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Sun Aug 29 03:39:55 2010 UTC (3 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
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rewrite X guide for KMS, open-source drivers, and whatnot. inspired by bug 328001.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.40 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.39 2010/05/23 21:31:50 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 nightmorph 1.40 <version>2</version>
26     <date>2010-08-28</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 nightmorph 1.40 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38     do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.40 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94     Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95     we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96     prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97     are built and installed.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101     </section>
102     <section>
103     <title>Input driver support</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 nightmorph 1.40 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110     Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114     Device Drivers ---&gt;
115     Input device support ---&gt;
116     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117     </pre>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122 nightmorph 1.40 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127     an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128     built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129     other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130     <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135     Xorg video driver you're using.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139     Device Drivers ---&gt;
140     Graphics support ---&gt;
141     Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142     <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143    
144     <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145     Console display driver support ---&gt;
146     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151     Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152     your card below.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     For Intel cards:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Intel settings">
160     Device Drivers ---&gt;
161     Graphics support ---&gt;
162     /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163     &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164     Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165     &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166     i915 driver
167     [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     For nVidia cards:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175     <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179    
180     <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181     Device Drivers ---&gt;
182     Staging drivers ---&gt;
183     [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184     &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189     up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190     <c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="ATI settings">
194     <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195     Device Drivers ---&gt;
196     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197     [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198     <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199     (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200     <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201     (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202     radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203     radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204     radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205     radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206     (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
207    
208     <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
209     Device Drivers ---&gt;
210     Graphics support ---&gt;
211     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
212     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
213     [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
214     </pre>
215    
216     <note>
217     Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
218     package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
219     and ATI Radeon modesetting.
220     </note>
221    
222     <p>
223     Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
224     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
225     </p>
226    
227     </body>
228     </section>
229     <section>
230 nightmorph 1.32 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
231     <body>
232    
233     <p>
234 nightmorph 1.40 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
235     in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
236 rane 1.18 </p>
237    
238     <p>
239 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
240 nightmorph 1.40 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
241     The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
242     for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
243     drivers.
244 rane 1.18 </p>
245    
246 nightmorph 1.40 <note>
247     You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and
248     <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
249     beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
250     link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
251     link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
252     drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
253     </note>
254    
255     <p>
256     The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
257     integrated graphics chipsets.
258     </p>
259    
260     <note>
261     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
262     space.
263     </note>
264    
265 rane 1.18 <p>
266     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
267     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
268 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
269 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
270     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
271 rane 1.18 </p>
272    
273     <p>
274     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
275     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
276     </p>
277    
278     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
279 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
280     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
281 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
282     VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
283 rane 1.18 <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
284 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
285 rane 1.18 </pre>
286    
287 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
288 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
289 nightmorph 1.40 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
290 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
291     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
292     </p>
293 rane 1.18
294     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
295 nightmorph 1.40 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
296 rane 1.18
297     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
298    
299     Calculating dependencies... done!
300 nightmorph 1.40 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.8 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
301     -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
302     -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
303 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
304 nightmorph 1.40 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
305     -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
306 nightmorph 1.32 -siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
307 nightmorph 1.40 (-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox
308     -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
309 rane 1.18 </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
313     </p>
314    
315 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
316 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
317 swift 1.1 </pre>
318    
319 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
320     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
321 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
322     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
323     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
324     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
325 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
326    
327 swift 1.1 <p>
328 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
329 swift 1.1 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
330 rane 1.18 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
331 swift 1.1 </p>
332    
333 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
334 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
335     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
336     </pre>
337    
338 nightmorph 1.35 <p>
339     Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
340     automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
341     environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
342     just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
343     link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Starting HAL">
347     # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
348     # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
349     </pre>
350    
351 swift 1.1 </body>
352     </section>
353     </chapter>
354 nightmorph 1.32
355 swift 1.1 <chapter>
356     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
357 nightmorph 1.35 <section id="using_hal">
358 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Using HAL</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362 nightmorph 1.40 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
363     Xorg's configuration files.
364 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
365    
366     <p>
367     You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
368     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
369     </p>
370    
371     <p>
372     If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
373     keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
374     configuration files.
375     </p>
376    
377     <p>
378     By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
379     devices such as keyboards and mice.
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383     HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
384     files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
385     that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
386     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
387     </p>
388    
389     <impo>
390     Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
391     you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
392     location.
393     </impo>
394    
395     <p>
396     For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
397     the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
398     </p>
399    
400     <pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
401     # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
402     # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
403     </pre>
404    
405     <p>
406     There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
407     may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
408     management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
409     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
410     </p>
411    
412 nightmorph 1.35 <impo>
413     Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
414     need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
415     </impo>
416    
417 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
418     You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
419     liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
420     functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
421     </p>
422    
423     <p>
424     One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
425     Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
426     etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
427     </p>
428    
429     <p>
430     Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
431     can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
432     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
433     line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
437     <comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
438     # <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
439     <comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
440     &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
441     <comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
442     &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
443     &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
444 nightmorph 1.33 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
445 nightmorph 1.32 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
446     string="Linux"&gt;
447     &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
448     &lt;/match&gt;
449     &lt;/match&gt;
450     </pre>
451    
452     <p>
453 nightmorph 1.35 Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
454     changes.
455     </p>
456    
457     <p>
458 nightmorph 1.32 There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
459     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
460     tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
461     key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
462     way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
463     </p>
464    
465     <p>
466     Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
467     If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
468     manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
469     </p>
470    
471     </body>
472     </section>
473     <section>
474     <title>The xorg.conf file</title>
475 swift 1.1 <body>
476    
477 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
478     Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
479     really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
480     configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
481     configuration, then read on.
482     </note>
483    
484 swift 1.1 <p>
485 nightmorph 1.30 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
486     in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
487     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
488     configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
489     documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
490 swift 1.1 </p>
491    
492     <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
493 nightmorph 1.32 $ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
494 swift 1.1 </pre>
495    
496     </body>
497     </section>
498     <section>
499 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
500 swift 1.1 <body>
501    
502     <p>
503 swift 1.26 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
504     will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
505     running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
506     resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
507     working) Xorg configuration file.
508 swift 1.1 </p>
509    
510     <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
511     # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
512     </pre>
513    
514     <p>
515     Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
516     probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
517     manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
518     will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
519 nightmorph 1.24 for you to test. So let's test. :)
520 swift 1.1 </p>
521    
522     <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
523 nightmorph 1.39 # <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
524 swift 1.1 </pre>
525    
526     <p>
527 nightmorph 1.21 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
528 nightmorph 1.32 your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
529     to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
530     You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
531 swift 1.10 </p>
532    
533 swift 1.1 </body>
534     </section>
535     <section>
536     <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
537     <body>
538    
539     <p>
540 swift 1.9 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
541     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
542 nightmorph 1.32 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
543 swift 1.1 </p>
544    
545     <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
546     # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
547     </pre>
548    
549 swift 1.9 </body>
550     </section>
551     <section id="using_startx">
552     <title>Using startx</title>
553     <body>
554    
555 swift 1.1 <p>
556 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
557 nightmorph 1.40 that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some
558 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
559 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
560 swift 1.1 </p>
561    
562 swift 1.9 <ul>
563     <li>
564     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
565     execute the commands listed there.
566     </li>
567     <li>
568     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
569     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
570 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
571 nightmorph 1.40 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
572     on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
573 nightmorph 1.31 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
574 nightmorph 1.40 and set the default X session to <uri
575     link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>.
576 swift 1.9 </li>
577     </ul>
578    
579 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
580 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
581 swift 1.1 </pre>
582    
583 swift 1.9 <p>
584 nightmorph 1.40 You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
585 nightmorph 1.37 will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
586     want.
587     </p>
588    
589     <p>
590     If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
591     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
592     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
593     </p>
594    
595     <p>
596     Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
597     windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
598     Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
599     root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
600     proper desktop environment.
601 swift 1.9 </p>
602    
603 swift 1.1 </body>
604     </section>
605 swift 1.9 </chapter>
606 nightmorph 1.32
607 swift 1.9 <chapter>
608 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
609 swift 1.1 <section>
610     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
611     <body>
612    
613     <p>
614     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
615 nightmorph 1.32 sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
616     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
617     will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
618     this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
619     the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
620 swift 1.1 </p>
621    
622     <p>
623     What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
624     <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
625     For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
626     section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
627 nightmorph 1.32 look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
628 swift 1.1 </p>
629    
630     <warn>
631 fox2mike 1.16 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
632 swift 1.1 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
633     incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
634     worst.
635     </warn>
636    
637     <p>
638 nightmorph 1.40 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
639     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our
640     X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are
641     examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
642     the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
643     monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
644     need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
645     argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
646     <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
647     </p>
648    
649     <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
650     Section "Device"
651     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
652     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
653     EndSection
654     Section "Monitor"
655     Identifier "DVI screen"
656     Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
657 swift 1.1 EndSection
658     </pre>
659    
660     <p>
661 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
662 swift 1.1 </p>
663    
664     </body>
665     </section>
666     <section>
667 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
668 swift 1.1 <body>
669    
670     <p>
671 nightmorph 1.32 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
672     <path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
673     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
674 swift 1.1 </p>
675    
676 nightmorph 1.32 <pre caption="Using an existing config file">
677 nightmorph 1.38 # <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
678 swift 1.1 </pre>
679    
680     <p>
681 nightmorph 1.32 Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
682     Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
683     (<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
684 swift 1.1 </p>
685    
686     <p>
687 nightmorph 1.32 When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
688     that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
689 swift 1.1 </p>
690    
691 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
692     </section>
693     <section>
694     <title>Finishing up</title>
695     <body>
696 swift 1.1
697     <p>
698 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
699 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
700 nightmorph 1.40 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or
701     Xfce, but that's not part of this guide.
702 swift 1.1 </p>
703    
704     </body>
705     </section>
706     </chapter>
707 nightmorph 1.32
708 swift 1.1 <chapter>
709     <title>Resources</title>
710     <section>
711     <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
712     <body>
713    
714     <p>
715 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
716     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
717     to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
718     files!
719 swift 1.1 </p>
720    
721     <p>
722 nightmorph 1.27 Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
723     to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
724     <path>xorg.conf</path>.
725     </p>
726    
727     <p>
728     You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
729     on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
730 swift 1.1 </p>
731    
732     <p>
733     There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
734     list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
735 nightmorph 1.32 for more.
736 swift 1.1 </p>
737    
738     </body>
739     </section>
740 rane 1.18 <section>
741     <title>Other resources</title>
742     <body>
743    
744     <p>
745 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
746     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
747     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
748     section of our documentation.
749 rane 1.18 </p>
750    
751 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
752 nightmorph 1.40 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be
753     sure to read the <uri
754     link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
755 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
756     </p>
757    
758 rane 1.18 </body>
759     </section>
760 swift 1.1 </chapter>
761     </guide>

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