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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.26 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.25 2007/10/18 18:20:10 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 yoswink 1.15 <guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.20 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
14 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
15 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
16     </abstract>
17    
18     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
20 swift 1.1 <license/>
21    
22 nightmorph 1.23 <version>1.17</version>
23     <date>2007-06-20</date>
24 swift 1.1
25     <chapter>
26     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
27     <section>
28     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
29     <body>
30    
31     <p>
32     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
33     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
34     by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
35 swift 1.26 do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
36 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
37     </p>
38    
39     <p>
40     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
41     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
42     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
43     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
44     </p>
45    
46     <p>
47     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
48 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
49 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
50     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
51     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
52     </p>
53    
54     <p>
55 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
56 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
57     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
58 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
59 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
60 swift 1.1 </p>
61    
62     </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>The X.org Project</title>
66     <body>
67    
68     <p>
69     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
70 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
71 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
72 swift 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <p>
75     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
76     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
77     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
78 swift 1.26 one.
79 swift 1.1 </p>
80    
81     </body>
82     </section>
83     </chapter>
84 fox2mike 1.16
85 swift 1.1 <chapter>
86     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
87     <section>
88     <title>Using emerge</title>
89     <body>
90    
91     <p>
92 swift 1.26 Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
93     need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
94 swift 1.1 though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
95     </p>
96    
97 rane 1.18 <p>
98     Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
99     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
100     </p>
101    
102     <p>
103     The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
104     you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
105     The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
106     ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
107     respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
108     rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
109 jkt 1.22 driver means no 3d acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> driver for ATI
110     cards supports full 3D acceleration on older Radeons but doesn't work at all
111     with the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in
112 rane 1.18 this case list of them should be separated with spaces.
113     </p>
114    
115     <p>
116     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
117     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
118     <c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine.
119     </p>
120    
121     <p>
122     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
123     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
124     </p>
125    
126     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
127     <comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
128     INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
129     <comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
130     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
131     <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
132     VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     More instructions on how to configure Nvidia and ATI cards can be found in
137     <uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
138     <uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
139     which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
140     </p>
141    
142     <note>
143     If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
144 nightmorph 1.23 xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
145     your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
146     <c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
147 rane 1.18 </note>
148    
149     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
150 nightmorph 1.23 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
151 rane 1.18
152     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
153    
154     Calculating dependencies... done!
155 nightmorph 1.23 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
156     -dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
157     -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
158     -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
159     -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
160     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
161     -glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
162     (-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
163     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
164     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
165 rane 1.18 </pre>
166    
167     <p>
168     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
169     </p>
170    
171 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
172     # <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
173     </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176 rane 1.18 When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
177 swift 1.1 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
178 rane 1.18 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
179 swift 1.1 </p>
180    
181 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
182 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
183     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
184     </pre>
185    
186     </body>
187     </section>
188     </chapter>
189     <chapter>
190     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
191     <section>
192     <title>The xorg.conf File</title>
193     <body>
194    
195     <p>
196 neysx 1.2 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
197 swift 1.1 resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
198     configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
199     create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
200     of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
201     </p>
202    
203     <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
204     # <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
205     </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
209     with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
210     </p>
211    
212     </body>
213     </section>
214     <section>
215     <title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
216     <body>
217    
218     <p>
219 swift 1.26 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
220     will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
221     running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
222     resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
223     working) Xorg configuration file.
224 swift 1.1 </p>
225    
226     <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
227     # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
228     </pre>
229    
230     <p>
231     Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
232     probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
233     manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
234     will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
235 nightmorph 1.24 for you to test. So let's test. :)
236 swift 1.1 </p>
237    
238     <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
239 swift 1.6 # <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
240 swift 1.1 </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243 nightmorph 1.21 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
244     your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
245     about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
246     the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
247     deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
248     can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
249 swift 1.7 </p>
250    
251 swift 1.1 </body>
252     </section>
253     <section>
254     <title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
255     <body>
256    
257     <p>
258     Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
259     information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
260     your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
261     </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
264     # <i>xorgconfig</i>
265     </pre>
266    
267 swift 1.10 <p>
268     Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
269 fox2mike 1.16 attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
270 swift 1.10 final tweaking.
271     </p>
272    
273     <pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
274     # <i>xorgcfg</i>
275 swift 1.13 <comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
276     # <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
277 swift 1.10 </pre>
278    
279 swift 1.1 </body>
280     </section>
281     <section>
282     <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
283     <body>
284    
285     <p>
286 swift 1.9 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
287     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
288 nightmorph 1.24 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
289 swift 1.1 </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
292     # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
293     </pre>
294    
295 swift 1.9 </body>
296     </section>
297     <section id="using_startx">
298     <title>Using startx</title>
299     <body>
300    
301 swift 1.1 <p>
302 swift 1.9 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
303     that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
304     graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
305     using the following logic:
306 swift 1.1 </p>
307    
308 swift 1.9 <ul>
309     <li>
310     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
311     execute the commands listed there.
312     </li>
313     <li>
314     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
315     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
316     accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
317     to make it a default for all the users on the system).
318     </li>
319 nightmorph 1.24 <li>
320 swift 1.9 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
321     usually <c>twm</c>.
322     </li>
323     </ul>
324    
325 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
326     # <i>startx</i>
327     </pre>
328    
329 swift 1.9 <p>
330     If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
331     <c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
332     upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
333 fox2mike 1.16 combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
334 nightmorph 1.24 might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :)
335 swift 1.9 </p>
336    
337 swift 1.1 </body>
338     </section>
339 swift 1.9 </chapter>
340     <chapter>
341     <title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
342 swift 1.1 <section>
343     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
344     <body>
345    
346     <p>
347     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
348     sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
349 fox2mike 1.16 which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
350 swift 1.1 default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
351     case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
352     second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356     What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
357     <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
358     For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
359     section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
360     look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
361     use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
362     <c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
363     </p>
364    
365     <warn>
366 fox2mike 1.16 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
367 swift 1.1 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
368     incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
369     worst.
370     </warn>
371    
372     <p>
373     Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
374     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
375     <c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
376 fox2mike 1.16 default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
377 swift 1.1 differ from the settings on your system.
378     </p>
379    
380     <pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
381     Section "Screen"
382     Identifier "Default Screen"
383     Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]"
384     Monitor "Generic Monitor"
385     <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
386     <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
387     SubSection "Display"
388     Depth 24
389     <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
390     EndSubSection
391     EndSection
392     </pre>
393    
394     <p>
395 nightmorph 1.24 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
396 swift 1.1 </p>
397    
398     </body>
399     </section>
400     <section>
401     <title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
402     <body>
403    
404     <p>
405     To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
406     section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
407     point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
408     for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
412     Section "InputDevice"
413     Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
414     Driver "keyboard"
415     Option "CoreKeyboard"
416 swift 1.3 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
417 swift 1.1 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
418     <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
419     EndSection
420     </pre>
421    
422     </body>
423     </section>
424     <section>
425     <title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
426     <body>
427    
428     <p>
429     If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
430 neysx 1.12 by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
431 swift 1.11 <path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
432 swift 1.26 use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
433 swift 1.14 case you can check if the devices do represent
434 fox2mike 1.17 your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
435     will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
436     <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
437 swift 1.1 </p>
438    
439     <pre caption="Checking the device files">
440 swift 1.11 # <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
441 swift 1.1 <comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
442     </pre>
443    
444     <p>
445     If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
446     </p>
447    
448     <p>
449 swift 1.26 If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
450 swift 1.1 <e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
451 fox2mike 1.16 options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
452     users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
453 swift 1.1 mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
454     </p>
455    
456     <pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
457     Section "InputDevice"
458     Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
459     Driver "mouse"
460     Option "CorePointer"
461 swift 1.11 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
462 swift 1.1 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
463     <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
464     EndSection
465     </pre>
466    
467     <p>
468 nightmorph 1.25 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now
469 swift 1.1 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
470     ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
471 nightmorph 1.24 environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :)
472 swift 1.1 </p>
473    
474     </body>
475     </section>
476     </chapter>
477     <chapter>
478     <title>Resources</title>
479     <section>
480     <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
481     <body>
482    
483     <p>
484     First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
485     about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
486     terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
487     </p>
488    
489     <p>
490     A second point of resources on your system is the
491 nightmorph 1.25 <path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>s
492 swift 1.1 for individual graphical chipsets.
493     </p>
494    
495     <p>
496     There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
497     list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
498 nightmorph 1.25 for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
499 swift 1.1 configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
500 nightmorph 1.24 same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
501 swift 1.1 <path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
502     </p>
503    
504     <ul>
505     <li>
506     <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
507     Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
508     </li>
509     <li>
510     <uri
511     link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
512     Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
513     </li>
514     </ul>
515    
516     </body>
517     </section>
518 rane 1.18 <section>
519     <title>Other resources</title>
520     <body>
521    
522     <p>
523     If you want to update your system from the old monolithic Xorg to the newer,
524     modular Xorg 7, you should refer to the <uri
525     link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/modular-x-howto.xml">Migrating to Modular X
526     HOWTO</uri>.
527     </p>
528    
529     <p>
530     More information about configuring different packages to work in X environment
531     can be found in the <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop
532     Documentation Resources</uri> section of our documentation.
533     </p>
534    
535     </body>
536     </section>
537 swift 1.1 </chapter>
538     </guide>

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