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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.23 2003/11/17 17:05:58 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.68 2008/03/09 13:13:15 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide>
6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10</author>
8<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org --> 14<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis 15 John P. Davis
13</author> 16</author>
14<author title="Editor"> 17<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail> 18 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
16</author> 19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
17 23
18<license/>
19<abstract> 24<abstract>
20This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
21Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
22documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
23assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
24</abstract> 29</abstract>
25 30
31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
33<license/>
34
26<version>2.5</version> 35<version>9</version>
27<date>November 17, 2003</date> 36<date>2008-03-09</date>
28 37
29<chapter> 38<chapter>
30<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>GuideXML basics</title>
31<section> 40<section>
32<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>GuideXML design goals</title>
33<body> 42<body>
34 43
35<p> 44<p>
36The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
37learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
38documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
39This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
40XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
41</p> 50</p>
42 51
43<p> 52<p>
44The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
45documents. 54documents.
46</p> 55</p>
47 56
48</body> 57</body>
49</section> 58</section>
50<section> 59<section>
51<title>Further Resources</title> 60<title>Further Resources</title>
52<body> 61<body>
53 62
54<p> 63<p>
55If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to test 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
56GuideXML, please read the <uri 65test GuideXML, please read our <uri
57link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/gdp/doc/en/docdev.xml">Documentation 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
58Developer Guide</uri> which contains tips and tricks for documentation 67which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
59development. 68</p>
69
70<p>
71You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
72document while you read it.
60</p> 73</p>
61 74
62</body> 75</body>
63</section> 76</section>
64</chapter> 77</chapter>
65 78
66<chapter> 79<chapter>
67<title>Guide XML</title> 80<title>GuideXML</title>
68<section> 81<section>
69<title>Basic structure</title> 82<title>Basic structure</title>
70<body> 83<body>
71 84
72<p> 85<p>
73Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 86Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
74the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 87tags used in a GuideXML document:
75XML document:
76</p> 88</p>
77 89
78<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 90<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
79&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt; 91&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
80&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt; 92&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
93&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94
95&lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
81&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 96&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
82&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt; 97
83 &lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
84&lt;/author&gt;
85&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt; 98&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
86 &lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 99 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
87&lt;/author&gt; 100&lt;/author&gt;
88 101
89&lt;abstract&gt; 102&lt;abstract&gt;
90<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 103<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
91our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official 104our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
92format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 105format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
93using GuideXML.</i> 106using GuideXML.</i>
94&lt;/abstract&gt; 107&lt;/abstract&gt;
95 108
109&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
110&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
96&lt;license/&gt; 111&lt;license/&gt;
97 112
98&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 113&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
99&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 114&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
100</pre> 115</pre>
101 116
102<p> 117<p>
103On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 118On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
104document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 119document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
105guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 122enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
123<br/>
124The <c>link</c> attribute is optional and should preferably contain the
125absolute path to the document relatively to the document root even though the
126file name alone will work. It is only used to generate a link to a
127printer-friendly version of your document and check whether a translation is
128up-to-date. Our XSL back-engine passes the actual path to our XSL stylesheet.
129The link attribute is only used as a fall-back value in case the XML is
130processed by other means.
131<br/>
132The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
133document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
134"<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
135</p>
136
137<p>
106Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 138Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
107guide document. 139guide document.
108</p> 140</p>
109 141
110<p> 142<p>
111Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 143Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
112about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 144about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
113allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 145allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
114relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 146relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
115particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 147particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
116<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 148<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
117person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 149person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
118more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 150least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
119</p> 151</p>
120 152
121<p> 153<p>
122Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 154Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
123<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 155<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
124current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 156current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
125respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 157respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
158appear verbatim in the rendered document.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
126a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 163Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
127tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 164shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
128<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 165<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
129required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. 166required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
130</p> 167</p>
131 168
132<p> 169<p>
133Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the 170Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
134document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/">Creative 171under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
135Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri 172Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
136link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>. 173link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
137</p> 174</p>
138 175
139</body> 176</body>
140</section> 177</section>
141<section> 178<section>
142<title>Chapters and sections</title> 179<title>Chapters and sections</title>
143<body> 180<body>
144 181
145<p> 182<p>
146Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 183Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
147the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 184structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
148chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 185chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
149and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 186section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
150consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous 187consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
188link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
151excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 189<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
152(if minimal) guide document: 190guide document:
153</p> 191</p>
154 192
155<pre> 193<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
156&lt;chapter&gt; 194&lt;chapter&gt;
157&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 195&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
158&lt;section&gt; 196&lt;section&gt;
159&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 197&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
160&lt;body&gt; 198&lt;body&gt;
178content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 216content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
179inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. 217inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
180</p> 218</p>
181 219
182<note> 220<note>
183A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> 221A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
184elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple 222elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
185<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 223<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
186element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. 224contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
187</note> 225</note>
188 226
189</body> 227</body>
190</section> 228</section>
191<section> 229<section>
192<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 230<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
193<body> 231<body>
194 232
195<p> 233<p>
196Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 234Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
235an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
197</p> 236</p>
198 237
199<pre> 238<pre caption="Example of a body element">
200&lt;p&gt; 239&lt;p&gt;
201This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 240This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
202&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 241&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
203Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 242Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
204&lt;/p&gt; 243&lt;/p&gt;
205 244
206&lt;pre&gt; 245&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
207This is text output or code. 246This is text output or code.
208# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 247# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
209 248
210Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 249Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
211&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 250&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
212 251
213&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 252&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
214&lt;/pre&gt; 253&lt;/pre&gt;
215 254
216&lt;note&gt; 255&lt;note&gt;
217This is a note. 256This is a note.
218&lt;/note&gt; 257&lt;/note&gt;
225This is important. 264This is important.
226&lt;/impo&gt; 265&lt;/impo&gt;
227</pre> 266</pre>
228 267
229<p> 268<p>
230Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered: 269Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
231</p> 270</p>
232 271
233<p> 272<p>
234This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 273This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
235<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 274<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
236Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 275Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
237</p> 276</p>
238 277
239<pre> 278<pre caption="Code Sample">
240This is text output or code. 279This is text output or code.
241# <i>this is user input</i> 280# <i>this is user input</i>
242 281
243Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 282Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
244&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 283&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
245 284
246<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 285<comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
247</pre> 286</pre>
248 287
249<note> 288<note>
250This is a note. 289This is a note.
251</note> 290</note>
263<section> 302<section>
264<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 303<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
265<body> 304<body>
266 305
267<p> 306<p>
268We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 307We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
269need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 308to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
270block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 309<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
271<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 310(important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
311<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
272Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 312<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
273these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 313only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
274<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 314Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
275stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 315don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
276<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 316you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
277preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. 317exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
278You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag: 318<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
279</p> 319</p>
280 320
281<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;"> 321<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
282&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt; 322&lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
283# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt; 323# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
28416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25 32416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
285&lt;/pre&gt; 325&lt;/pre&gt;
286</pre> 326</pre>
287 327
288</body> 328</body>
289</section> 329</section>
290<section> 330<section>
291<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 331<title>Epigraphs</title>
332<body>
333
334<p by="Anonymous student">
335Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
336Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
337of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
338and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
3391790 and is still dead.
340</p>
341
342<p>
343Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
344to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
345the signature.
346</p>
347
348<pre caption="Short epigraph">
349&lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
350Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
351&lt;/p&gt;
352</pre>
353
292<body> 354</body>
355</section>
356<section>
357<title>
358 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
359</title>
360<body>
293 361
294<p> 362<p>
295The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 363The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
296be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 364<c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
297<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. 365<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
298</p> 366</p>
299 367
300<p> 368<p>
301The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 369The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
302<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a 370<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
303<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced 371<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
304font to offset it from the standard paragraph type. 372font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
305</p> 373</p>
306 374
307<p> 375<p>
308The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 376The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
318the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and 386the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
319adorable! 387adorable!
320</p> 388</p>
321 389
322<p> 390<p>
391As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
392text.
393</p>
394
395<p>
323<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 396<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
324I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 397I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
325offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 398offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
326prose more <e>punch</e>! 399prose more <e>punch</e>!
327</p> 400</p>
328 401
402<p>
403The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
404<sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
405</p>
406
407</body>
408</section>
409<section>
410<title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
411<body>
412
413<p>
414To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
415inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
416</p>
417
418<dl>
419 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
420 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
421 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
422 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for an identifier
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a constant
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a statement
434 </dd>
435 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
436 <dd>Used for a variable
437 </dd>
438</dl>
439
440<note>
441Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
442<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
443</note>
444
445<p>
446Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="My first ebuild">
450<comment># Copyright 1999-2006 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
451# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
452# &#36;Header: $</comment>
453
454<ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
455<ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
456<ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
457
458<ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
459<ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
460<ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
461<ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
462
463<stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
464 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"econf failed"</const>
465 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
466}
467
468<stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
469 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
470
471 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
472 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
473}
474</pre>
475
329</body> 476</body>
330</section> 477</section>
331<section> 478<section>
332<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 479<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
333<body> 480<body>
334 481
335<p> 482<p>
336We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link 483We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
337some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail 484some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
338link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. 485link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
339</p> 486email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
340 487would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
341<p> 488</p>
489
490<p>
491Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
492<c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
493would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
494with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
495content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
496link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
497link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
498<br/>
499This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
500contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
501</p>
502
503<p>
342The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 504The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
343Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 505It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
344actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 506displayed in the body text, such as this link to
345<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 507<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
346<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 508<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
347when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 509when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
348link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create 510link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
349<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the 511<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
350Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 512Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
513<c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
514For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
515should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
516index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
517directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
518index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
519</p>
520
521<p>
522You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
523starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
524</p>
525
526<p>
527Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
528syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
529link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
351</p> 530</p>
352 531
353</body> 532</body>
354</section> 533</section>
355<section> 534<section>
356<title>Figures</title> 535<title>Figures</title>
357
358<body> 536<body>
359 537
360<p> 538<p>
361Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 539Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
362link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 540link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
363time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 541time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
364the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 542the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
365the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 543the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
366:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 544:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
367for adding images without captions, borders, etc. 545for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
368</p> 546</p>
369 547
370</body> 548</body>
371</section> 549</section>
372<section> 550<section>
373<title>Tables and lists</title> 551<title>Tables</title>
374<body> 552<body>
375 553
376<p> 554<p>
377Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 555GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
378a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 556table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
379tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 557tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
380HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 558&lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
381header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 559header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
382block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> 560block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
383-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 561-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
384first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 562first row.
385be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
386</p>
387
388<p> 563</p>
564
565<p>
566Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
567(<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
568span their content across rows, columns or both.
569</p>
570
571<p>
572Furthermore, table cells (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> &amp; <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) can be
573right-aligned, left-aligned or centered with the <c>align</c> attribute.
574</p>
575
576<table>
577 <tr>
578 <th align="center" colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
579 </tr>
580 <tr>
581 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
582 <ti>Item A1</ti>
583 <ti>Item A2</ti>
584 <ti>Item A3</ti>
585 </tr>
586 <tr>
587 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
588 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2" align="right">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
589 </tr>
590 <tr>
591 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
595 </tr>
596 <tr>
597 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
598 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
599 </tr>
600 <tr>
601 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
602 </tr>
603</table>
604
605</body>
606</section>
607<section>
608<title>Lists</title>
609<body>
610
611<p>
389To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 612To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
390<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 613<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
391should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 614appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
392<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. 615that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
616that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
617</p>
618
393</p> 619<p>
620Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
621neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
622(<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
623admonitions. A definition list comprises:
624</p>
625
626<dl>
627 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
628 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
629 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
630 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
631 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
632 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
633</dl>
634
635<p>
636The following list copied from <uri
637link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
638that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
639contain another definition list though.
640</p>
641
642<dl>
643 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
644 <dd>
645 <ul>
646 <li>100 g. flour</li>
647 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
648 <li>1 cup water</li>
649 <li>2 eggs</li>
650 <li>salt, pepper</li>
651 </ul>
652 </dd>
653 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
654 <dd>
655 <ol>
656 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
657 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
658 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
659 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
660 </ol>
661 </dd>
662 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
663 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
664</dl>
394 665
395</body> 666</body>
396</section> 667</section>
397<section> 668<section>
398<title>Intra-document references</title> 669<title>Intra-document references</title>
399<body> 670<body>
400 671
401<p> 672<p>
402Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 673GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
403hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 674hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
404One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 675One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
405One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 676One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
406Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 677Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
407Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 678Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
408link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri 679<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
409link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri 680to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
410link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 681<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
411adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
412</p> 682</p>
413 683
414<p> 684<p>
415However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken 685However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
416links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a 686links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
417<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c> 687<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
418attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this: 688the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
419</p> 689</p>
420 690
421<pre caption="Using the id attribute"> 691<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
422&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt; 692&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
423&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt; 693&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
427&lt;/p&gt; 697&lt;/p&gt;
428</pre> 698</pre>
429 699
430</body> 700</body>
431</section> 701</section>
702<section>
703<title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
704<body>
705
706<p>
707A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
708a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
709are:
710</p>
711
712<ul>
713 <li>
714 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
715 articles</uri>
716 </li>
717 <li>
718 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
719 should not be considered official
720 </li>
721 <li>
722 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
723 anymore
724 </li>
725 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
726</ul>
727
728<p>
729When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
730version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
731automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
732behaviour.
733</p>
734
735<pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
736&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
737&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
738&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
739
740&lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
741&lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
742
743&lt;author title="Author"&gt;
744...
745</pre>
746
747</body>
748</section>
749<section>
750<title>FAQs</title>
751<body>
752
753<p>
754FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
755answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
756can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
757chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
758<c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
759is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
760sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
761element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
762section per chapter and one link per question.
763</p>
764
765<p>
766A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
767link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
768obvious.
769</p>
770
771</body>
772</section>
432</chapter> 773</chapter>
433 774
434<chapter> 775<chapter>
776<title>Handbook Format</title>
777<section>
778<title>Guide vs Book</title>
779<body>
780
781<p>
782For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
783link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
784broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
785allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
786</p>
787
788</body>
789</section>
790<section>
791<title>Main File</title>
792<body>
793
794<p>
795The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
796real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
797doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
798</p>
799
800<pre caption="Example book usage">
801&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
802&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
803&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
804
805&lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
806&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
807
808&lt;author...&gt;
809 ...
810&lt;/author&gt;
811
812&lt;abstract&gt;
813 ...
814&lt;/abstract&gt;
815
816&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
817&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
818&lt;license/&gt;
819
820&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
821&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
822</pre>
823
824<p>
825So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
826<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
827<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
828equivalent of a separate part in a book:
829</p>
830
831<pre caption="Defining a part">
832&lt;part&gt;
833&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
834&lt;abstract&gt;
835 ...
836&lt;/abstract&gt;
837
838<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
839&lt;/part&gt;
840</pre>
841
842<p>
843Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
844<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
845</p>
846
847<p>
848Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
849chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
850a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
851document.
852</p>
853
854<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
855&lt;chapter&gt;
856&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
857
858 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
859
860&lt;/chapter&gt;
861</pre>
862
863</body>
864</section>
865<section>
866<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
867<body>
868
869<p>
870The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
871</p>
872
873<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
874&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
875&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
876&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
877
878&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
879&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
880
881&lt;sections&gt;
882
883&lt;abstract&gt;
884 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
885&lt;/abstract&gt;
886
887&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
888&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
889
890<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
891
892&lt;/sections&gt;
893</pre>
894
895<p>
896Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
897<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
898of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
899</p>
900
901<p>
902Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
903latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
904browses through all parts of the book.
905</p>
906
907</body>
908</section>
909</chapter>
910
911<chapter>
912<title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
913<section>
914<title>Global Values</title>
915<body>
916
917<p>
918Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
919handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
920unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
921used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
922</p>
923
924<p>
925Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
926chapters.
927</p>
928
929<p>
930To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
931master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
932<c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
933The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
934</p>
935
936<p>
937The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
938</p>
939
940<pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
941&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
942&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
943&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
944
945&lt;book&gt;
946&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
947
948<i>&lt;values>
949 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
950 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
951 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
952&lt;/values&gt;</i>
953
954&lt;author...&gt;
955 ...
956&lt;/author&gt;
957
958...
959</pre>
960
961<p>
962The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
963<c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
964<c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
965"install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
966</p>
967
968<pre caption="Using defined values">
969&lt;p&gt;
970The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
971and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
972Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
973connection.
974&lt;/p&gt;
975</pre>
976
977<p>
978To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
979that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
980<c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
981</p>
982
983</body>
984</section>
985<section>
986<title>Conditional Elements</title>
987<body>
988
989<p>
990Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
991link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
992differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
993content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
994the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
995<c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
996<c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
997<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
998and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
999</p>
1000
1001<p>
1002The condition must be an <uri
1003link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1004evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1005element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1006<c>test</c> attribute.
1007</p>
1008
1009<p>
1010The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1011handbook master file to condition some content:
1012</p>
1013
1014<pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1015&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1016
1017&lt;p&gt;
1018This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1019&lt;/p&gt;
1020
1021&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1022This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1023&lt;/p&gt;
1024
1025&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1026This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1027&lt;/p&gt;
1028
1029&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1030This paragraph will never be seen!
1031The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1032&lt;/p&gt;
1033
1034&lt;/body&gt;
1035
1036&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1037
1038&lt;p&gt;
1039This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1040the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1041&lt;/p&gt;
1042
1043&lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1044This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1045&lt;/note&gt;
1046
1047&lt;/body&gt;
1048</pre>
1049
1050</body>
1051</section>
1052</chapter>
1053
1054<chapter id="codingstyle">
435<title>Coding Style</title> 1055<title>Coding Style</title>
436<section> 1056<section>
437<title>Introduction</title> 1057<title>Introduction</title>
438<body> 1058<body>
439 1059
440<p> 1060<p>
441Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will 1061Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
442most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed. 1062most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
443A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding 1063A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
444internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is 1064internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
445regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader. 1065regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
446</p> 1066</p>
447 1067
448<p> 1068<p>
449Both sections are described next. 1069Both sections are described next.
459<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e> 1079<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
460GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for: 1080GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
461<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>, 1081<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
462<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 1082<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
463<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>, 1083<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
464<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, 1084<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
465<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>. 1085<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
466</p> 1086</p>
467 1087
468<p> 1088<p>
469<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e> 1089<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
470<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e> 1090<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
474<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only). 1094<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
475</p> 1095</p>
476 1096
477<p> 1097<p>
478<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside 1098<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
479<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from 1099<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
480this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). 1100choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
481The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. 1101editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
482</p> 1102keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
483 1103columns to help console users.
484<p> 1104</p>
1105
1106<p>
485<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which 1107<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
486the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>), 1108parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
487<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation 1109<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
488is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e> 1110<c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
489tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces. 1111each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
490</p> 1112Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
491
492<p> 1113</p>
1114
1115<p>
493In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or 1116In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
494<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content. 1117<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1118the content.
495</p> 1119</p>
496 1120
497<p> 1121<p>
498An example for indentation is: 1122An example for indentation is:
499</p> 1123</p>
500 1124
501<pre caption = "Indentation Example"> 1125<pre caption="Indentation Example">
502&lt;table&gt; 1126&lt;table&gt;
503&lt;tr&gt; 1127&lt;tr&gt;
504 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt; 1128 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
505 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt; 1129 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
506&lt;/tr&gt; 1130&lt;/tr&gt;
507&lt;tr&gt; 1131&lt;tr&gt;
508 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt; 1132 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
509 &lt;ti&gt; 1133 &lt;ti&gt;
510 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you 1134 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
511 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it. 1135 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
512 &lt;/ti&gt; 1136 &lt;/ti&gt;
513&lt;/tr&gt; 1137&lt;/tr&gt;
514&lt;/table&gt; 1138&lt;/table&gt;
515 1139
516&lt;ul&gt; 1140&lt;ul&gt;
518 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt; 1142 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
519&lt;/ul&gt; 1143&lt;/ul&gt;
520</pre> 1144</pre>
521 1145
522<p> 1146<p>
523<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the 1147<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
524&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example: 1148and the attribute value. As an example:
525</p> 1149</p>
526 1150
527<pre caption="Attributes"> 1151<pre caption="Attributes">
528<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt; 1152<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
529<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt; 1153<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
534<section> 1158<section>
535<title>External Coding Style</title> 1159<title>External Coding Style</title>
536<body> 1160<body>
537 1161
538<p> 1162<p>
539Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and 1163Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
540<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple 1164<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
541sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or 1165unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
542other reading marks). 1166with a period (or other reading marks).
543</p> 1167</p>
544 1168
545<p> 1169<p>
546Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start 1170Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
547with a capital letter. 1171with a capital letter.
558Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>. 1182Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
559</p> 1183</p>
560 1184
561<p> 1185<p>
562Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as 1186Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
563possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">Gentoo 1187possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
564Website</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. 1188Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
565</p>
566
567<p> 1189</p>
1190
1191<p>
568When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use 1192When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
569<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise, 1193<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
570use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parantheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e> 1194that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
571the subject of the comment. 1195for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1196comment.
572</p> 1197</p>
573 1198
574<pre caption="Comment example"> 1199<pre caption="Comment example">
575<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment> 1200<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
576# <i>id john</i> 1201# <i>id john</i>
585<section> 1210<section>
586<title>Start writing</title> 1211<title>Start writing</title>
587<body> 1212<body>
588 1213
589<p> 1214<p>
590Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 1215GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
591can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 1216can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
592syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 1217syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
593to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or 1218to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
594have any questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail 1219<uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
595link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd 1220&amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
1221GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1222link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
596like to tackle. Have fun! 1223to tackle. Have fun!
597</p> 1224</p>
598 1225
599</body> 1226</body>
600</section> 1227</section>
601</chapter> 1228</chapter>
602</guide> 1229</guide>
603

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