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updated xorg guide for bug 182752

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2    
3 nightmorph 1.23 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.22 2007/06/09 12:40:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6    
7 yoswink 1.15 <guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8 swift 1.1
9     <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10    
11     <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.20 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13 swift 1.1 </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17     environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18     install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 nightmorph 1.23 <version>1.17</version>
26     <date>2007-06-20</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37     by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38     do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39     environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58     The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59     user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.8 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62     The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74     system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81     one.
82     </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91     <title>Using emerge</title>
92     <body>
93    
94     <p>
95     Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
96     need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
97     though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
98     </p>
99    
100 rane 1.18 <p>
101     Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
102     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
103     </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
107     you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
108     The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
109     ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
110     respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
111     rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
112 jkt 1.22 driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI
113     cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all
114     with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in
115 rane 1.18 this case list of them should be separated with spaces.
116     </p>
117    
118     <p>
119     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
120     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
121     <c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine.
122     </p>
123    
124     <p>
125     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
126     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
127     </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
130     <comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
131     INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
132     <comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
133     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
134     <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
135     VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
136     </pre>
137    
138     <p>
139     More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
140     <uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
141     <uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
142     which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
143     </p>
144    
145     <note>
146     If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
147 nightmorph 1.23 xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
148     your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
149     <c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
150 rane 1.18 </note>
151    
152     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
153 nightmorph 1.23 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
154 rane 1.18
155     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
156    
157     Calculating dependencies... done!
158 nightmorph 1.23 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
159     -dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
160     -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
161     -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
162     -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
163     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
164     -glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
165     (-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
166     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
167     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
168 rane 1.18 </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
172     </p>
173    
174 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
175     # <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
176     </pre>
177    
178     <p>
179 rane 1.18 When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
180 swift 1.1 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
181 rane 1.18 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
182 swift 1.1 </p>
183    
184 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
185 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
186     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
187     </pre>
188    
189     </body>
190     </section>
191     </chapter>
192     <chapter>
193     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
194     <section>
195     <title>The xorg.conf File</title>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>
199 neysx 1.2 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
200 swift 1.1 resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
201     configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
202     create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
203     of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
204     </p>
205    
206     <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
207     # <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
208     </pre>
209    
210     <p>
211     Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
212     with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
213     </p>
214    
215     </body>
216     </section>
217     <section>
218     <title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
219     <body>
220    
221     <p>
222     Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
223     will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
224     running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
225     resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
226     working) Xorg configuration file.
227     </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
230     # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
231     </pre>
232    
233     <p>
234     Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
235     probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
236     manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
237     will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
238     for you to test. So let's test :)
239     </p>
240    
241     <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
242 swift 1.6 # <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
243 swift 1.1 </pre>
244    
245     <p>
246 nightmorph 1.21 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
247     your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
248     about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
249     the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
250     deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
251     can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
252 swift 1.7 </p>
253    
254 swift 1.1 </body>
255     </section>
256     <section>
257     <title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
258     <body>
259    
260     <p>
261     Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
262     information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
263     your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
264     </p>
265    
266     <pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
267     # <i>xorgconfig</i>
268     </pre>
269    
270 swift 1.10 <p>
271     Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
272 fox2mike 1.16 attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
273 swift 1.10 final tweaking.
274     </p>
275    
276     <pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
277     # <i>xorgcfg</i>
278 swift 1.13 <comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
279     # <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
280 swift 1.10 </pre>
281    
282 swift 1.1 </body>
283     </section>
284     <section>
285     <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289 swift 1.9 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
290     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
291     <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
292 swift 1.1 </p>
293    
294     <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
295     # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
296     </pre>
297    
298 swift 1.9 </body>
299     </section>
300     <section id="using_startx">
301     <title>Using startx</title>
302     <body>
303    
304 swift 1.1 <p>
305 swift 1.9 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
306     that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
307     graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
308     using the following logic:
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311 swift 1.9 <ul>
312     <li>
313     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
314     execute the commands listed there.
315     </li>
316     <li>
317     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
318     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
319     accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
320     to make it a default for all the users on the system).
321     </li>
322     <li>
323     If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
324     usually <c>twm</c>.
325     </li>
326     </ul>
327    
328 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
329     # <i>startx</i>
330     </pre>
331    
332 swift 1.9 <p>
333     If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
334     <c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
335     upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
336 fox2mike 1.16 combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
337 swift 1.9 might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
338     </p>
339    
340 swift 1.1 </body>
341     </section>
342 swift 1.9 </chapter>
343     <chapter>
344     <title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
345 swift 1.1 <section>
346     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
351     sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
352 fox2mike 1.16 which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
353 swift 1.1 default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
354     case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
355     second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
356     </p>
357    
358     <p>
359     What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
360     <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
361     For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
362     section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
363     look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
364     use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
365     <c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
366     </p>
367    
368     <warn>
369 fox2mike 1.16 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
370 swift 1.1 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
371     incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
372     worst.
373     </warn>
374    
375     <p>
376     Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
377     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
378     <c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
379 fox2mike 1.16 default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
380 swift 1.1 differ from the settings on your system.
381     </p>
382    
383     <pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
384     Section "Screen"
385     Identifier "Default Screen"
386     Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]"
387     Monitor "Generic Monitor"
388     <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
389     <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
390     SubSection "Display"
391     Depth 24
392     <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
393     EndSubSection
394     EndSection
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398     Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
399     </p>
400    
401     </body>
402     </section>
403     <section>
404     <title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
405     <body>
406    
407     <p>
408     To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
409     section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
410     point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
411     for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
412     </p>
413    
414     <pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
415     Section "InputDevice"
416     Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
417     Driver "keyboard"
418     Option "CoreKeyboard"
419 swift 1.3 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
420 swift 1.1 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
421     <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
422     EndSection
423     </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426     </section>
427     <section>
428     <title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
433 neysx 1.12 by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
434 swift 1.11 <path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
435 swift 1.14 use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
436     case you can check if the devices do represent
437 fox2mike 1.17 your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
438     will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
439     <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
440 swift 1.1 </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Checking the device files">
443 swift 1.11 # <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
444 swift 1.1 <comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
445     </pre>
446    
447     <p>
448     If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
449     </p>
450    
451     <p>
452     If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
453     <e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
454 fox2mike 1.16 options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
455     users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
456 swift 1.1 mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
457     </p>
458    
459     <pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
460     Section "InputDevice"
461     Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
462     Driver "mouse"
463     Option "CorePointer"
464 swift 1.11 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
465 swift 1.1 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
466     <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
467     EndSection
468     </pre>
469    
470     <p>
471     Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now
472     (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
473     ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
474     environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :)
475     </p>
476    
477     </body>
478     </section>
479     </chapter>
480     <chapter>
481     <title>Resources</title>
482     <section>
483     <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
484     <body>
485    
486     <p>
487     First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
488     about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
489     terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
490     </p>
491    
492     <p>
493     A second point of resources on your system is the
494     <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s
495     for individual graphical chipsets.
496     </p>
497    
498     <p>
499     There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
500     list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
501     for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
502     configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
503     same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
504     <path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
505     </p>
506    
507     <ul>
508     <li>
509     <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
510     Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
511     </li>
512     <li>
513     <uri
514     link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
515     Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
516     </li>
517     </ul>
518    
519     </body>
520     </section>
521 rane 1.18 <section>
522     <title>Other resources</title>
523     <body>
524    
525     <p>
526     If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer,
527     modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri
528     link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X
529     HOWTO</uri>.
530     </p>
531    
532     <p>
533     More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
534     can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
535     Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
536     </p>
537    
538     </body>
539     </section>
540 swift 1.1 </chapter>
541     </guide>

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