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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.68 2008/03/09 13:13:15 neysx Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide>
5<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
6<author title="Author"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7<author title="Author"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 13</author>
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author> 14<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
15 John P. Davis
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
9 23
24<abstract>
25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
29</abstract>
30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
10<license/> 33<license/>
11 34
12<abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide
13XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document
14itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>2.0</version> 35<version>9</version>
18<date>12 May 2003</date> 36<date>2008-03-09</date>
19 37
20<chapter> 38<chapter>
21<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>GuideXML basics</title>
22
23<section> 40<section>
24<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>GuideXML design goals</title>
25<body> 42<body>
26 43
44<p>
27<p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
28learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
29documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
30This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
31XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p> 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50</p>
32 51
52<p>
33<p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
34documents.</p> 54documents.
55</p>
35 56
36</body> 57</body>
37</section>
38
39<section> 58</section>
40<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 59<section>
60<title>Further Resources</title>
41<body> 61<body>
42 62
43<p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
44guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
45file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
46tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
47exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
48create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
49is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package. </p>
50
51
52<pre caption="Installing libxslt">
53# <c>emerge libxslt</c>
54</pre>
55
56<p>Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words,
57we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
58that are available for download: </p>
59
60<p><b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
61Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any documentation,
62you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found
63<uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.</p>
64
65<p><b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b> in
66every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
67documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want to fully
68develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful for translators.
69These tarballs can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
70</p> 63<p>
71 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
72<p>After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go 65test GuideXML, please read our <uri
73to the directory where the tarball was extracted, and enter the 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
74<path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse around and get comfortable with the 67which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
75layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and <path>doc</path> directories.
76As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are in <path>xsl</path>,
77and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing purposes, we
78will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
79<path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations
80of the XSL and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with
81<c>xsltproc</c>. </p>
82
83<pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
84# <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
85</pre> 68</p>
86 69
87<p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of 70<p>
88<path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document 71You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
89to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from 72document while you read it.
90<path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
91as <path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
92directory.
93</p> 73</p>
94 74
95</body> 75</body>
96</section> 76</section>
97</chapter> 77</chapter>
78
98<chapter> 79<chapter>
99 <title>Guide XML</title> 80<title>GuideXML</title>
100<section> 81<section>
101<title>Basic structure</title> 82<title>Basic structure</title>
102<body> 83<body>
103 84
104<p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 85<p>
105the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 86Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
106XML document: </p> 87tags used in a GuideXML document:
88</p>
107 89
108<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 90<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
109&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt; 91&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
110&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt; 92&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
93&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94
95&lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
111&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 96&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
112&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt; 97
113 <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 98&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
99 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
114&lt;/author&gt; 100&lt;/author&gt;
115&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
116 <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
117&lt;/author&gt;
118 101
102&lt;abstract&gt;
119&lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 103<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
120our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official 104our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
121format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 105format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
122using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt; 106using GuideXML.</i>
107&lt;/abstract&gt;
108
109&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
110&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
111&lt;license/&gt;
123 112
124&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 113&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
125&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 114&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
126</pre> 115</pre>
127 116
117<p>
128<p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 118On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
129document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 119document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
130guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 122enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
123<br/>
124The <c>link</c> attribute is optional and should preferably contain the
125absolute path to the document relatively to the document root even though the
126file name alone will work. It is only used to generate a link to a
127printer-friendly version of your document and check whether a translation is
128up-to-date. Our XSL back-engine passes the actual path to our XSL stylesheet.
129The link attribute is only used as a fall-back value in case the XML is
130processed by other means.
131<br/>
132The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
133document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
134"<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
135</p>
136
137<p>
131Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 138Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
132guide document. </p> 139guide document.
140</p>
133 141
142<p>
134<p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 143Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
135about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 144about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
136allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 145allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
137relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 146relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
138particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 147particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
139<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 148<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
140person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 149person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
141more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 150least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
151</p>
152
142</p> 153<p>
143
144<p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 154Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
145<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 155<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
146current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 156current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
147respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 157respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
158appear verbatim in the rendered document.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
148a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 163Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
149tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 164shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
150<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 165<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
151required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p> 166required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
167</p>
152 168
153</body> 169<p>
154</section> 170Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
171under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
172Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
173link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
174</p>
155 175
176</body>
177</section>
156<section> 178<section>
157<title>Chapters and sections</title> 179<title>Chapters and sections</title>
158<body> 180<body>
181
182<p>
159<p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 183Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
160the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 184structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
161chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 185chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
162and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 186section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
163consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 187consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
188link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
164excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 189<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
165(if minimal) guide document: 190guide document:
166</p> 191</p>
167 192
168<pre> 193<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
169&lt;chapter&gt; 194&lt;chapter&gt;
170&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 195&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
171&lt;section&gt; 196&lt;section&gt;
172 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 197&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
173 &lt;body&gt; 198&lt;body&gt;
199
200&lt;p&gt;
174 &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt; 201<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
202&lt;/p&gt;
203
175 &lt;/body&gt; 204&lt;/body&gt;
176&lt;/section&gt; 205&lt;/section&gt;
177&lt;/chapter&gt; 206&lt;/chapter&gt;
178</pre> 207</pre>
179 208
209<p>
180<p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 210Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
181element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by 211element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
182adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the 212adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
183<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a 213<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
184<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> 214<c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
185is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text 215is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
186content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 216content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
187inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p> 217inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
218</p>
188 219
189<note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple 220<note>
190<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain 221A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
222elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
191multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 223<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
192element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note> 224contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
225</note>
193 226
194</body> 227</body>
195</section> 228</section>
196
197<section> 229<section>
198<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 230<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
199<body> 231<body>
200<p> 232
201Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
202</p> 233<p>
203<pre> 234Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
235an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
236</p>
237
238<pre caption="Example of a body element">
204&lt;p&gt; 239&lt;p&gt;
205This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 240This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
206&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 241&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
207Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 242Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
208&lt;/p&gt; 243&lt;/p&gt;
209 244
210&lt;pre&gt; 245&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
211This is text output or code. 246This is text output or code.
212# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 247# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
213 248
214Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 249Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
215&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 250&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
216 251
217&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 252&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
218&lt;/pre&gt; 253&lt;/pre&gt;
219&lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt; 254
220&lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt; 255&lt;note&gt;
221&lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt; 256This is a note.
257&lt;/note&gt;
258
259&lt;warn&gt;
260This is a warning.
261&lt;/warn&gt;
262
263&lt;impo&gt;
264This is important.
265&lt;/impo&gt;
222</pre> 266</pre>
267
268<p>
223<p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p> 269Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
270</p>
224 271
225<p> 272<p>
226This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 273This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
227<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 274<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
228Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 275Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
229</p> 276</p>
230 277
231<pre> 278<pre caption="Code Sample">
232This is text output or code. 279This is text output or code.
233# <i>this is user input</i> 280# <i>this is user input</i>
234 281
235Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 282Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
236&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 283&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
237 284
238<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 285<comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
239</pre> 286</pre>
240<note>This is a note.</note>
241<warn>This is a warning.</warn>
242<impo>This is important.</impo>
243</body>
244</section>
245 287
288<note>
289This is a note.
290</note>
291
292<warn>
293This is a warning.
294</warn>
295
296<impo>
297This is important.
298</impo>
299
300</body>
301</section>
246<section> 302<section>
247<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 303<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
248<body> 304<body>
249 305
306<p>
250<p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 307We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
251need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 308to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
252block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 309<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
253<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 310(important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
311<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
254Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 312<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
255these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 313only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
256<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 314Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
257stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 315don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
258<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 316you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
259preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. 317exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
260You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag:</p> 318<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
319</p>
261 320
262<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;"> 321<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
263&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt; 322&lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
264# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt; 323# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
26516:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25 32416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
266&lt;/pre&gt; 325&lt;/pre&gt;
267</pre> 326</pre>
268 327
269</body> 328</body>
270</section> 329</section>
271<section> 330<section>
272<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 331<title>Epigraphs</title>
332<body>
333
334<p by="Anonymous student">
335Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
336Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
337of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
338and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
3391790 and is still dead.
340</p>
341
342<p>
343Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
344to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
345the signature.
346</p>
347
348<pre caption="Short epigraph">
349&lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
350Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
351&lt;/p&gt;
352</pre>
353
273<body> 354</body>
355</section>
356<section>
357<title>
358 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
359</title>
360<body>
274 361
275<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 362<p>
276be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 363The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
277<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p> 364<c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
365<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
366</p>
278 367
368<p>
279<p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 369The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
280<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>. 370<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
281This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the 371<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
282standard paragraph type. </p> 372font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
373</p>
283 374
375<p>
284<p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 376The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
285input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something 377input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
286that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all 378that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
287the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> 379the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
288element because they represent something that the user could type in that is 380element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
289not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers 381not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
290quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because 382quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
291<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely 383<c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
292necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't 384necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
293refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding 385refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
294the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p> 386the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
387adorable!
388</p>
295 389
390<p>
391As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
392text.
393</p>
394
395<p>
296<p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 396<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
297I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 397I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
298offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 398offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
299prose more <e>punch</e>!</p> 399prose more <e>punch</e>!
400</p>
300 401
402<p>
403The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
404<sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
405</p>
406
301</body> 407</body>
408</section>
302</section> 409<section>
410<title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
411<body>
303 412
413<p>
414To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
415inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
416</p>
417
418<dl>
419 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
420 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
421 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
422 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for an identifier
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a constant
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a statement
434 </dd>
435 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
436 <dd>Used for a variable
437 </dd>
438</dl>
439
440<note>
441Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
442<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
443</note>
444
445<p>
446Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="My first ebuild">
450<comment># Copyright 1999-2006 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
451# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
452# &#36;Header: $</comment>
453
454<ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
455<ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
456<ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
457
458<ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
459<ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
460<ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
461<ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
462
463<stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
464 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"econf failed"</const>
465 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
466}
467
468<stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
469 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
470
471 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
472 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
473}
474</pre>
475
476</body>
477</section>
304<section> 478<section>
305<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 479<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
306<body> 480<body>
307 481
482<p>
308<p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text 483We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
309with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p> 484some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
485link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
486email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
487would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
488</p>
310 489
490<p>
491Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
492<c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
493would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
494with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
495content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
496link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
497link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
498<br/>
499This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
500contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
501</p>
502
503<p>
311<p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 504The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
312Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 505It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
313actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 506displayed in the body text, such as this link to
314<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 507<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
315<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 508<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
316when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 509when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
317link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e> 510link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
318link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 511<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
512Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
513<c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
514For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
515should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
516index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
517directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
518index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
519</p>
520
319</p> 521<p>
522You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
523starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
524</p>
320 525
321</body> 526<p>
322</section> 527Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
528syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
529link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
530</p>
323 531
532</body>
533</section>
324<section> 534<section>
325<title>Figures</title> 535<title>Figures</title>
326
327<body> 536<body>
328 537
538<p>
329<p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 539Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
330link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 540link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
331time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 541time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
332the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 542the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
333the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 543the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
334:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 544:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
335for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p> 545for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
546</p>
336 547
337</body> 548</body>
338</section>
339<section> 549</section>
550<section>
340<title>Tables and lists</title> 551<title>Tables</title>
341<body> 552<body>
342 553
554<p>
343<p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 555GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
344a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 556table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
345tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 557tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
346HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 558&lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
347header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 559header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
348block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> -- 560block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
349there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 561-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
350first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 562first row.
351be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon. 563</p>
564
352</p> 565<p>
566Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
567(<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
568span their content across rows, columns or both.
569</p>
353 570
571<p>
572Furthermore, table cells (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> &amp; <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) can be
573right-aligned, left-aligned or centered with the <c>align</c> attribute.
574</p>
575
576<table>
577 <tr>
578 <th align="center" colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
579 </tr>
580 <tr>
581 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
582 <ti>Item A1</ti>
583 <ti>Item A2</ti>
584 <ti>Item A3</ti>
585 </tr>
586 <tr>
587 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
588 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2" align="right">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
589 </tr>
590 <tr>
591 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
595 </tr>
596 <tr>
597 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
598 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
599 </tr>
600 <tr>
601 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
602 </tr>
603</table>
604
605</body>
606</section>
607<section>
608<title>Lists</title>
609<body>
610
611<p>
354<p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 612To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
355<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 613<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
356should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 614appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
357<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p> 615that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
616that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
617</p>
358 618
359</body> 619<p>
360</section> 620Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
621neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
622(<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
623admonitions. A definition list comprises:
624</p>
361 625
626<dl>
627 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
628 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
629 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
630 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
631 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
632 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
633</dl>
634
635<p>
636The following list copied from <uri
637link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
638that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
639contain another definition list though.
640</p>
641
642<dl>
643 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
644 <dd>
645 <ul>
646 <li>100 g. flour</li>
647 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
648 <li>1 cup water</li>
649 <li>2 eggs</li>
650 <li>salt, pepper</li>
651 </ul>
652 </dd>
653 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
654 <dd>
655 <ol>
656 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
657 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
658 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
659 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
660 </ol>
661 </dd>
662 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
663 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
664</dl>
665
666</body>
667</section>
362<section> 668<section>
363<title>Intra-document references</title> 669<title>Intra-document references</title>
364<body> 670<body>
365 671
672<p>
366<p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 673GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
367hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 674hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
368One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 675One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
369One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 676One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
370Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 677Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
371Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 678Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
372link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, 679<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
680to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
373type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 681<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
374adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p> 682</p>
683
684<p>
685However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
686links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
687<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
688the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
689</p>
690
691<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
692&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
693&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
694...
695&lt;p&gt;
696More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
697&lt;/p&gt;
698</pre>
699
700</body>
701</section>
702<section>
703<title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
704<body>
705
706<p>
707A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
708a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
709are:
710</p>
711
712<ul>
713 <li>
714 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
715 articles</uri>
716 </li>
717 <li>
718 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
719 should not be considered official
720 </li>
721 <li>
722 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
723 anymore
724 </li>
725 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
726</ul>
727
728<p>
729When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
730version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
731automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
732behaviour.
733</p>
734
735<pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
736&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
737&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
738&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
739
740&lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
741&lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
742
743&lt;author title="Author"&gt;
744...
745</pre>
746
747</body>
748</section>
749<section>
750<title>FAQs</title>
751<body>
752
753<p>
754FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
755answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
756can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
757chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
758<c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
759is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
760sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
761element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
762section per chapter and one link per question.
763</p>
764
765<p>
766A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
767link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
768obvious.
769</p>
375 770
376</body> 771</body>
377</section> 772</section>
378</chapter> 773</chapter>
774
775<chapter>
776<title>Handbook Format</title>
777<section>
778<title>Guide vs Book</title>
779<body>
780
781<p>
782For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
783link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
784broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
785allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
786</p>
787
788</body>
789</section>
790<section>
791<title>Main File</title>
792<body>
793
794<p>
795The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
796real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
797doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
798</p>
799
800<pre caption="Example book usage">
801&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
802&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
803&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
804
805&lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
806&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
807
808&lt;author...&gt;
809 ...
810&lt;/author&gt;
811
812&lt;abstract&gt;
813 ...
814&lt;/abstract&gt;
815
816&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
817&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
818&lt;license/&gt;
819
820&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
821&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
822</pre>
823
824<p>
825So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
826<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
827<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
828equivalent of a separate part in a book:
829</p>
830
831<pre caption="Defining a part">
832&lt;part&gt;
833&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
834&lt;abstract&gt;
835 ...
836&lt;/abstract&gt;
837
838<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
839&lt;/part&gt;
840</pre>
841
842<p>
843Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
844<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
845</p>
846
847<p>
848Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
849chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
850a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
851document.
852</p>
853
854<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
855&lt;chapter&gt;
856&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
857
858 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
859
860&lt;/chapter&gt;
861</pre>
862
863</body>
864</section>
865<section>
866<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
867<body>
868
869<p>
870The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
871</p>
872
873<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
874&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
875&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
876&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
877
878&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
879&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
880
881&lt;sections&gt;
882
883&lt;abstract&gt;
884 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
885&lt;/abstract&gt;
886
887&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
888&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
889
890<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
891
892&lt;/sections&gt;
893</pre>
894
895<p>
896Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
897<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
898of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
899</p>
900
901<p>
902Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
903latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
904browses through all parts of the book.
905</p>
906
907</body>
908</section>
909</chapter>
910
911<chapter>
912<title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
913<section>
914<title>Global Values</title>
915<body>
916
917<p>
918Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
919handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
920unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
921used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
922</p>
923
924<p>
925Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
926chapters.
927</p>
928
929<p>
930To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
931master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
932<c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
933The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
934</p>
935
936<p>
937The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
938</p>
939
940<pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
941&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
942&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
943&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
944
945&lt;book&gt;
946&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
947
948<i>&lt;values>
949 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
950 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
951 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
952&lt;/values&gt;</i>
953
954&lt;author...&gt;
955 ...
956&lt;/author&gt;
957
958...
959</pre>
960
961<p>
962The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
963<c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
964<c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
965"install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
966</p>
967
968<pre caption="Using defined values">
969&lt;p&gt;
970The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
971and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
972Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
973connection.
974&lt;/p&gt;
975</pre>
976
977<p>
978To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
979that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
980<c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
981</p>
982
983</body>
984</section>
985<section>
986<title>Conditional Elements</title>
987<body>
988
989<p>
990Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
991link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
992differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
993content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
994the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
995<c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
996<c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
997<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
998and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
999</p>
1000
1001<p>
1002The condition must be an <uri
1003link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1004evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1005element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1006<c>test</c> attribute.
1007</p>
1008
1009<p>
1010The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1011handbook master file to condition some content:
1012</p>
1013
1014<pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1015&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1016
1017&lt;p&gt;
1018This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1019&lt;/p&gt;
1020
1021&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1022This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1023&lt;/p&gt;
1024
1025&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1026This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1027&lt;/p&gt;
1028
1029&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1030This paragraph will never be seen!
1031The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1032&lt;/p&gt;
1033
1034&lt;/body&gt;
1035
1036&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1037
1038&lt;p&gt;
1039This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1040the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1041&lt;/p&gt;
1042
1043&lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1044This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1045&lt;/note&gt;
1046
1047&lt;/body&gt;
1048</pre>
1049
1050</body>
1051</section>
1052</chapter>
1053
1054<chapter id="codingstyle">
1055<title>Coding Style</title>
1056<section>
1057<title>Introduction</title>
1058<body>
1059
1060<p>
1061Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
1062most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
1063A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
1064internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
1065regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
1066</p>
1067
1068<p>
1069Both sections are described next.
1070</p>
1071
1072</body>
1073</section>
1074<section>
1075<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
1076<body>
1077
1078<p>
1079<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1080GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
1081<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
1082<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
1083<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
1084<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
1085<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
1086</p>
1087
1088<p>
1089<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1090<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
1091<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
1092<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1093<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
1094<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
1095</p>
1096
1097<p>
1098<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
1099<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
1100choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
1101editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
1102keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
1103columns to help console users.
1104</p>
1105
1106<p>
1107<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
1108parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
1109<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
1110<c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
1111each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
1112Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
1113</p>
1114
1115<p>
1116In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
1117<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1118the content.
1119</p>
1120
1121<p>
1122An example for indentation is:
1123</p>
1124
1125<pre caption="Indentation Example">
1126&lt;table&gt;
1127&lt;tr&gt;
1128 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
1129 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
1130&lt;/tr&gt;
1131&lt;tr&gt;
1132 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
1133 &lt;ti&gt;
1134 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
1135 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
1136 &lt;/ti&gt;
1137&lt;/tr&gt;
1138&lt;/table&gt;
1139
1140&lt;ul&gt;
1141 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
1142 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
1143&lt;/ul&gt;
1144</pre>
1145
1146<p>
1147<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
1148and the attribute value. As an example:
1149</p>
1150
1151<pre caption="Attributes">
1152<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
1153<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
1154</pre>
1155
1156</body>
1157</section>
1158<section>
1159<title>External Coding Style</title>
1160<body>
1161
1162<p>
1163Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1164<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
1165unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
1166with a period (or other reading marks).
1167</p>
1168
1169<p>
1170Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
1171with a capital letter.
1172</p>
1173
1174<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
1175&lt;ul&gt;
1176 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
1177 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
1178&lt;/ul&gt;
1179</pre>
1180
1181<p>
1182Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
1183</p>
1184
1185<p>
1186Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
1187possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1188Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1189</p>
1190
1191<p>
1192When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
1193<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
1194that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
1195for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1196comment.
1197</p>
1198
1199<pre caption="Comment example">
1200<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
1201# <i>id john</i>
1202</pre>
1203
1204</body>
1205</section>
1206</chapter>
1207
379<chapter> 1208<chapter>
380<title>Resources</title> 1209<title>Resources</title>
381<section> 1210<section>
382 <title>Start writing</title> 1211<title>Start writing</title>
383 <body> 1212<body>
1213
1214<p>
384 <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 1215GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
385 can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 1216can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
386 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 1217syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
387 to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please 1218to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
388 post a message to the <mail link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> 1219<uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
389 stating what you'd like to tackle. 1220&amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
390 Have fun!</p> 1221GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1222link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
1223to tackle. Have fun!
1224</p>
1225
391 </body> 1226</body>
392</section> 1227</section>
393</chapter> 1228</chapter>
394</guide> 1229</guide>
395

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