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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.39 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.38 2010/05/23 21:29:35 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 nightmorph 1.39 <version>1.29</version>
26 nightmorph 1.38 <date>2010-05-23</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37     by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38 swift 1.26 do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Kernel configuration</title>
92 swift 1.1 <body>
93    
94     <p>
95 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97     configuration. (Read the
98     <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you
99     don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100     </p>
101    
102     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103     Device Drivers ---&gt;
104     Input device support ---&gt;
105     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
106     </pre>
107    
108     </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111     <title>make.conf configuration</title>
112     <body>
113    
114     <p>
115     Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the
116 rane 1.18 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
117     </p>
118    
119     <p>
120 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
121     that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you
122     have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or
123     <c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia
124     and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver,
125     use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that
126     using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
127     <c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the
128     equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be
129     used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets.
130     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them
131     should be separated with spaces.
132 rane 1.18 </p>
133    
134     <p>
135     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
136     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
137 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
138 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
139     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
140 rane 1.18 </p>
141    
142     <p>
143     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
144     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
145     </p>
146    
147     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
148 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
149     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
150 rane 1.18 <comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
151     VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
152     <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
153 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
154 rane 1.18 </pre>
155    
156 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
157     More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
158     <uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
159 rane 1.18 <uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
160     which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
161 nightmorph 1.32 </note>
162 rane 1.18
163 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
164 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
165 nightmorph 1.23 xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
166 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
167     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
168     </p>
169 rane 1.18
170     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
171 nightmorph 1.23 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
172 rane 1.18
173     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
174    
175     Calculating dependencies... done!
176 nightmorph 1.32 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
177     -dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
178     [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
179     -acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse
180     -mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
181     VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
182     (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic
183     (-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
184     -siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
185     (-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via
186     -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
187 rane 1.18 </pre>
188    
189     <p>
190     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
191     </p>
192    
193 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
194 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
195 swift 1.1 </pre>
196    
197 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
198     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
199 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
200     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
201     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
202     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
203 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
204    
205 swift 1.1 <p>
206 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
207 swift 1.1 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
208 rane 1.18 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
209 swift 1.1 </p>
210    
211 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
212 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
213     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
214     </pre>
215    
216 nightmorph 1.35 <p>
217     Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
218     automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
219     environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
220     just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
221     link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
222     </p>
223    
224     <pre caption="Starting HAL">
225     # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
226     # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
227     </pre>
228    
229 swift 1.1 </body>
230     </section>
231     </chapter>
232 nightmorph 1.32
233 swift 1.1 <chapter>
234     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
235 nightmorph 1.35 <section id="using_hal">
236 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Using HAL</title>
237     <body>
238    
239     <p>
240     Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
241 nightmorph 1.35 manually edit Xorg's configuration files.
242 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
243    
244     <p>
245     You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
246     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
247     </p>
248    
249     <p>
250     If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
251     keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
252     configuration files.
253     </p>
254    
255     <p>
256     By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
257     devices such as keyboards and mice.
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261     HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
262     files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
263     that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
264     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
265     </p>
266    
267     <impo>
268     Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
269     you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
270     location.
271     </impo>
272    
273     <p>
274     For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
275     the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
276     </p>
277    
278     <pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
279     # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
280     # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
281     </pre>
282    
283     <p>
284     There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
285     may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
286     management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
287     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
288     </p>
289    
290 nightmorph 1.35 <impo>
291     Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
292     need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
293     </impo>
294    
295 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
296     You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
297     liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
298     functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
299     </p>
300    
301     <p>
302     One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
303     Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
304     etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
305     </p>
306    
307     <p>
308     Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
309     can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
310     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
311     line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
312     </p>
313    
314     <pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
315     <comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
316     # <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
317     <comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
318     &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
319     <comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
320     &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
321     &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
322 nightmorph 1.33 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
323 nightmorph 1.32 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
324     string="Linux"&gt;
325     &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
326     &lt;/match&gt;
327     &lt;/match&gt;
328     </pre>
329    
330     <p>
331 nightmorph 1.35 Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
332     changes.
333     </p>
334    
335     <p>
336 nightmorph 1.32 There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
337     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
338     tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
339     key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
340     way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
341     </p>
342    
343     <p>
344     Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
345     If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
346     manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
347     </p>
348    
349     </body>
350     </section>
351     <section>
352     <title>The xorg.conf file</title>
353 swift 1.1 <body>
354    
355 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
356     Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
357     really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
358     configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
359     configuration, then read on.
360     </note>
361    
362 swift 1.1 <p>
363 nightmorph 1.30 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
364     in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
365     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
366     configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
367     documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
368 swift 1.1 </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
371 nightmorph 1.32 $ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
372 swift 1.1 </pre>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376     <section>
377 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
378 swift 1.1 <body>
379    
380     <p>
381 swift 1.26 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
382     will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
383     running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
384     resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
385     working) Xorg configuration file.
386 swift 1.1 </p>
387    
388     <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
389     # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
390     </pre>
391    
392     <p>
393     Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
394     probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
395     manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
396     will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
397 nightmorph 1.24 for you to test. So let's test. :)
398 swift 1.1 </p>
399    
400     <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
401 nightmorph 1.39 # <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
402 swift 1.1 </pre>
403    
404     <p>
405 nightmorph 1.21 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
406 nightmorph 1.32 your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
407     to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
408     You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
409 swift 1.10 </p>
410    
411 swift 1.1 </body>
412     </section>
413     <section>
414     <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418 swift 1.9 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
419     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
420 nightmorph 1.32 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
421 swift 1.1 </p>
422    
423     <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
424     # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
425     </pre>
426    
427 swift 1.9 </body>
428     </section>
429     <section id="using_startx">
430     <title>Using startx</title>
431     <body>
432    
433 swift 1.1 <p>
434 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
435 swift 1.9 that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
436 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
437 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
438 swift 1.1 </p>
439    
440 swift 1.9 <ul>
441     <li>
442     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
443     execute the commands listed there.
444     </li>
445     <li>
446     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
447     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
448 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
449     <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on
450     the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
451     /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
452     and set the default X session to Xfce4.
453 swift 1.9 </li>
454     </ul>
455    
456 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
457 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
458 swift 1.1 </pre>
459    
460 swift 1.9 <p>
461 nightmorph 1.37 You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This
462     will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
463     want.
464     </p>
465    
466     <p>
467     If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
468     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
469     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
470     </p>
471    
472     <p>
473     Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
474     windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
475     Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
476     root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
477     proper desktop environment.
478 swift 1.9 </p>
479    
480 swift 1.1 </body>
481     </section>
482 swift 1.9 </chapter>
483 nightmorph 1.32
484 swift 1.9 <chapter>
485 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
486 swift 1.1 <section>
487     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
488     <body>
489    
490     <p>
491     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
492 nightmorph 1.32 sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
493     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
494     will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
495     this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
496     the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
497 swift 1.1 </p>
498    
499     <p>
500     What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
501     <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
502     For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
503     section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
504 nightmorph 1.32 look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
505 swift 1.1 </p>
506    
507     <warn>
508 fox2mike 1.16 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
509 swift 1.1 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
510     incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
511     worst.
512     </warn>
513    
514     <p>
515     Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
516     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
517 nightmorph 1.32 <c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by
518 fox2mike 1.16 default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
519 swift 1.1 differ from the settings on your system.
520     </p>
521    
522     <pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
523     Section "Screen"
524     Identifier "Default Screen"
525 nightmorph 1.32 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
526 swift 1.1 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
527     <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
528     <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
529     SubSection "Display"
530     Depth 24
531 nightmorph 1.32 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
532 swift 1.1 EndSubSection
533     EndSection
534     </pre>
535    
536     <p>
537 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
538 swift 1.1 </p>
539    
540     </body>
541     </section>
542     <section>
543 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
544 swift 1.1 <body>
545    
546     <p>
547 nightmorph 1.32 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
548     <path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
549     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
550 swift 1.1 </p>
551    
552 nightmorph 1.32 <pre caption="Using an existing config file">
553 nightmorph 1.38 # <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
554 swift 1.1 </pre>
555    
556     <p>
557 nightmorph 1.32 Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
558     Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
559     (<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
560 swift 1.1 </p>
561    
562     <p>
563 nightmorph 1.32 When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
564     that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
565 swift 1.1 </p>
566    
567 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
568     </section>
569     <section>
570     <title>Finishing up</title>
571     <body>
572 swift 1.1
573     <p>
574 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
575 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
576     useful window manager (or even a desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but
577     that's not part of this guide.
578 swift 1.1 </p>
579    
580     </body>
581     </section>
582     </chapter>
583 nightmorph 1.32
584 swift 1.1 <chapter>
585     <title>Resources</title>
586     <section>
587     <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
588     <body>
589    
590     <p>
591 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
592     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
593     to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
594     files!
595 swift 1.1 </p>
596    
597     <p>
598 nightmorph 1.27 Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
599     to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
600     <path>xorg.conf</path>.
601     </p>
602    
603     <p>
604     You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
605     on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
606 swift 1.1 </p>
607    
608     <p>
609     There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
610     list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
611 nightmorph 1.32 for more.
612 swift 1.1 </p>
613    
614     </body>
615     </section>
616 rane 1.18 <section>
617     <title>Other resources</title>
618     <body>
619    
620     <p>
621 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
622     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
623     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
624     section of our documentation.
625 rane 1.18 </p>
626    
627 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
628 nightmorph 1.32 If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to
629 nightmorph 1.29 read the <uri
630 nightmorph 1.32 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
631 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
632     </p>
633    
634 rane 1.18 </body>
635     </section>
636 swift 1.1 </chapter>
637     </guide>

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