt;book&gt;
943&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
944
945<i>&lt;values>
946 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
947 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
948 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
949&lt;/values&gt;</i>
950
951&lt;author...&gt;
952 ...
953&lt;/author&gt;
954
955...
956</pre>
957
958<p>
959The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
960<c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
961<c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
962"install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
963</p>
964
965<pre caption="Using defined values">
966&lt;p&gt;
967The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
968and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
969Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
970connection.
971&lt;/p&gt;
972</pre>
973
974<p>
975To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
976that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
977<c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
978</p>
979
980</body>
981</section>
982<section>
983<title>Conditional Elements</title>
984<body>
985
986<p>
987Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
988link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
989differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
990content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
991the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
992<c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
993<c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
994<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
995and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
996</p>
997
998<p>
999The condition must be an <uri
1000link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1001evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1002element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1003<c>test</c> attribute.
1004</p>
1005
1006<p>
1007The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1008handbook master file to condition some content:
1009</p>
1010
1011<pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1012&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1013
1014&lt;p&gt;
1015This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1016&lt;/p&gt;
1017
1018&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1019This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1020&lt;/p&gt;
1021
1022&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1023This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1024&lt;/p&gt;
1025
1026&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1027This paragraph will never be seen!
1028The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1029&lt;/p&gt;
1030
1031&lt;/body&gt;
1032
1033&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1034
1035&lt;p&gt;
1036This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1037the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1038&lt;/p&gt;
1039
1040&lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1041This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1042&lt;/note&gt;
1043
1044&lt;/body&gt;
1045</pre>
1046
1047</body>
1048</section>
1049</chapter>
1050
1051<chapter id="codingstyle">
1052<title>Coding Style</title>
1053<section>
1054<title>Introduction</title>
1055<body>
1056
1057<p>
1058Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
1059most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
1060A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
1061internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
1062regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
1063</p>
1064
1065<p>
1066Both sections are described next.
1067</p>
1068
1069</body>
1070</section>
1071<section>
1072<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
1073<body>
1074
1075<p>
1076<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1077GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
1078<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
1079<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
1080<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
1081<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
1082<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
1083</p>
1084
1085<p>
1086<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1087<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
1088<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
1089<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1090<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
1091<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
1092</p>
1093
1094<p>
1095<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
1096<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
1097choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
1098editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
1099keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
1100columns to help console users.
1101</p>
1102
1103<p>
1104<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
1105parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
1106<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
1107<c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
1108each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
1109Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
1110</p>
1111
1112<p>
1113In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
1114<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1115the content.
1116</p>
1117
1118<p>
1119An example for indentation is:
1120</p>
1121
1122<pre caption="Indentation Example">
1123&lt;table&gt;
1124&lt;tr&gt;
1125 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
1126 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
1127&lt;/tr&gt;
1128&lt;tr&gt;
1129 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
1130 &lt;ti&gt;
1131 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
1132 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
1133 &lt;/ti&gt;
1134&lt;/tr&gt;
1135&lt;/table&gt;
1136
1137&lt;ul&gt;
1138 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
1139 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
1140&lt;/ul&gt;
1141</pre>
1142
1143<p>
1144<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
1145and the attribute value. As an example:
1146</p>
1147
1148<pre caption="Attributes">
1149<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
1150<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
1151</pre>
1152
1153</body>
1154</section>
1155<section>
1156<title>External Coding Style</title>
1157<body>
1158
1159<p>
1160Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1161<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
1162unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
1163with a period (or other reading marks).
1164</p>
1165
1166<p>
1167Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
1168with a capital letter.
1169</p>
1170
1171<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
1172&lt;ul&gt;
1173 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
1174 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
1175&lt;/ul&gt;
1176</pre>
1177
1178<p>
1179Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
1180</p>
1181
1182<p>
1183Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
1184possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1185Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1186</p>
1187
1188<p>
1189When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
1190<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
1191that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
1192for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1193comment.
1194</p>
1195
1196<pre caption="Comment example">
1197<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
1198# <i>id john</i>
1199</pre>
1200
1201</body>
1202</section>
1203</chapter>
1204
354<chapter> 1205<chapter>
355<title>Resources</title> 1206<title>Resources</title>
356<section> 1207<section>
357 <title>Start writing</title> 1208<title>Start writing</title>
358 <body> 1209<body>
1210
1211<p>
359 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 1212GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
360 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 1213can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
361 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 1214syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
362 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 1215to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
363 post a message to <mail link="gentoo-dev@gentoo.org">the gentoo-dev mailing list</mail> 1216<uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
364 stating what you'd like to tackle. 1217&amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
365 Have fun!</p> 1218GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1219link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
1220to tackle. Have fun!
1221</p>
1222
366 </body> 1223</body>
367</section> 1224</section>
368</chapter> 1225</chapter>
369</guide> 1226</guide>
370

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