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Wed Mar 23 09:03:51 2011 UTC (3 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
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update Xorg guide for the HAL removal. this took many hours, spread out over many weeks. there may still be a few things to add, but this will do as a working basic installation/walkthrough. bug 349698.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.45 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.44 2011/03/02 08:16:43 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 nightmorph 1.45 <version>7</version>
26     <date>2011-03-23</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 nightmorph 1.40 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38     do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.40 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94     Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95     we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96     prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97     are built and installed.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101     </section>
102     <section>
103     <title>Input driver support</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 nightmorph 1.40 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110     Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114     Device Drivers ---&gt;
115     Input device support ---&gt;
116     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117     </pre>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122 nightmorph 1.40 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127     an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128     built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129     other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130     <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135     Xorg video driver you're using.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139     Device Drivers ---&gt;
140     Graphics support ---&gt;
141     Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142     <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143    
144     <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145     Console display driver support ---&gt;
146     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 nightmorph 1.45 Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 nightmorph 1.40 your card below.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     For Intel cards:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Intel settings">
160     Device Drivers ---&gt;
161     Graphics support ---&gt;
162     /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163     &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164     Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165     &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166     i915 driver
167     [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     For nVidia cards:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175     <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179    
180     <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181     Device Drivers ---&gt;
182     Staging drivers ---&gt;
183     [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184     &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188 nightmorph 1.45 For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 nightmorph 1.40 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190     <c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191     </p>
192    
193 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
194 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195     Device Drivers ---&gt;
196     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197     [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198     <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199     (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200     <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201     (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202     radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203     radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204     radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205     radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 nightmorph 1.43 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
207     (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
208     firmware blobs
209     <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
210     (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
211     radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
212     radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin radeon/TURKS_me.bin
213     radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
214 nightmorph 1.40 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
215    
216     <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
217     Device Drivers ---&gt;
218     Graphics support ---&gt;
219     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
220     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
221     [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
222     </pre>
223    
224     <note>
225     Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
226     package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
227     and ATI Radeon modesetting.
228     </note>
229    
230     <p>
231     Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
232     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
233     </p>
234    
235     </body>
236     </section>
237     <section>
238 nightmorph 1.32 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242 nightmorph 1.40 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
243     in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
244 rane 1.18 </p>
245    
246     <p>
247 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
248 nightmorph 1.40 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
249     The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
250     for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
251     drivers.
252 rane 1.18 </p>
253    
254 nightmorph 1.40 <note>
255 nightmorph 1.45 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
256     and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
257 nightmorph 1.40 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
258     link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
259     link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
260     drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
261     </note>
262    
263     <p>
264     The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
265     integrated graphics chipsets.
266     </p>
267    
268     <note>
269     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
270     space.
271     </note>
272    
273 rane 1.18 <p>
274     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
275     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
276 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
277 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
278     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
279 rane 1.18 </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
283     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
284     </p>
285    
286     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
287 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
288     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
289 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
290     VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
291 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
292 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
293 rane 1.18 </pre>
294    
295 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
296 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
297 nightmorph 1.40 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
298 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
299     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
300     </p>
301 rane 1.18
302     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
303 nightmorph 1.40 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
304 rane 1.18
305     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
306    
307     Calculating dependencies... done!
308 nightmorph 1.42 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
309 nightmorph 1.40 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
310     -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
311 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
312 nightmorph 1.40 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
313 nightmorph 1.42 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
314     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
315     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
316     0 kB
317 rane 1.18 </pre>
318    
319     <p>
320     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
321     </p>
322    
323 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
324 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
325     # <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
326     <comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
327 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
328 swift 1.1 </pre>
329    
330 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
331     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
332 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
333     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
334     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
335     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
336 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
337    
338 swift 1.1 <p>
339 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
340 nightmorph 1.45 environment variables before you continue:
341 swift 1.1 </p>
342    
343 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
344 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
345     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
346     </pre>
347    
348     </body>
349     </section>
350     </chapter>
351 nightmorph 1.32
352 swift 1.1 <chapter>
353     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
354 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
355 nightmorph 1.32 <body>
356    
357     <p>
358 nightmorph 1.40 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
359 nightmorph 1.45 Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
360     displays, keyboards, and mice.
361 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364 nightmorph 1.45 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
365     any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
366     then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
367 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
368    
369     </body>
370     </section>
371     <section>
372 nightmorph 1.45 <title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
373 swift 1.1 <body>
374    
375 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
376 nightmorph 1.45 Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
377     option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
378     possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
379 nightmorph 1.32 </note>
380    
381 swift 1.1 <p>
382 nightmorph 1.45 The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
383     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
384     <path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
385     the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
386     <path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
387     numbers, but it may help you organize them.
388 swift 1.1 </p>
389    
390 nightmorph 1.45 <note>
391     Xorg provides example configurations in
392     <path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
393     can use these to create your own configuration files in
394     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
395     you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
396     xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
397     link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
398     </note>
399 swift 1.1
400 swift 1.9 </body>
401     </section>
402     <section id="using_startx">
403     <title>Using startx</title>
404     <body>
405    
406 swift 1.1 <p>
407 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
408 nightmorph 1.45 that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
409 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
410 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
411 swift 1.1 </p>
412    
413 swift 1.9 <ul>
414     <li>
415     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
416     execute the commands listed there.
417     </li>
418     <li>
419     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
420     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
421 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
422 nightmorph 1.40 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
423     on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
424 nightmorph 1.31 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
425 nightmorph 1.40 and set the default X session to <uri
426 nightmorph 1.44 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
427     after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
428 swift 1.9 </li>
429     </ul>
430    
431 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
432 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
433 swift 1.1 </pre>
434    
435 swift 1.9 <p>
436 nightmorph 1.37 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
437     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
438     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
439     </p>
440    
441     <p>
442 nightmorph 1.45 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
443     <c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
444     correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
445     xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
446     you've setup a proper desktop environment.
447 swift 1.9 </p>
448    
449 swift 1.1 </body>
450     </section>
451 swift 1.9 </chapter>
452 nightmorph 1.32
453 swift 1.9 <chapter>
454 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
455 swift 1.1 <section>
456     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
457     <body>
458    
459     <p>
460     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
461 nightmorph 1.45 sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
462     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
463     run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
464     Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
465     section, <e>Monitor</e>.
466 swift 1.1 </p>
467    
468     <p>
469 nightmorph 1.40 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
470 nightmorph 1.45 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
471     <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
472     The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
473 nightmorph 1.40 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
474     need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
475     argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
476     <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
477     </p>
478    
479 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
480     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
481    
482 nightmorph 1.40 Section "Device"
483     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
484     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
485     EndSection
486     Section "Monitor"
487     Identifier "DVI screen"
488     Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
489 swift 1.1 EndSection
490     </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
494 swift 1.1 </p>
495    
496     </body>
497     </section>
498     <section>
499 nightmorph 1.41 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
500     <body>
501    
502     <p>
503 nightmorph 1.45 You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
504     All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
505 nightmorph 1.41 position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
506     shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
507     right-hand screen:
508     </p>
509    
510 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
511     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
512    
513 nightmorph 1.41 Section "Device"
514     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
515     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
516     Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
517     EndSection
518     Section "Monitor"
519     Identifier "DVI screen"
520     EndSection
521     Section "Monitor"
522     Identifier "VGA screen"
523     Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
524     EndSection
525     </pre>
526    
527     </body>
528     </section>
529     <section>
530 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
531 swift 1.1 <body>
532    
533     <p>
534 nightmorph 1.45 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
535     appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
536     features a Czech keyboard layout:
537     </p>
538    
539     <pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
540     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
541    
542     Section "InputClass"
543     Identifier "keyboard-all"
544     Driver "evdev"
545     Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
546     Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
547     Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
548     Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
549     Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
550     MatchIsKeyboard "on"
551     EndSection
552 swift 1.1 </pre>
553    
554     <p>
555 nightmorph 1.45 The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
556     session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
557     make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
558     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
559     configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
560     desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
561     end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
562 swift 1.1 </p>
563    
564 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
565     </section>
566     <section>
567     <title>Finishing up</title>
568     <body>
569 swift 1.1
570     <p>
571 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
572 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
573 nightmorph 1.45 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
574     that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
575     environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
576     Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
577 swift 1.1 </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </section>
581     </chapter>
582 nightmorph 1.32
583 nightmorph 1.45 <chapter id="resources">
584 swift 1.1 <title>Resources</title>
585     <section>
586 nightmorph 1.45 <title>Creating and editing config files</title>
587 swift 1.1 <body>
588    
589     <p>
590 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
591     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
592 nightmorph 1.45 to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
593 nightmorph 1.27 </p>
594    
595     <p>
596 nightmorph 1.45 There are also many online resources on editing config files in
597     <path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
598     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
599 swift 1.1 </p>
600    
601     </body>
602     </section>
603 rane 1.18 <section>
604     <title>Other resources</title>
605     <body>
606    
607     <p>
608 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
609     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
610     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
611     section of our documentation.
612 rane 1.18 </p>
613    
614 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
615 nightmorph 1.45 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
616 nightmorph 1.40 sure to read the <uri
617 nightmorph 1.45 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
618 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
619     </p>
620    
621 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
622     X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
623     website, in addition to their other documentation.
624     </p>
625    
626 rane 1.18 </body>
627     </section>
628 swift 1.1 </chapter>
629     </guide>

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