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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.31 2004/05/21 13:32:28 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.68 2008/03/09 13:13:15 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml"> 5<guide>
6<title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo GuideXML Guide</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="neysx"/>
10</author>
8<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail> 12 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
10</author> 13</author>
11<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org --> 14<author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
12 John P. Davis 15 John P. Davis
18 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
19</author> 22</author>
20 23
21<abstract> 24<abstract>
22This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight 25This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
23Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux 26Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
24documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide 27documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
25assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML. 28assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
26</abstract> 29</abstract>
27 30
28<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 31<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
29<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 32<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
30<license/> 33<license/>
31 34
32<version>2.10</version> 35<version>9</version>
33<date>May 09, 2004</date> 36<date>2008-03-09</date>
34 37
35<chapter> 38<chapter>
36<title>Guide basics</title> 39<title>GuideXML basics</title>
37<section> 40<section>
38<title>Guide XML design goals</title> 41<title>GuideXML design goals</title>
39<body> 42<body>
40 43
41<p> 44<p>
42The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to 45The guideXML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
43learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web 46learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
44documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need. 47documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
45This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook 48This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
46XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. 49XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
47</p> 50</p>
48 51
49<p> 52<p>
50The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML 53The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guideXML
51documents. 54documents.
52</p> 55</p>
53 56
54</body> 57</body>
55</section> 58</section>
56<section> 59<section>
57<title>Further Resources</title> 60<title>Further Resources</title>
58<body> 61<body>
59 62
60<p> 63<p>
61If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to test 64If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
62GuideXML, please read the <uri 65test GuideXML, please read our <uri
63link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Tips and Tricks</uri> 66link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
64which contains tips and tricks for documentation development. 67which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
65</p> 68</p>
66 69
70<p>
71You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
72document while you read it.
73</p>
74
67</body> 75</body>
68</section> 76</section>
69</chapter> 77</chapter>
70 78
71<chapter> 79<chapter>
72<title>Guide XML</title> 80<title>GuideXML</title>
73<section> 81<section>
74<title>Basic structure</title> 82<title>Basic structure</title>
75<body> 83<body>
76 84
77<p> 85<p>
78Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning 86Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
79the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide 87tags used in a GuideXML document:
80XML document:
81</p> 88</p>
82 89
83<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document"> 90<pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
84&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt; 91&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
85&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt; 92&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
86&lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt; 93&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94
95&lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
87&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt; 96&lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
88&lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt; 97
89 &lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
90&lt;/author&gt;
91&lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt; 98&lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
92 &lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt; 99 &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
93&lt;/author&gt; 100&lt;/author&gt;
94 101
95&lt;abstract&gt; 102&lt;abstract&gt;
96<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using 103<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
97our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official 104our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
98format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created 105format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
99using GuideXML.</i> 106using GuideXML.</i>
100&lt;/abstract&gt; 107&lt;/abstract&gt;
101 108
102&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt; 109&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
103&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt; 110&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
104&lt;license/&gt; 111&lt;license/&gt;
105 112
106&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt; 113&lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
107&lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt; 114&lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
108</pre> 115</pre>
109 116
110<p> 117<p>
111On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML 118On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
112document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire 119document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
113guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. 122enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
123<br/>
124The <c>link</c> attribute is optional and should preferably contain the
125absolute path to the document relatively to the document root even though the
126file name alone will work. It is only used to generate a link to a
127printer-friendly version of your document and check whether a translation is
128up-to-date. Our XSL back-engine passes the actual path to our XSL stylesheet.
129The link attribute is only used as a fall-back value in case the XML is
130processed by other means.
131<br/>
132The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify the language code of your
133document. It is used to format the date and insert strings like "<e>Note</e>",
134"<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language. The default is English.
135</p>
136
137<p>
114Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire 138Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
115guide document. 139guide document.
116</p> 140</p>
117 141
118<p> 142<p>
119Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information 143Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
120about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag 144about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
121allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's 145allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
122relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this 146relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
123particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a 147particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
124<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular 148<c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
125person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no 149person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and at
126more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document. 150least one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
127</p> 151</p>
128 152
129<p> 153<p>
130Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and 154Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
131<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the 155<c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
132current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format) 156current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
133respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of 157respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
158appear verbatim in the rendered document.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162This sums up the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide document.
134a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> 163Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these tags
135tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the 164shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
136<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not 165<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
137required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. 166required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
138</p> 167</p>
139 168
140<p> 169<p>
141Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the 170Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
142document under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/">Creative 171under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
143Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri 172Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
144link="/doc/en/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>. 173link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
145</p> 174</p>
146 175
147</body> 176</body>
148</section> 177</section>
149<section> 178<section>
150<title>Chapters and sections</title> 179<title>Chapters and sections</title>
151<body> 180<body>
152 181
153<p> 182<p>
154Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding 183Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
155the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into 184structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
156chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter 185chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
157and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section, 186section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
158consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous 187consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
188link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
159excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid 189<c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
160(if minimal) guide document: 190guide document:
161</p> 191</p>
162 192
163<pre> 193<pre caption="Minimal guide example">
164&lt;chapter&gt; 194&lt;chapter&gt;
165&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 195&lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
166&lt;section&gt; 196&lt;section&gt;
167&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt; 197&lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
168&lt;body&gt; 198&lt;body&gt;
186content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed 216content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
187inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. 217inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
188</p> 218</p>
189 219
190<note> 220<note>
191A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> 221A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element must contain at least one <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
192elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple 222elements, a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> must contain at least one
193<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> 223<c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements and a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element must
194element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. 224contain at least one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
195</note> 225</note>
196 226
197</body> 227</body>
198</section> 228</section>
199<section> 229<section>
200<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title> 230<title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
201<body> 231<body>
202 232
203<p> 233<p>
204Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element: 234Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
235an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
205</p> 236</p>
206 237
207<pre> 238<pre caption="Example of a body element">
208&lt;p&gt; 239&lt;p&gt;
209This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file. 240This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
210&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website. 241&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
211Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now. 242Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
212&lt;/p&gt; 243&lt;/p&gt;
213 244
214&lt;pre&gt; 245&lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
215This is text output or code. 246This is text output or code.
216# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt; 247# &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
217 248
218Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 249Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
219&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt; 250&lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
220 251
221&lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt; 252&lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
222&lt;/pre&gt; 253&lt;/pre&gt;
223 254
224&lt;note&gt; 255&lt;note&gt;
225This is a note. 256This is a note.
226&lt;/note&gt; 257&lt;/note&gt;
233This is important. 264This is important.
234&lt;/impo&gt; 265&lt;/impo&gt;
235</pre> 266</pre>
236 267
237<p> 268<p>
238Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered: 269Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
239</p> 270</p>
240 271
241<p> 272<p>
242This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file. 273This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
243<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website. 274<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
244Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now. 275Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
245</p> 276</p>
246 277
247<pre> 278<pre caption="Code Sample">
248This is text output or code. 279This is text output or code.
249# <i>this is user input</i> 280# <i>this is user input</i>
250 281
251Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis: 282Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
252&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt; 283&lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
253 284
254<codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote> 285<comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
255</pre> 286</pre>
256 287
257<note> 288<note>
258This is a note. 289This is a note.
259</note> 290</note>
271<section> 302<section>
272<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title> 303<title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
273<body> 304<body>
274 305
275<p> 306<p>
276We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you 307We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
277need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code 308to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
278block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and 309<c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
279<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. 310(important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
311<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
280Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit), 312<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
281these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a 313only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
282<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be 314Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
283stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a 315don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
284<c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element 316you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
285preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. 317exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
286You can also name the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag: 318<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
287</p> 319</p>
288 320
289<pre caption = "Named &lt;pre&gt;"> 321<pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
290&lt;pre caption = "Output of uptime"&gt; 322&lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
291# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt; 323# &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
29216:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25 32416:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
293&lt;/pre&gt; 325&lt;/pre&gt;
294</pre> 326</pre>
295 327
296</body> 328</body>
297</section> 329</section>
298<section> 330<section>
299<title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title> 331<title>Epigraphs</title>
332<body>
333
334<p by="Anonymous student">
335Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
336Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
337of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
338and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
3391790 and is still dead.
340</p>
341
342<p>
343Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
344to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
345the signature.
346</p>
347
348<pre caption="Short epigraph">
349&lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
350Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
351&lt;/p&gt;
352</pre>
353
300<body> 354</body>
355</section>
356<section>
357<title>
358 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
359</title>
360<body>
301 361
302<p> 362<p>
303The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can 363The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
304be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for 364<c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
305<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. 365<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
306</p> 366</p>
307 367
308<p> 368<p>
309The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an 369The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
310<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a 370<e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
311<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a monospaced 371<e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
312font to offset it from the standard paragraph type. 372font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
313</p> 373</p>
314 374
315<p> 375<p>
316The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user 376The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
326the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and 386the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
327adorable! 387adorable!
328</p> 388</p>
329 389
330<p> 390<p>
391As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
392text.
393</p>
394
395<p>
331<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example: 396<c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
332I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is 397I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
333offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your 398offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
334prose more <e>punch</e>! 399prose more <e>punch</e>!
335</p> 400</p>
336 401
402<p>
403The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
404<sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
405</p>
406
407</body>
408</section>
409<section>
410<title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
411<body>
412
413<p>
414To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
415inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
416</p>
417
418<dl>
419 <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
420 <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
421 <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
422 <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
423 <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
424 <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
425 </dd>
426 <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
427 <dd>Used for an identifier
428 </dd>
429 <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
430 <dd>Used for a constant
431 </dd>
432 <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
433 <dd>Used for a statement
434 </dd>
435 <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
436 <dd>Used for a variable
437 </dd>
438</dl>
439
440<note>
441Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
442<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
443</note>
444
445<p>
446Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="My first ebuild">
450<comment># Copyright 1999-2006 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
451# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
452# &#36;Header: $</comment>
453
454<ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
455<ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
456<ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
457
458<ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
459<ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
460<ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
461<ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
462
463<stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
464 <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"econf failed"</const>
465 <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
466}
467
468<stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
469 <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
470
471 <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
472 <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
473}
474</pre>
475
337</body> 476</body>
338</section> 477</section>
339<section> 478<section>
340<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title> 479<title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
341<body> 480<body>
342 481
343<p> 482<p>
344We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link 483We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
345some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail 484some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
346link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. 485link="foo.bar@example.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
347</p> 486email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo.bar@example.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
348 487would be displayed as <mail>foo.bar@example.com</mail>.
349<p> 488</p>
489
490<p>
491Shorter forms make it easier to use names and emails of Gentoo developers. Both
492<c>&lt;mail&gt;neysx&lt;/mail&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail link="neysx"/&gt;</c>
493would appear as <mail>neysx</mail>. If you want to use a Gentoo dev's email
494with a different content than his full name, use the second form with some
495content. For instance, use a dev's first name: <c>&lt;mail
496link="neysx"&gt;Xavier&lt;/mail&gt;</c> appears as <mail
497link="neysx">Xavier</mail>.
498<br/>
499This is particularly useful when you want to name a developer whose name
500contains "funny" characters that you can't type.
501</p>
502
503<p>
350The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the 504The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
351Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the 505It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
352actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to 506displayed in the body text, such as this link to
353<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed 507<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri>. To create this link, I typed
354<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is 508<c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org/&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
355when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri 509when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
356link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create 510link="http://forums.gentoo.org/">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create
357<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the 511<e>this</e> link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/"&gt;the
358Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. 512Gentoo Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write
513<c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c> to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site.
514For instance, a link to the <uri link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri>
515should be simply <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main
516index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a
517directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main
518index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Leaving the trailing slash saves an extra HTTP request.
519</p>
520
521<p>
522You should not use a <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag with a <c>link</c> attribute that
523starts with <c>mailto:</c>. In this case, use a <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag.
524</p>
525
526<p>
527Please avoid the <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Click_here">click here
528syndrome</uri> as recommended by the <uri
529link="http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/noClickHere">W3C</uri>.
359</p> 530</p>
360 531
361</body> 532</body>
362</section> 533</section>
363<section> 534<section>
364<title>Figures</title> 535<title>Figures</title>
365
366<body> 536<body>
367 537
368<p> 538<p>
369Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure 539Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
370link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all 540link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
371time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image, 541time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
372the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for 542the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
373the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult 543the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
374:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag 544:) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
375for adding images without captions, borders, etc. 545for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
376</p> 546</p>
377 547
378</body> 548</body>
379</section> 549</section>
380<section> 550<section>
381<title>Tables and lists</title> 551<title>Tables</title>
382<body> 552<body>
383 553
384<p> 554<p>
385Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start 555GuideXML supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
386a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> 556table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
387tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the 557tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the HTML
388HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a 558&lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
389header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational 559header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
390block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> 560block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
391-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the 561-- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
392first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will 562first row.
393be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
394</p>
395
396<p> 563</p>
564
565<p>
566Besides, both table headers (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) and table items
567(<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>) accept the <c>colspan</c> and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to
568span their content across rows, columns or both.
569</p>
570
571<p>
572Furthermore, table cells (<c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> &amp; <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) can be
573right-aligned, left-aligned or centered with the <c>align</c> attribute.
574</p>
575
576<table>
577 <tr>
578 <th align="center" colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
579 </tr>
580 <tr>
581 <th rowspan="6">This title spans 6 rows</th>
582 <ti>Item A1</ti>
583 <ti>Item A2</ti>
584 <ti>Item A3</ti>
585 </tr>
586 <tr>
587 <ti align="center">Item B1</ti>
588 <th colspan="2" rowspan="2" align="right">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
589 </tr>
590 <tr>
591 <ti align="right">Item C1</ti>
592 </tr>
593 <tr>
594 <ti colspan="3" align="center">Item D1..D3</ti>
595 </tr>
596 <tr>
597 <ti rowspan="2">Item E1..F1</ti>
598 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item E2..E3</ti>
599 </tr>
600 <tr>
601 <ti colspan="2" align="right">Item F2..F3</ti>
602 </tr>
603</table>
604
605</body>
606</section>
607<section>
608<title>Lists</title>
609<body>
610
611<p>
397To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style 612To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
398<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags 613<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
399should only appear inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> or 614appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
400<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> tag. 615that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
616that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
617</p>
618
401</p> 619<p>
620Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
621neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
622(<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
623admonitions. A definition list comprises:
624</p>
625
626<dl>
627 <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
628 <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
629 <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
630 <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
631 <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
632 <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
633</dl>
634
635<p>
636The following list copied from <uri
637link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
638that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
639contain another definition list though.
640</p>
641
642<dl>
643 <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
644 <dd>
645 <ul>
646 <li>100 g. flour</li>
647 <li>10 g. sugar</li>
648 <li>1 cup water</li>
649 <li>2 eggs</li>
650 <li>salt, pepper</li>
651 </ul>
652 </dd>
653 <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
654 <dd>
655 <ol>
656 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
657 <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
658 <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
659 <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
660 </ol>
661 </dd>
662 <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
663 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
664</dl>
402 665
403</body> 666</body>
404</section> 667</section>
405<section> 668<section>
406<title>Intra-document references</title> 669<title>Intra-document references</title>
407<body> 670<body>
408 671
409<p> 672<p>
410Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using 673GuideXML makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
411hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter 674hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
412One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter 675One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
413One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of 676One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
414Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of 677Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
415Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri 678Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type
416link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri 679<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer
417link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri 680to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type
418link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be 681<c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
419adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.
420</p> 682</p>
421 683
422<p> 684<p>
423However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken 685However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
424links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a 686links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
425<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> by using the <c>id</c> 687<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
426attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this: 688the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
427</p> 689</p>
428 690
429<pre caption="Using the id attribute"> 691<pre caption="Using the id attribute">
430&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt; 692&lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
431&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt; 693&lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
435&lt;/p&gt; 697&lt;/p&gt;
436</pre> 698</pre>
437 699
438</body> 700</body>
439</section> 701</section>
702<section>
703<title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
704<body>
705
706<p>
707A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
708a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
709are:
710</p>
711
712<ul>
713 <li>
714 <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
715 articles</uri>
716 </li>
717 <li>
718 <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
719 should not be considered official
720 </li>
721 <li>
722 <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
723 anymore
724 </li>
725 <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
726</ul>
727
728<p>
729When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
730version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
731automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
732behaviour.
733</p>
734
735<pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
736&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
737&lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
738&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
739
740&lt;guide disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
741&lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
742
743&lt;author title="Author"&gt;
744...
745</pre>
746
747</body>
748</section>
749<section>
750<title>FAQs</title>
751<body>
752
753<p>
754FAQ documents need to start with a list of questions with links to their
755answers. Creating such a list is both time-consuming and error-prone. The list
756can be created automatically if you use a <c>faqindex</c> element as the first
757chapter of your document. This element has the same structure as a
758<c>chapter</c> to allow some introductory text. The structure of the document
759is expected to be split into chapters (at least one chapter) containing
760sections, each section containing one question specified in its <c>title</c>
761element with the answer in its <c>body</c>. The FAQ index will appear as one
762section per chapter and one link per question.
763</p>
764
765<p>
766A quick look at a <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri> and <uri
767link="/doc/en/faq.xml?passthru=1">its source</uri> should make the above
768obvious.
769</p>
770
771</body>
772</section>
440</chapter> 773</chapter>
441 774
442<chapter> 775<chapter>
776<title>Handbook Format</title>
777<section>
778<title>Guide vs Book</title>
779<body>
780
781<p>
782For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
783link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
784broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
785allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
786</p>
787
788</body>
789</section>
790<section>
791<title>Main File</title>
792<body>
793
794<p>
795The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
796real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntax
797doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
798</p>
799
800<pre caption="Example book usage">
801&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
802&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
803&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
804
805&lt;<i>book</i>&gt;
806&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
807
808&lt;author...&gt;
809 ...
810&lt;/author&gt;
811
812&lt;abstract&gt;
813 ...
814&lt;/abstract&gt;
815
816&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
817&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
818&lt;license/&gt;
819
820&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
821&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
822</pre>
823
824<p>
825So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
826<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
827<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
828equivalent of a separate part in a book:
829</p>
830
831<pre caption="Defining a part">
832&lt;part&gt;
833&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
834&lt;abstract&gt;
835 ...
836&lt;/abstract&gt;
837
838<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
839&lt;/part&gt;
840</pre>
841
842<p>
843Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
844<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
845</p>
846
847<p>
848Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
849chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
850a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
851document.
852</p>
853
854<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
855&lt;chapter&gt;
856&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
857
858 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
859
860&lt;/chapter&gt;
861</pre>
862
863</body>
864</section>
865<section>
866<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
867<body>
868
869<p>
870The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
871</p>
872
873<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
874&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
875&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
876&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
877
878&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
879&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
880
881&lt;sections&gt;
882
883&lt;abstract&gt;
884 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
885&lt;/abstract&gt;
886
887&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
888&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
889
890<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
891
892&lt;/sections&gt;
893</pre>
894
895<p>
896Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
897<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
898of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
899</p>
900
901<p>
902Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
903latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
904browses through all parts of the book.
905</p>
906
907</body>
908</section>
909</chapter>
910
911<chapter>
912<title>Advanced Handbook Features</title>
913<section>
914<title>Global Values</title>
915<body>
916
917<p>
918Sometimes, the same values are repeated many times in several parts of a
919handbook. Global search and replace operations tend to forget some or introduce
920unwanted changes. Besides, it can be useful to define different values to be
921used in shared chapters depending on which handbook includes the chapter.
922</p>
923
924<p>
925Global values can be defined in a handbook master file and used in all included
926chapters.
927</p>
928
929<p>
930To define global values, add a <c>&lt;values&gt;</c> element to the handbook
931master file. Each value is then defined in a <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> element whose
932<c>id</c> attribute identifies the value, i.e. it is the name of your variable.
933The content of the <c>&lt;key&gt;</c> is its value.
934</p>
935
936<p>
937The following example defines three values in a handbook master file:
938</p>
939
940<pre caption="Define values in a handbook">
941&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
942&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
943&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
944
945&lt;book&gt;
946&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
947
948<i>&lt;values>
949 &lt;key id="arch"&gt;x86&lt;/key&gt;
950 &lt;key id="min-cd-name"&gt;install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso&lt;/key&gt;
951 &lt;key id="min-cd-size"&gt;57&lt;/key&gt;
952&lt;/values&gt;</i>
953
954&lt;author...&gt;
955 ...
956&lt;/author&gt;
957
958...
959</pre>
960
961<p>
962The defined values can then be used throughout the handbook with the in-line
963<c>&lt;keyval id="key_id"/&gt;</c> element. Specify the name of the key in its
964<c>id</c> attribute, e.g. &lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt; would be replaced by
965"install-x86-minimal-2007.0-r1.iso" in our example.
966</p>
967
968<pre caption="Using defined values">
969&lt;p&gt;
970The Minimal Installation CD is called &lt;c&gt;<i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-name"/&gt;</i>&lt;/c&gt;
971and takes up only <i>&lt;keyval id="min-cd-size"/&gt;</i> MB of diskspace. You can use this
972Installation CD to install Gentoo, but &lt;e&gt;only&lt;/e&gt; with a working Internet
973connection.
974&lt;/p&gt;
975</pre>
976
977<p>
978To make life easier on our translators, only use actual values, i.e. content
979that does not need to be translated. For instance, we defined the
980<c>min-cd-size</c> value to <c>57</c> and not <c>57 MB</c>.
981</p>
982
983</body>
984</section>
985<section>
986<title>Conditional Elements</title>
987<body>
988
989<p>
990Chapters that are shared by several handbooks such as our <uri
991link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbooks</uri> often have small
992differences depending on which handbook includes them. Instead of adding
993content that is irrelevant to some handbooks, authors can add a condition to
994the following elements: <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>,
995<c>&lt;body&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>,
996<c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>,
997<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>
998and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>.
999</p>
1000
1001<p>
1002The condition must be an <uri
1003link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XPath">XPATH</uri> expression that will be
1004evaluated when transforming the XML. If it evaluates to <c>true</c>, the
1005element is processed, if not, it is ignored. The condition is specified in a
1006<c>test</c> attribute.
1007</p>
1008
1009<p>
1010The following example uses the <c>arch</c> value that is defined in each
1011handbook master file to condition some content:
1012</p>
1013
1014<pre caption="Using conditional elements">
1015&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 x86',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1016
1017&lt;p&gt;
1018This paragraph applies to both x86 and AMD64 architectures.
1019&lt;/p&gt;
1020
1021&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'"&gt;
1022This paragraph only applies to the x86 architecture.
1023&lt;/p&gt;
1024
1025&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"&gt;
1026This paragraph only applies to the AMD64 architecture.
1027&lt;/p&gt;
1028
1029&lt;p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"&gt;
1030This paragraph will never be seen!
1031The whole body is skipped because of the first condition.
1032&lt;/p&gt;
1033
1034&lt;/body&gt;
1035
1036&lt;body test="contains('AMD64 PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))"&gt;
1037
1038&lt;p&gt;
1039This paragraph applies to the AMD64, PPC64 <comment>and PPC</comment> architectures because
1040the 'AMD64 PPC64' string does contain 'PPC'.
1041&lt;/p&gt;
1042
1043&lt;note test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"&gt;
1044This note only applies to the AMD64 and PPC64 architectures.
1045&lt;/note&gt;
1046
1047&lt;/body&gt;
1048</pre>
1049
1050</body>
1051</section>
1052</chapter>
1053
1054<chapter id="codingstyle">
443<title>Coding Style</title> 1055<title>Coding Style</title>
444<section> 1056<section>
445<title>Introduction</title> 1057<title>Introduction</title>
446<body> 1058<body>
447 1059
448<p> 1060<p>
449Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will 1061Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
450most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed. 1062most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
451A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding 1063A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
452internal coding - how the xml-tags are placed. The second one is 1064internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
453regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader. 1065regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
454</p> 1066</p>
455 1067
456<p> 1068<p>
457Both sections are described next. 1069Both sections are described next.
467<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e> 1079<b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
468GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for: 1080GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
469<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>, 1081<c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
470<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, 1082<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
471<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>, 1083<c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
472<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, 1084<c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
473<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>. 1085<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
474</p> 1086</p>
475 1087
476<p> 1088<p>
477<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e> 1089<b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
478<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e> 1090<c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
482<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only). 1094<c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
483</p> 1095</p>
484 1096
485<p> 1097<p>
486<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside 1098<b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
487<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. Only when there is no other choice can be deviated from 1099<c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
488this rule (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). 1100choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
489The editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. 1101editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
490</p> 1102keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
491 1103columns to help console users.
492<p> 1104</p>
1105
1106<p>
493<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which 1107<b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
494the parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>), 1108parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
495<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation 1109<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
496is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for each indentation. That means <e>no</e> 1110<c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
497tabs and <e>not</e> more spaces. 1111each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
498</p> 1112Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
499
500<p> 1113</p>
1114
1115<p>
501In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> or 1116In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
502<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for the content. 1117<c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
1118the content.
503</p> 1119</p>
504 1120
505<p> 1121<p>
506An example for indentation is: 1122An example for indentation is:
507</p> 1123</p>
508 1124
509<pre caption = "Indentation Example"> 1125<pre caption="Indentation Example">
510&lt;table&gt; 1126&lt;table&gt;
511&lt;tr&gt; 1127&lt;tr&gt;
512 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt; 1128 &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
513 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt; 1129 &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
514&lt;/tr&gt; 1130&lt;/tr&gt;
515&lt;tr&gt; 1131&lt;tr&gt;
516 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation.&lt;/ti&gt; 1132 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
517 &lt;ti&gt; 1133 &lt;ti&gt;
518 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you 1134 In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
519 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it. 1135 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
520 &lt;/ti&gt; 1136 &lt;/ti&gt;
521&lt;/tr&gt; 1137&lt;/tr&gt;
522&lt;/table&gt; 1138&lt;/table&gt;
523 1139
524&lt;ul&gt; 1140&lt;ul&gt;
526 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt; 1142 &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
527&lt;/ul&gt; 1143&lt;/ul&gt;
528</pre> 1144</pre>
529 1145
530<p> 1146<p>
531<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the 1147<b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
532&quot;=&quot; mark, and the attribute value. As an example: 1148and the attribute value. As an example:
533</p> 1149</p>
534 1150
535<pre caption="Attributes"> 1151<pre caption="Attributes">
536<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt; 1152<comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
537<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt; 1153<comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
542<section> 1158<section>
543<title>External Coding Style</title> 1159<title>External Coding Style</title>
544<body> 1160<body>
545 1161
546<p> 1162<p>
547Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and 1163Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
548<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>), periods (&quot;.&quot;) should not be used unless multiple 1164<c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
549sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end with a period (or 1165unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
550other reading marks). 1166with a period (or other reading marks).
551</p> 1167</p>
552 1168
553<p> 1169<p>
554Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start 1170Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
555with a capital letter. 1171with a capital letter.
566Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>. 1182Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
567</p> 1183</p>
568 1184
569<p> 1185<p>
570Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as 1186Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
571possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org">Gentoo 1187possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
572Website</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. 1188Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
573</p>
574
575<p> 1189</p>
1190
1191<p>
576When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, only use 1192When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
577<c>&lt;codenote&gt;</c> if the content is a C or C++ code snippet. Otherwise, 1193<c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
578use <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parantheses. Also place the comment <e>before</e> 1194that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
579the subject of the comment. 1195for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
1196comment.
580</p> 1197</p>
581 1198
582<pre caption="Comment example"> 1199<pre caption="Comment example">
583<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment> 1200<comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
584# <i>id john</i> 1201# <i>id john</i>
587</body> 1204</body>
588</section> 1205</section>
589</chapter> 1206</chapter>
590 1207
591<chapter> 1208<chapter>
592<title>Handbook Format</title>
593<section>
594<title>Guide vs Book</title>
595<body>
596
597<p>
598For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
599link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
600broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
601allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
602</p>
603
604</body>
605</section>
606<section>
607<title>Main File</title>
608<body>
609
610<p>
611The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
612real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
613doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
614</p>
615
616<pre caption="Example book usage">
617&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
618&lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
619
620&lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
621&lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
622
623&lt;author...&gt;
624 ...
625&lt;/author&gt;
626
627&lt;abstract&gt;
628 ...
629&lt;/abstract&gt;
630
631&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
632&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
633&lt;license/&gt;
634
635&lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
636&lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
637</pre>
638
639<p>
640So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
641<c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
642<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
643equivalent of a separate part in a book:
644</p>
645
646<pre caption="Defining a part">
647&lt;part&gt;
648&lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
649&lt;abstract&gt;
650 ...
651&lt;/abstract&gt;
652
653<comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
654&lt;/part&gt;
655</pre>
656
657<p>
658Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
659<c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
660</p>
661
662<p>
663Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>'s. Each
664chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that a
665special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
666document.
667</p>
668
669<pre caption="Defining a chapter">
670&lt;chapter&gt;
671&lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
672&lt;abstract&gt;
673 This is a small explanation on chapter one.
674&lt;/abstract&gt;
675
676 &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
677
678&lt;/chapter&gt;
679</pre>
680
681</body>
682</section>
683<section>
684<title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
685<body>
686
687<p>
688The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
689</p>
690
691<pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
692&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
693&lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
694
695&lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
696&lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --&gt;
697
698&lt;sections&gt;
699
700<comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
701
702&lt;/sections&gt;
703</pre>
704
705<p>
706Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>'s (equivalent of
707<c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>'s (equivalent
708of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
709</p>
710
711</body>
712</section>
713</chapter>
714
715<chapter>
716<title>Resources</title> 1209<title>Resources</title>
717<section> 1210<section>
718<title>Start writing</title> 1211<title>Start writing</title>
719<body> 1212<body>
720 1213
721<p> 1214<p>
722Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers 1215GuideXML has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
723can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML 1216can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
724syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy" 1217syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
725to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or 1218to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested in our
726have any questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail 1219<uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation Development Tips
727link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd 1220&amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about
1221GuideXML), please post a message to the <uri
1222link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-doc mailing list</uri> stating what you'd like
728like to tackle. Have fun! 1223to tackle. Have fun!
729</p> 1224</p>
730 1225
731</body> 1226</body>
732</section> 1227</section>
733</chapter> 1228</chapter>
734</guide> 1229</guide>
735

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