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Revision 1.29 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Apr 15 06:48:50 2009 UTC (5 years, 5 months ago) by nightmorph
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add the xorg-server 1.5 migration guide to metadoc, in the desktop_install and upgrade categories. bug 265116. also added it to the 'additional resources' section of the xorg install guide, for good measure.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.29 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.28 2009/01/26 08:08:22 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 yoswink 1.15 <guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.20 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.27 <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 nightmorph 1.29 <version>1.20</version>
26     <date>2009-04-14</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37     by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38 swift 1.26 do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91     <body>
92    
93     <p>
94 rane 1.18 Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
95     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
96     </p>
97    
98     <p>
99     The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
100     you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
101     The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
102     ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
103     respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
104     rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
105 nightmorph 1.27 driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
106     <c>radeonhd</c> drivers for ATI cards support 3D acceleration on older Radeons
107     but don't yet support all the features of the newer ones. <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may
108     contain more than one driver, in this case list of them should be separated with
109     spaces.
110 rane 1.18 </p>
111    
112     <p>
113     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
114     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
115 nightmorph 1.27 <c>keyboard mouse</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
116     devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
117     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
118 rane 1.18 </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
122     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
126     <comment>(For mouse and keyboard support)</comment>
127     INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse"
128     <comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
129     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
130     <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
131     VIDEO_CARDS="fglrx"
132     </pre>
133    
134     <p>
135 nightmorph 1.27 More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in
136 rane 1.18 <uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in
137     <uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
138     which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
139     </p>
140    
141     <note>
142     If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
143 nightmorph 1.23 xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
144     your system. The example is for the amd64 architecture and
145     <c>xorg-server-1.2</c>.
146 rane 1.18 </note>
147    
148     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
149 nightmorph 1.23 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
150 rane 1.18
151     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
152    
153     Calculating dependencies... done!
154 nightmorph 1.23 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.2.0-r3 USE="dri nptl xorg (-3dfx) -debug
155     -dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -xprint" INPUT_DEVICES="keyboard mouse -acecad
156     -aiptek -calcomp -citron -digitaledge -dmc -dynapro -elo2300 -elographics -evdev
157     -fpit -hyperpen -jamstudio -joystick -magellan -microtouch -mutouch -palmax
158     -penmount -spaceorb -summa -synaptics -tek4957 -ur98 -vmmouse -void -wacom"
159     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia -apm -ark -chips -cirrus -cyrix -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
160     -glint -i128 (-i740) -i810 (-impact) (-imstt) -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
161     (-nsc) -nv -r128 -radeon -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
162     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
163     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -vga -via -vmware -voodoo" 0 kB
164 rane 1.18 </pre>
165    
166     <p>
167     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
168     </p>
169    
170 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
171     # <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
172     </pre>
173    
174     <p>
175 rane 1.18 When the installation is finished, you might need to re-initialise some
176 swift 1.1 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
177 rane 1.18 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
178 swift 1.1 </p>
179    
180 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
181 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
182     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
183     </pre>
184    
185     </body>
186     </section>
187     </chapter>
188     <chapter>
189     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
190     <section>
191     <title>The xorg.conf File</title>
192     <body>
193    
194     <p>
195 neysx 1.2 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
196 swift 1.1 resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
197     configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
198     create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
199     of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
200     </p>
201    
202     <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
203     # <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
204     </pre>
205    
206     <p>
207     Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
208     with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
209     </p>
210    
211     </body>
212     </section>
213     <section>
214     <title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
215     <body>
216    
217     <p>
218 swift 1.26 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
219     will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
220     running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
221     resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
222     working) Xorg configuration file.
223 swift 1.1 </p>
224    
225     <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
226     # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
227     </pre>
228    
229     <p>
230     Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
231     probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
232     manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
233     will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
234 nightmorph 1.24 for you to test. So let's test. :)
235 swift 1.1 </p>
236    
237     <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
238 swift 1.6 # <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
239 swift 1.1 </pre>
240    
241     <p>
242 nightmorph 1.21 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
243     your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. If you received errors
244     about "/dev/mouse", try changing your mouse device to <c>/dev/input/mice</c> in
245     the "InputDevice" section of <path>xorg.conf</path>. You might not be able to
246     deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You
247     can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
248 swift 1.7 </p>
249    
250 swift 1.1 </body>
251     </section>
252     <section>
253     <title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
254     <body>
255    
256     <p>
257     Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
258     information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
259     your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
260     </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
263     # <i>xorgconfig</i>
264     </pre>
265    
266 swift 1.10 <p>
267     Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
268 fox2mike 1.16 attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
269 swift 1.10 final tweaking.
270     </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
273     # <i>xorgcfg</i>
274 swift 1.13 <comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
275     # <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
276 swift 1.10 </pre>
277    
278 swift 1.1 </body>
279     </section>
280     <section>
281     <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
282     <body>
283    
284     <p>
285 swift 1.9 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
286     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
287 nightmorph 1.24 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
288 swift 1.1 </p>
289    
290     <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
291     # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
292     </pre>
293    
294 swift 1.9 </body>
295     </section>
296     <section id="using_startx">
297     <title>Using startx</title>
298     <body>
299    
300 swift 1.1 <p>
301 swift 1.9 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
302     that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
303     graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
304     using the following logic:
305 swift 1.1 </p>
306    
307 swift 1.9 <ul>
308     <li>
309     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
310     execute the commands listed there.
311     </li>
312     <li>
313     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
314     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
315     accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
316     to make it a default for all the users on the system).
317     </li>
318 nightmorph 1.24 <li>
319 swift 1.9 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
320     usually <c>twm</c>.
321     </li>
322     </ul>
323    
324 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
325     # <i>startx</i>
326     </pre>
327    
328 swift 1.9 <p>
329     If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
330     <c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
331     upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
332 fox2mike 1.16 combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
333 nightmorph 1.24 might not always want. It doesn't hurt though. :)
334 swift 1.9 </p>
335    
336 swift 1.1 </body>
337     </section>
338 swift 1.9 </chapter>
339     <chapter>
340     <title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
341 swift 1.1 <section>
342     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
343     <body>
344    
345     <p>
346     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
347     sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
348 fox2mike 1.16 which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
349 swift 1.1 default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
350     case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
351     second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
356     <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
357     For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
358     section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
359     look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
360     use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
361     <c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
362     </p>
363    
364     <warn>
365 fox2mike 1.16 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
366 swift 1.1 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
367     incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
368     worst.
369     </warn>
370    
371     <p>
372     Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
373     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
374     <c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
375 fox2mike 1.16 default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
376 swift 1.1 differ from the settings on your system.
377     </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
380     Section "Screen"
381     Identifier "Default Screen"
382     Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]"
383     Monitor "Generic Monitor"
384     <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
385     <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
386     SubSection "Display"
387     Depth 24
388     <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
389     EndSubSection
390     EndSection
391     </pre>
392    
393     <p>
394 nightmorph 1.24 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
395 swift 1.1 </p>
396    
397     </body>
398     </section>
399     <section>
400     <title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
401     <body>
402    
403     <p>
404     To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
405     section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
406     point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
407     for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
411     Section "InputDevice"
412     Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
413     Driver "keyboard"
414     Option "CoreKeyboard"
415 swift 1.3 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
416 swift 1.1 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
417     <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
418     EndSection
419     </pre>
420    
421     </body>
422     </section>
423     <section>
424     <title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
425     <body>
426    
427     <p>
428     If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
429 neysx 1.12 by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
430 swift 1.11 <path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
431 swift 1.26 use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
432 swift 1.14 case you can check if the devices do represent
433 fox2mike 1.17 your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
434     will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
435     <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
436 swift 1.1 </p>
437    
438     <pre caption="Checking the device files">
439 swift 1.11 # <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
440 swift 1.1 <comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
441     </pre>
442    
443     <p>
444     If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
445     </p>
446    
447     <p>
448 swift 1.26 If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
449 swift 1.1 <e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
450 fox2mike 1.16 options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
451     users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
452 swift 1.1 mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
453     </p>
454    
455     <pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
456     Section "InputDevice"
457     Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
458     Driver "mouse"
459     Option "CorePointer"
460 swift 1.11 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
461 swift 1.1 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
462     <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
463     EndSection
464     </pre>
465    
466     <p>
467 nightmorph 1.25 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. :) Congratulations, you now
468 swift 1.1 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this
469     ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop
470 nightmorph 1.24 environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide. :)
471 swift 1.1 </p>
472    
473     </body>
474     </section>
475     </chapter>
476     <chapter>
477     <title>Resources</title>
478     <section>
479     <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
480     <body>
481    
482     <p>
483 nightmorph 1.27 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
484     about the syntax used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
485 swift 1.1 terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
486     </p>
487    
488     <p>
489 nightmorph 1.27 Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
490     to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
491     <path>xorg.conf</path>.
492     </p>
493    
494     <p>
495     You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
496     on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
497 swift 1.1 </p>
498    
499     <p>
500     There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
501     list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
502 nightmorph 1.25 for more. :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
503 swift 1.1 configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
504 nightmorph 1.24 same syntax for most configuration options and more information about
505 swift 1.1 <path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
506     </p>
507    
508     <ul>
509     <li>
510     <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
511     Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
512     </li>
513     <li>
514     <uri
515     link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
516     Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
517     </li>
518     </ul>
519    
520     </body>
521     </section>
522 rane 1.18 <section>
523     <title>Other resources</title>
524     <body>
525    
526     <p>
527 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
528     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
529     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
530     section of our documentation.
531 rane 1.18 </p>
532    
533 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
534     If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.5 from an earlier version, then be sure to
535     read the <uri
536     link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.5-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
537     guide</uri>.
538     </p>
539    
540 rane 1.18 </body>
541     </section>
542 swift 1.1 </chapter>
543     </guide>

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