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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.68 2008/03/09 13:13:15 neysx Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide>
5<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
6 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10</author>
7<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author> 13</author>
10<author title="Author"> 14<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
11 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail> 15 John P. Davis
12</author> 16</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 17<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 18 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
15</author> 19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
16 23
17<license/>
18<abstract> 24<abstract>
19This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
20Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
21documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
22assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
23</abstract> 29</abstract>
24 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
33<license/>
34
25<version>2.0</version> 35<version>9</version>
26<date>October 9, 2003</date> 36<date>2008-03-09</date>
27 37
28<chapter> 38<chapter>
29<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>GuideXML basics</title>
30
31<section> 40<section>
32<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>GuideXML design goals</title>
33<body> 42<body>
34 43
35<p> 44<p>
36The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
37learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
38documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
39This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
40XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
41</p> 50</p>
42 51
43<p> 52<p>
44The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
45documents. 54documents.
46</p> 55</p>
47 56
48</body> 57</body>
49</section> 58</section>
50
51<section> 59<section>
52<title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title> 60<title>Further Resources</title>
53<body> 61<body>
54 62
55<p>
56Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
57guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
58file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
59tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
60exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
61create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
62is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package.
63</p> 63<p>
64 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65<pre caption="Installing libxslt"> 65test GuideXML, please read our <uri
66# <c>emerge libxslt</c> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
67</pre> 67which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68
69<p> 68</p>
70Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words, 69
71we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
72that are available for download:
73</p> 70<p>
74 71You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
75<p> 72document while you read it.
76<b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
77Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any
78documentation, you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found <uri
79link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.
80</p>
81
82<p>
83<b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b>
84in every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
85documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want
86to fully develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful
87for translators. These tarballs can be found <uri
88link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
89</p>
90
91<p>
92After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go to the directory where
93the tarball was extracted, and enter the <path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse
94around and get comfortable with the layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and
95<path>doc</path> directories. As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are
96in <path>xsl</path>, and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing
97purposes, we will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
98<path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations of the XSL
99and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with <c>xsltproc</c>.
100</p>
101
102<pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
103# <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
104</pre>
105
106<p>
107If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
108<path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For
109this document to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some
110files from <path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such as
111<path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
112directory.
113</p> 73</p>
114 74
115</body> 75</body>
116</section> 76</section>
117</chapter> 77</chapter>
118 78
119<chapter> 79<chapter>
120<title>Guide XML</title> 80<title>GuideXML</title>
121<section> 81<section>
122<title>Basic structure</title> 82<title>Basic structure</title>
123<body> 83<body>
124 84
125<p> 85<p>
126Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 86Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
127the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 87tags used in a GuideXML document:
128XML document:
129</p> 88</p>
130 89
131<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 90<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
132&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt; 91&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
133&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt; 92&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
93&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94
95&lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
134&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 96&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
135&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt; 97
136 &lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
137&lt;/author&gt;
138&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt; 98&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
139 &lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 99 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
140&lt;/author&gt; 100&lt;/author&gt;
141 101
142&lt;abstract&gt; 102&lt;abstract&gt;
143<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 103<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
144our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official 104our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
145format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 105format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
146using GuideXML.</i> 106using GuideXML.</i>
147&lt;/abstract&gt; 107&lt;/abstract&gt;
148 108
109&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
110&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
149&lt;license/&gt; 111&lt;license/&gt;
150 112
151&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 113&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
152&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 114&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
153</pre> 115</pre>
154 116
155<p> 117<p>
156On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 118On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
157document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 119document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
158guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 122enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
123<br/>
124The <c>link</c> attribute is optional and should preferably contain the
125absolute path to the document relatively to the document root even though the
126file name alone will work. It is only used to generate a link to a
127printer-friendly version of your document and check whether a translation is
128up-to-date. Our XSL back-engine passes the actual path to our XSL stylesheet.
129The link attribute is only used as a fall-back value in case the XML is
130processed by other means.
131<br/>
132The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
133document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
134"<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
135</p>
136
137<p>
159Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 138Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
160guide document. 139guide document.
161</p> 140</p>
162 141
163<p> 142<p>
164Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 143Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
165about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 144about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
166allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 145allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
167relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 146relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
168particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 147particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
169<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 148<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
170person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 149person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
171more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 150least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
172</p> 151</p>
173 152
174<p> 153<p>
175Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 154Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
176<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 155<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
177current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 156current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
178respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 157respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
158appear verbatim in the rendered document.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
179a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 163Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
180tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 164shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
181<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 165<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
182required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. 166required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
183</p> 167</p>
184 168
185<p> 169<p>
186Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the 170Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
187document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/">Creative 171under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
188Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri 172Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
189link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>. 173link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
190</p> 174</p>
191 175
192</body> 176</body>
193</section> 177</section>
194
195<section> 178<section>
196<title>Chapters and sections</title> 179<title>Chapters and sections</title>
197<body> 180<body>
198 181
199<p> 182<p>
200Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 183Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
201the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 184structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
202chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 185chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
203and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 186section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
204consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous 187consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
188link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
205excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 189<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
206(if minimal) guide document: 190guide document:
207</p> 191</p>
208 192
209<pre> 193<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
210&lt;chapter&gt; 194&lt;chapter&gt;
211&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 195&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
212&lt;section&gt; 196&lt;section&gt;
213&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 197&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
214&lt;body&gt; 198&lt;body&gt;
232content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 216content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
233inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. 217inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
234</p> 218</p>
235 219
236<note> 220<note>
237A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> 221A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
238elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple 222elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
239<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 223<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
240element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. 224contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
241</note> 225</note>
242 226
243</body> 227</body>
244</section> 228</section>
245
246<section> 229<section>
247<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 230<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
248<body> 231<body>
249 232
250<p> 233<p>
251Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 234Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
235an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
252</p> 236</p>
253 237
254<pre> 238<pre caption="Example of a body element">
255&lt;p&gt; 239&lt;p&gt;
256This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 240This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
257&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 241&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
258Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 242Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
259&lt;/p&gt; 243&lt;/p&gt;
260 244
261&lt;pre&gt; 245&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
262This is text output or code. 246This is text output or code.
263# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 247# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
264 248
265Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 249Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
266&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 250&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
267 251
268&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 252&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
269&lt;/pre&gt; 253&lt;/pre&gt;
270 254
271&lt;note&gt; 255&lt;note&gt;
272This is a note. 256This is a note.
273&lt;/note&gt; 257&lt;/note&gt;
280This is important. 264This is important.
281&lt;/impo&gt; 265&lt;/impo&gt;
282</pre> 266</pre>
283 267
284<p> 268<p>
285Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered: 269Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
286</p> 270</p>
287 271
288<p> 272<p>
289This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 273This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
290<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 274<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
291Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 275Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
292</p> 276</p>
293 277
294<pre> 278<pre caption="Code Sample">
295This is text output or code. 279This is text output or code.
296# <i>this is user input</i> 280# <i>this is user input</i>
297 281
298Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 282Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
299&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 283&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
300 284
301<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 285<comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
302</pre> 286</pre>
303 287
304<note> 288<note>
305This is a note. 289This is a note.
306</note> 290</note>
313This is important. 297This is important.
314</impo> 298</impo>
315 299
316</body> 300</body>
317</section> 301</section>
318
319<section> 302<section>
320<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 303<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
321<body> 304<body>
322 305
323<p> 306<p>
324We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 307We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
325need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 308to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
326block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 309<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
327<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 310(important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
311<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
328Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 312<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
329these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 313only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
330<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 314Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
331stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 315don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
332<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 316you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
333preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. 317exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
334You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag: 318<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
335</p> 319</p>
336 320
337<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;"> 321<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
338&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt; 322&lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
339# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt; 323# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
34016:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25 32416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
341&lt;/pre&gt; 325&lt;/pre&gt;
342</pre> 326</pre>
343 327
344</body> 328</body>
345</section> 329</section>
346<section> 330<section>
347<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 331<title>Epigraphs</title>
332<body>
333
334<p by="Anonymous student">
335Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
336Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
337of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
338and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
3391790 and is still dead.
340</p>
341
342<p>
343Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
344to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
345the signature.
346</p>
347
348<pre caption="Short epigraph">
349&lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
350Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
351&lt;/p&gt;
352</pre>
353
348<body> 354</body>
355</section>
356<section>
357<title>
358 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
359</title>
360<body>
349 361
350<p> 362<p>
351The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 363The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
352be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 364<c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
353<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. 365<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
354</p> 366</p>
355 367
356<p> 368<p>
357The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 369The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
358<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a 370<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
359<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced 371<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
360font to offset it from the standard paragraph type. 372font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
361</p> 373</p>
362 374
363<p> 375<p>
364The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 376The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
374the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and 386the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
375adorable! 387adorable!
376</p> 388</p>
377 389
378<p> 390<p>
391As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
392text.
393</p>
394
395<p>
379<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 396<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
380I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 397I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
381offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 398offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
382prose more <e>punch</e>! 399prose more <e>punch</e>!
383</p> 400</p>
384 401
402<p>
403The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
404<sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
405</p>
406
385</body> 407</body>
408</section>
386</section> 409<section>
410<title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
411<body>
387 412
413<p>
414To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
415inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
416</p>
417
418<dl>
419 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
420 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
421 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
422 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for an identifier
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a constant
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a statement
434 </dd>
435 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
436 <dd>Used for a variable
437 </dd>
438</dl>
439
440<note>
441Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
442<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
443</note>
444
445<p>
446Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="My first ebuild">
450<comment># Copyright 1999-2006 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
451# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
452# &#36;Header: $</comment>
453
454<ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
455<ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
456<ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
457
458<ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
459<ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
460<ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
461<ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
462
463<stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
464 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"econf failed"</const>
465 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
466}
467
468<stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
469 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
470
471 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
472 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
473}
474</pre>
475
476</body>
477</section>
388<section> 478<section>
389<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 479<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
390<body> 480<body>
391 481
392<p> 482<p>
393We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link 483We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
394some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail 484some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
395link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. 485link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
396</p> 486email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
397 487would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
398<p> 488</p>
489
490<p>
491Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
492<c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
493would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
494with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
495content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
496link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
497link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
498<br/>
499This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
500contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
501</p>
502
503<p>
399The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 504The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
400Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 505It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
401actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 506displayed in the body text, such as this link to
402<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 507<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
403<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 508<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
404when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 509when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
405link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create 510link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
406<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the 511<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
407Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 512Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
513<c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
514For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
515should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
516index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
517directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
518index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
519</p>
520
408</p> 521<p>
522You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
523starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
524</p>
409 525
410</body> 526<p>
411</section> 527Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
528syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
529link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
530</p>
412 531
532</body>
533</section>
413<section> 534<section>
414<title>Figures</title> 535<title>Figures</title>
415
416<body> 536<body>
417 537
418<p> 538<p>
419Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 539Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
420link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 540link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
421time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 541time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
422the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 542the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
423the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 543the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
424:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 544:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
425for adding images without captions, borders, etc. 545for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
426</p> 546</p>
427 547
428</body> 548</body>
429</section> 549</section>
430<section> 550<section>
431<title>Tables and lists</title> 551<title>Tables</title>
432<body> 552<body>
433 553
434<p> 554<p>
435Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 555GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
436a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 556table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
437tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 557tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
438HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 558&lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
439header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 559header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
440block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> 560block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
441-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 561-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
442first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 562first row.
443be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
444</p>
445
446<p> 563</p>
564
565<p>
566Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
567(<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
568span their content across rows, columns or both.
569</p>
570
571<p>
572Furthermore, table cells (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> &amp; <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) can be
573right-aligned, left-aligned or centered with the <c>align</c> attribute.
574</p>
575
576<table>
577 <tr>
578 <th align="center" colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
579 </tr>
580 <tr>
581 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
582 <ti>Item A1</ti>
583 <ti>Item A2</ti>
584 <ti>Item A3</ti>
585 </tr>
586 <tr>
587 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
588 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2" align="right">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
589 </tr>
590 <tr>
591 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
595 </tr>
596 <tr>
597 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
598 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
599 </tr>
600 <tr>
601 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
602 </tr>
603</table>
604
605</body>
606</section>
607<section>
608<title>Lists</title>
609<body>
610
611<p>
447To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 612To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
448<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 613<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
449should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 614appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
450<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. 615that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
616that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
617</p>
618
451</p> 619<p>
620Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
621neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
622(<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
623admonitions. A definition list comprises:
624</p>
452 625
453</body> 626<dl>
454</section> 627 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
628 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
629 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
630 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
631 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
632 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
633</dl>
455 634
635<p>
636The following list copied from <uri
637link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
638that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
639contain another definition list though.
640</p>
641
642<dl>
643 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
644 <dd>
645 <ul>
646 <li>100 g. flour</li>
647 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
648 <li>1 cup water</li>
649 <li>2 eggs</li>
650 <li>salt, pepper</li>
651 </ul>
652 </dd>
653 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
654 <dd>
655 <ol>
656 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
657 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
658 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
659 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
660 </ol>
661 </dd>
662 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
663 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
664</dl>
665
666</body>
667</section>
456<section> 668<section>
457<title>Intra-document references</title> 669<title>Intra-document references</title>
458<body> 670<body>
459 671
460<p> 672<p>
461Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 673GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
462hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 674hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
463One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 675One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
464One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 676One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
465Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 677Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
466Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 678Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
467link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri 679<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
468link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri 680to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
469link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 681<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
470adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon. 682</p>
683
471</p> 684<p>
685However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
686links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
687<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
688the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
689</p>
690
691<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
692&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
693&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
694...
695&lt;p&gt;
696More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
697&lt;/p&gt;
698</pre>
699
700</body>
701</section>
702<section>
703<title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
704<body>
705
706<p>
707A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
708a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
709are:
710</p>
711
712<ul>
713 <li>
714 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
715 articles</uri>
716 </li>
717 <li>
718 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
719 should not be considered official
720 </li>
721 <li>
722 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
723 anymore
724 </li>
725 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
726</ul>
727
728<p>
729When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
730version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
731automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
732behaviour.
733</p>
734
735<pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
736&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
737&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
738&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
739
740&lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
741&lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
742
743&lt;author title="Author"&gt;
744...
745</pre>
746
747</body>
748</section>
749<section>
750<title>FAQs</title>
751<body>
752
753<p>
754FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
755answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
756can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
757chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
758<c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
759is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
760sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
761element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
762section per chapter and one link per question.
763</p>
764
765<p>
766A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
767link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
768obvious.
769</p>
770
771</body>
772</section>
773</chapter>
774
775<chapter>
776<title>Handbook Format</title>
777<section>
778<title>Guide vs Book</title>
779<body>
780
781<p>
782For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
783link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
784broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
785allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
786</p>
787
788</body>
789</section>
790<section>
791<title>Main File</title>
792<body>
793
794<p>
795The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
796real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
797doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
798</p>
799
800<pre caption="Example book usage">
801&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
802&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
803&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
804
805&lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
806&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
807
808&lt;author...&gt;
809 ...
810&lt;/author&gt;
811
812&lt;abstract&gt;
813 ...
814&lt;/abstract&gt;
815
816&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
817&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
818&lt;license/&gt;
819
820&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
821&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
822</pre>
823
824<p>
825So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
826<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
827<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
828equivalent of a separate part in a book:
829</p>
830
831<pre caption="Defining a part">
832&lt;part&gt;
833&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
834&lt;abstract&gt;
835 ...
836&lt;/abstract&gt;
837
838<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
839&lt;/part&gt;
840</pre>
841
842<p>
843Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
844<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
845</p>
846
847<p>
848Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
849chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
850a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
851document.
852</p>
853
854<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
855&lt;chapter&gt;
856&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
857
858 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
859
860&lt;/chapter&gt;
861</pre>
862
863</body>
864</section>
865<section>
866<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
867<body>
868
869<p>
870The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
871</p>
872
873<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
874&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
875&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
876&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
877
878&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
879&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
880
881&lt;sections&gt;
882
883&lt;abstract&gt;
884 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
885&lt;/abstract&gt;
886
887&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
888&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
889
890<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
891
892&lt;/sections&gt;
893</pre>
894
895<p>
896Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
897<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
898of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
899</p>
900
901<p>
902Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
903latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
904browses through all parts of the book.
905</p>
906
907</body>
908</section>
909</chapter>
910
911<chapter>
912<title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
913<section>
914<title>Global Values</title>
915<body>
916
917<p>
918Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
919handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
920unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
921used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
922</p>
923
924<p>
925Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
926chapters.
927</p>
928
929<p>
930To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
931master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
932<c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
933The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
934</p>
935
936<p>
937The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
938</p>
939
940<pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
941&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
942&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
943&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
944
945&lt;book&gt;
946&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
947
948<i>&lt;values>
949 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
950 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
951 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
952&lt;/values&gt;</i>
953
954&lt;author...&gt;
955 ...
956&lt;/author&gt;
957
958...
959</pre>
960
961<p>
962The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
963<c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
964<c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
965"install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
966</p>
967
968<pre caption="Using defined values">
969&lt;p&gt;
970The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
971and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
972Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
973connection.
974&lt;/p&gt;
975</pre>
976
977<p>
978To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
979that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
980<c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
981</p>
982
983</body>
984</section>
985<section>
986<title>Conditional Elements</title>
987<body>
988
989<p>
990Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
991link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
992differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
993content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
994the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
995<c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
996<c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
997<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
998and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
999</p>
1000
1001<p>
1002The condition must be an <uri
1003link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1004evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1005element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1006<c>test</c> attribute.
1007</p>
1008
1009<p>
1010The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1011handbook master file to condition some content:
1012</p>
1013
1014<pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1015&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1016
1017&lt;p&gt;
1018This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1019&lt;/p&gt;
1020
1021&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1022This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1023&lt;/p&gt;
1024
1025&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1026This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1027&lt;/p&gt;
1028
1029&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1030This paragraph will never be seen!
1031The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1032&lt;/p&gt;
1033
1034&lt;/body&gt;
1035
1036&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1037
1038&lt;p&gt;
1039This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1040the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1041&lt;/p&gt;
1042
1043&lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1044This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1045&lt;/note&gt;
1046
1047&lt;/body&gt;
1048</pre>
1049
1050</body>
1051</section>
1052</chapter>
1053
1054<chapter id="codingstyle">
1055<title>Coding Style</title>
1056<section>
1057<title>Introduction</title>
1058<body>
1059
1060<p>
1061Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
1062most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
1063A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
1064internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
1065regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
1066</p>
1067
1068<p>
1069Both sections are described next.
1070</p>
1071
1072</body>
1073</section>
1074<section>
1075<title>Internal Coding Style</title>
1076<body>
1077
1078<p>
1079<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1080GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
1081<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
1082<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
1083<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
1084<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
1085<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
1086</p>
1087
1088<p>
1089<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
1090<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
1091<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
1092<c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1093<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
1094<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
1095</p>
1096
1097<p>
1098<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
1099<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
1100choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
1101editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
1102keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
1103columns to help console users.
1104</p>
1105
1106<p>
1107<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
1108parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
1109<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
1110<c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
1111each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
1112Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
1113</p>
1114
1115<p>
1116In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
1117<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1118the content.
1119</p>
1120
1121<p>
1122An example for indentation is:
1123</p>
1124
1125<pre caption="Indentation Example">
1126&lt;table&gt;
1127&lt;tr&gt;
1128 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
1129 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
1130&lt;/tr&gt;
1131&lt;tr&gt;
1132 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
1133 &lt;ti&gt;
1134 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
1135 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
1136 &lt;/ti&gt;
1137&lt;/tr&gt;
1138&lt;/table&gt;
1139
1140&lt;ul&gt;
1141 &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
1142 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
1143&lt;/ul&gt;
1144</pre>
1145
1146<p>
1147<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
1148and the attribute value. As an example:
1149</p>
1150
1151<pre caption="Attributes">
1152<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
1153<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
1154</pre>
1155
1156</body>
1157</section>
1158<section>
1159<title>External Coding Style</title>
1160<body>
1161
1162<p>
1163Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
1164<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
1165unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
1166with a period (or other reading marks).
1167</p>
1168
1169<p>
1170Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
1171with a capital letter.
1172</p>
1173
1174<pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
1175&lt;ul&gt;
1176 &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
1177 &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
1178&lt;/ul&gt;
1179</pre>
1180
1181<p>
1182Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
1183</p>
1184
1185<p>
1186Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
1187possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1188Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1189</p>
1190
1191<p>
1192When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
1193<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
1194that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
1195for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1196comment.
1197</p>
1198
1199<pre caption="Comment example">
1200<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
1201# <i>id john</i>
1202</pre>
472 1203
473</body> 1204</body>
474</section> 1205</section>
475</chapter> 1206</chapter>
476 1207
479<section> 1210<section>
480<title>Start writing</title> 1211<title>Start writing</title>
481<body> 1212<body>
482 1213
483<p> 1214<p>
484Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 1215GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
485can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 1216can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
486syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 1217syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
487to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or 1218to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
488have any questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail 1219<uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
489link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd 1220&amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
1221GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1222link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
490like to tackle. Have fun! 1223to tackle. Have fun!
491</p> 1224</p>
492 1225
493</body> 1226</body>
494</section> 1227</section>
495</chapter> 1228</chapter>
496</guide> 1229</guide>
497

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