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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.44 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.43 2011/03/02 07:17:38 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 nightmorph 1.44 <version>6</version>
26     <date>2011-03-02</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 nightmorph 1.40 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38     do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.40 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94     Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95     we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96     prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97     are built and installed.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101     </section>
102     <section>
103     <title>Input driver support</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 nightmorph 1.40 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110     Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114     Device Drivers ---&gt;
115     Input device support ---&gt;
116     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117     </pre>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122 nightmorph 1.40 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127     an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128     built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129     other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130     <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135     Xorg video driver you're using.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139     Device Drivers ---&gt;
140     Graphics support ---&gt;
141     Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142     <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143    
144     <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145     Console display driver support ---&gt;
146     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151     Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152     your card below.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     For Intel cards:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Intel settings">
160     Device Drivers ---&gt;
161     Graphics support ---&gt;
162     /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163     &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164     Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165     &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166     i915 driver
167     [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     For nVidia cards:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175     <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179    
180     <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181     Device Drivers ---&gt;
182     Staging drivers ---&gt;
183     [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184     &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189     up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190     <c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191     </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="ATI settings">
194     <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195     Device Drivers ---&gt;
196     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197     [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198     <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199     (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200     <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201     (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202     radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203     radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204     radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205     radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 nightmorph 1.43 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
207     (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
208     firmware blobs
209     <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
210     (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
211     radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
212     radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin radeon/TURKS_me.bin
213     radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
214 nightmorph 1.40 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
215    
216     <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
217     Device Drivers ---&gt;
218     Graphics support ---&gt;
219     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
220     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
221     [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
222     </pre>
223    
224     <note>
225     Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
226     package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
227     and ATI Radeon modesetting.
228     </note>
229    
230     <p>
231     Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
232     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
233     </p>
234    
235     </body>
236     </section>
237     <section>
238 nightmorph 1.32 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242 nightmorph 1.40 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
243     in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
244 rane 1.18 </p>
245    
246     <p>
247 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
248 nightmorph 1.40 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
249     The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
250     for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
251     drivers.
252 rane 1.18 </p>
253    
254 nightmorph 1.40 <note>
255     You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and
256     <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
257     beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
258     link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
259     link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
260     drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
261     </note>
262    
263     <p>
264     The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
265     integrated graphics chipsets.
266     </p>
267    
268     <note>
269     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
270     space.
271     </note>
272    
273 rane 1.18 <p>
274     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
275     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
276 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
277 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
278     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
279 rane 1.18 </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
283     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
284     </p>
285    
286     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
287 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
288     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
289 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
290     VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
291 rane 1.18 <comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
292 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
293 rane 1.18 </pre>
294    
295 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
296 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
297 nightmorph 1.40 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
298 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
299     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
300     </p>
301 rane 1.18
302     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
303 nightmorph 1.40 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
304 rane 1.18
305     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
306    
307     Calculating dependencies... done!
308 nightmorph 1.42 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
309 nightmorph 1.40 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
310     -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
311 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
312 nightmorph 1.40 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
313 nightmorph 1.42 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
314     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
315     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
316     0 kB
317 rane 1.18 </pre>
318    
319     <p>
320     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
321     </p>
322    
323 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
324 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
325 swift 1.1 </pre>
326    
327 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
328     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
329 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
330     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
331     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
332     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
333 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
334    
335 swift 1.1 <p>
336 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
337 swift 1.1 environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
338 rane 1.18 by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
339 swift 1.1 </p>
340    
341 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
342 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
343     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
344     </pre>
345    
346 nightmorph 1.35 <p>
347     Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
348     automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
349     environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
350     just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
351     link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
352     </p>
353    
354     <pre caption="Starting HAL">
355     # <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
356     # <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
357     </pre>
358    
359 swift 1.1 </body>
360     </section>
361     </chapter>
362 nightmorph 1.32
363 swift 1.1 <chapter>
364     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
365 nightmorph 1.35 <section id="using_hal">
366 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Using HAL</title>
367     <body>
368    
369     <p>
370 nightmorph 1.40 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
371     Xorg's configuration files.
372 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
373    
374     <p>
375     You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
376     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
377     </p>
378    
379     <p>
380     If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
381     keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
382     configuration files.
383     </p>
384    
385     <p>
386     By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
387     devices such as keyboards and mice.
388     </p>
389    
390     <p>
391     HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
392     files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
393     that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
394     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
395     </p>
396    
397     <impo>
398     Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
399     you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
400     location.
401     </impo>
402    
403     <p>
404     For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
405     the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
406     </p>
407    
408     <pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
409     # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
410     # <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
411     </pre>
412    
413     <p>
414     There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
415     may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
416     management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
417     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
418     </p>
419    
420 nightmorph 1.35 <impo>
421     Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
422     need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
423     </impo>
424    
425 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
426     You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
427     liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
428     functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
429     </p>
430    
431     <p>
432     One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
433     Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
434     etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
435     </p>
436    
437     <p>
438     Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
439     can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
440     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
441     line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
442     </p>
443    
444     <pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
445     <comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
446     # <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
447     <comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
448     &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
449     <comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
450     &lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
451     &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
452 nightmorph 1.33 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
453 nightmorph 1.32 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
454     string="Linux"&gt;
455     &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
456     &lt;/match&gt;
457     &lt;/match&gt;
458     </pre>
459    
460     <p>
461 nightmorph 1.35 Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
462     changes.
463     </p>
464    
465     <p>
466 nightmorph 1.32 There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
467     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
468     tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
469     key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
470     way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
471     </p>
472    
473     <p>
474     Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
475     If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
476     manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
477     </p>
478    
479     </body>
480     </section>
481     <section>
482     <title>The xorg.conf file</title>
483 swift 1.1 <body>
484    
485 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
486     Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
487     really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
488     configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
489     configuration, then read on.
490     </note>
491    
492 swift 1.1 <p>
493 nightmorph 1.30 The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
494     in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
495     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
496     configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
497     documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
498 swift 1.1 </p>
499    
500     <pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
501 nightmorph 1.32 $ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
502 swift 1.1 </pre>
503    
504     </body>
505     </section>
506     <section>
507 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
508 swift 1.1 <body>
509    
510     <p>
511 swift 1.26 Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
512     will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
513     running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
514     resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
515     working) Xorg configuration file.
516 swift 1.1 </p>
517    
518     <pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
519     # <i>Xorg -configure</i>
520     </pre>
521    
522     <p>
523     Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
524     probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
525     manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
526     will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
527 nightmorph 1.24 for you to test. So let's test. :)
528 swift 1.1 </p>
529    
530     <pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
531 nightmorph 1.39 # <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
532 swift 1.1 </pre>
533    
534     <p>
535 nightmorph 1.21 If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
536 nightmorph 1.32 your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
537     to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
538     You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
539 swift 1.10 </p>
540    
541 swift 1.1 </body>
542     </section>
543     <section>
544     <title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
545     <body>
546    
547     <p>
548 swift 1.9 Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
549     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
550 nightmorph 1.32 <c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
551 swift 1.1 </p>
552    
553     <pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
554     # <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
555     </pre>
556    
557 swift 1.9 </body>
558     </section>
559     <section id="using_startx">
560     <title>Using startx</title>
561     <body>
562    
563 swift 1.1 <p>
564 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
565 nightmorph 1.40 that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some
566 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
567 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
568 swift 1.1 </p>
569    
570 swift 1.9 <ul>
571     <li>
572     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
573     execute the commands listed there.
574     </li>
575     <li>
576     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
577     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
578 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
579 nightmorph 1.40 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
580     on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
581 nightmorph 1.31 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
582 nightmorph 1.40 and set the default X session to <uri
583 nightmorph 1.44 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
584     after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
585 swift 1.9 </li>
586     </ul>
587    
588 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
589 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
590 swift 1.1 </pre>
591    
592 swift 1.9 <p>
593 nightmorph 1.40 You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
594 nightmorph 1.37 will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
595     want.
596     </p>
597    
598     <p>
599     If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
600     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
601     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
602     </p>
603    
604     <p>
605     Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
606     windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
607     Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
608     root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
609     proper desktop environment.
610 swift 1.9 </p>
611    
612 swift 1.1 </body>
613     </section>
614 swift 1.9 </chapter>
615 nightmorph 1.32
616 swift 1.9 <chapter>
617 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
618 swift 1.1 <section>
619     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
620     <body>
621    
622     <p>
623     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
624 nightmorph 1.32 sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
625     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
626     will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
627     this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
628     the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
629 swift 1.1 </p>
630    
631     <p>
632     What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
633     <c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
634     For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
635     section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
636 nightmorph 1.32 look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
637 swift 1.1 </p>
638    
639     <warn>
640 fox2mike 1.16 Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
641 swift 1.1 without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
642     incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
643     worst.
644     </warn>
645    
646     <p>
647 nightmorph 1.40 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
648     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our
649     X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are
650     examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
651     the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
652     monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
653     need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
654     argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
655     <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
656     </p>
657    
658     <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
659     Section "Device"
660     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
661     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
662     EndSection
663     Section "Monitor"
664     Identifier "DVI screen"
665     Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
666 swift 1.1 EndSection
667     </pre>
668    
669     <p>
670 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
671 swift 1.1 </p>
672    
673     </body>
674     </section>
675     <section>
676 nightmorph 1.41 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
677     <body>
678    
679     <p>
680     You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. All
681     you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
682     position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
683     shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
684     right-hand screen:
685     </p>
686    
687     <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors in xorg.conf">
688     Section "Device"
689     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
690     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
691     Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
692     EndSection
693    
694     Section "Monitor"
695     Identifier "DVI screen"
696     EndSection
697    
698     Section "Monitor"
699     Identifier "VGA screen"
700     Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
701     EndSection
702     </pre>
703    
704     </body>
705     </section>
706     <section>
707 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
708 swift 1.1 <body>
709    
710     <p>
711 nightmorph 1.32 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
712     <path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
713     <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
714 swift 1.1 </p>
715    
716 nightmorph 1.32 <pre caption="Using an existing config file">
717 nightmorph 1.38 # <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
718 swift 1.1 </pre>
719    
720     <p>
721 nightmorph 1.32 Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
722     Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
723     (<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
724 swift 1.1 </p>
725    
726     <p>
727 nightmorph 1.32 When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
728     that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
729 swift 1.1 </p>
730    
731 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
732     </section>
733     <section>
734     <title>Finishing up</title>
735     <body>
736 swift 1.1
737     <p>
738 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
739 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
740 nightmorph 1.40 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or
741     Xfce, but that's not part of this guide.
742 swift 1.1 </p>
743    
744     </body>
745     </section>
746     </chapter>
747 nightmorph 1.32
748 swift 1.1 <chapter>
749     <title>Resources</title>
750     <section>
751     <title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
756     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
757     to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
758     files!
759 swift 1.1 </p>
760    
761     <p>
762 nightmorph 1.27 Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
763     to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
764     <path>xorg.conf</path>.
765     </p>
766    
767     <p>
768     You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
769     on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
770 swift 1.1 </p>
771    
772     <p>
773     There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
774     list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
775 nightmorph 1.32 for more.
776 swift 1.1 </p>
777    
778     </body>
779     </section>
780 rane 1.18 <section>
781     <title>Other resources</title>
782     <body>
783    
784     <p>
785 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
786     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
787     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
788     section of our documentation.
789 rane 1.18 </p>
790    
791 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
792 nightmorph 1.40 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be
793     sure to read the <uri
794     link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
795 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
796     </p>
797    
798 rane 1.18 </body>
799     </section>
800 swift 1.1 </chapter>
801     </guide>

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