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Fix bug #379391 - Update xorg-config to include firmware information on latest radeon stuff. Thanks to chithanh@g.o for reporting/content

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.46 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.45 2011/03/23 09:03:51 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 swift 1.46 <version>8</version>
26     <date>2011-08-23</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 nightmorph 1.40 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38     do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.40 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94     Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95     we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96     prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97     are built and installed.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101     </section>
102     <section>
103     <title>Input driver support</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 nightmorph 1.40 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110     Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114     Device Drivers ---&gt;
115     Input device support ---&gt;
116     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117     </pre>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122 nightmorph 1.40 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127     an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128     built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129     other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130     <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135     Xorg video driver you're using.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139     Device Drivers ---&gt;
140     Graphics support ---&gt;
141     Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142     <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143    
144     <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145     Console display driver support ---&gt;
146     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 nightmorph 1.45 Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 nightmorph 1.40 your card below.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     For Intel cards:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Intel settings">
160     Device Drivers ---&gt;
161     Graphics support ---&gt;
162     /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163     &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164     Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165     &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166     i915 driver
167     [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     For nVidia cards:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175     <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179    
180     <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181     Device Drivers ---&gt;
182     Staging drivers ---&gt;
183     [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184     &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188 nightmorph 1.45 For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 swift 1.46 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190     <c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191     configure your kernel as shown:
192 nightmorph 1.40 </p>
193    
194 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196     Device Drivers ---&gt;
197     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198     [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199     <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200     (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201     <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202     (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203     radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204     radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205     radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206     radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 swift 1.46 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208     (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin SUMO2_me.bin SUMO2_pfp.bin
209     SUMO_me.bin SUMO_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
210 nightmorph 1.43 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
211     (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
212     firmware blobs
213     <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
214     (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
215     radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
216 swift 1.46 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin CAYMAN_mc.bin
217     CAYMAN_me.bin CAYMAN_pfp.bin CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
218     radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
219 nightmorph 1.40 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
220    
221     <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
222     Device Drivers ---&gt;
223     Graphics support ---&gt;
224     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
225     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
226     [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
227     </pre>
228    
229     <note>
230     Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
231     package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
232     and ATI Radeon modesetting.
233     </note>
234    
235     <p>
236     Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
237     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
238     </p>
239    
240     </body>
241     </section>
242     <section>
243 nightmorph 1.32 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247 nightmorph 1.40 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
248     in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
249 rane 1.18 </p>
250    
251     <p>
252 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
253 nightmorph 1.40 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
254     The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
255     for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
256     drivers.
257 rane 1.18 </p>
258    
259 nightmorph 1.40 <note>
260 nightmorph 1.45 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
261     and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
262 nightmorph 1.40 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
263     link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
264     link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
265     drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
266     </note>
267    
268     <p>
269     The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
270     integrated graphics chipsets.
271     </p>
272    
273     <note>
274     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
275     space.
276     </note>
277    
278 rane 1.18 <p>
279     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
280     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
281 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
282 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
283     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
284 rane 1.18 </p>
285    
286     <p>
287     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
288     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
289     </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
292 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
293     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
294 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
295     VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
296 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
297 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
298 rane 1.18 </pre>
299    
300 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
301 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
302 nightmorph 1.40 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
303 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
304     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
305     </p>
306 rane 1.18
307     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
308 nightmorph 1.40 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
309 rane 1.18
310     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
311    
312     Calculating dependencies... done!
313 nightmorph 1.42 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
314 nightmorph 1.40 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
315     -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
316 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
317 nightmorph 1.40 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
318 nightmorph 1.42 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
319     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
320     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
321     0 kB
322 rane 1.18 </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
326     </p>
327    
328 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
329 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
330     # <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
331     <comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
332 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
333 swift 1.1 </pre>
334    
335 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
336     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
337 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
338     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
339     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
340     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
341 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
342    
343 swift 1.1 <p>
344 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
345 nightmorph 1.45 environment variables before you continue:
346 swift 1.1 </p>
347    
348 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
349 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
350     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
351     </pre>
352    
353     </body>
354     </section>
355     </chapter>
356 nightmorph 1.32
357 swift 1.1 <chapter>
358     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
359 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
360 nightmorph 1.32 <body>
361    
362     <p>
363 nightmorph 1.40 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
364 nightmorph 1.45 Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
365     displays, keyboards, and mice.
366 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
367    
368     <p>
369 nightmorph 1.45 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
370     any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
371     then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
372 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376     <section>
377 nightmorph 1.45 <title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
378 swift 1.1 <body>
379    
380 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
381 nightmorph 1.45 Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
382     option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
383     possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
384 nightmorph 1.32 </note>
385    
386 swift 1.1 <p>
387 nightmorph 1.45 The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
388     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
389     <path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
390     the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
391     <path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
392     numbers, but it may help you organize them.
393 swift 1.1 </p>
394    
395 nightmorph 1.45 <note>
396     Xorg provides example configurations in
397     <path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
398     can use these to create your own configuration files in
399     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
400     you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
401     xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
402     link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
403     </note>
404 swift 1.1
405 swift 1.9 </body>
406     </section>
407     <section id="using_startx">
408     <title>Using startx</title>
409     <body>
410    
411 swift 1.1 <p>
412 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
413 nightmorph 1.45 that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
414 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
415 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
416 swift 1.1 </p>
417    
418 swift 1.9 <ul>
419     <li>
420     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
421     execute the commands listed there.
422     </li>
423     <li>
424     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
425     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
426 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
427 nightmorph 1.40 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
428     on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
429 nightmorph 1.31 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
430 nightmorph 1.40 and set the default X session to <uri
431 nightmorph 1.44 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
432     after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
433 swift 1.9 </li>
434     </ul>
435    
436 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
437 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
438 swift 1.1 </pre>
439    
440 swift 1.9 <p>
441 nightmorph 1.37 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
442     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
443     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
444     </p>
445    
446     <p>
447 nightmorph 1.45 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
448     <c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
449     correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
450     xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
451     you've setup a proper desktop environment.
452 swift 1.9 </p>
453    
454 swift 1.1 </body>
455     </section>
456 swift 1.9 </chapter>
457 nightmorph 1.32
458 swift 1.9 <chapter>
459 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
460 swift 1.1 <section>
461     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
462     <body>
463    
464     <p>
465     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
466 nightmorph 1.45 sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
467     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
468     run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
469     Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
470     section, <e>Monitor</e>.
471 swift 1.1 </p>
472    
473     <p>
474 nightmorph 1.40 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
475 nightmorph 1.45 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
476     <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
477     The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
478 nightmorph 1.40 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
479     need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
480     argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
481     <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
482     </p>
483    
484 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
485     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
486    
487 nightmorph 1.40 Section "Device"
488     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
489     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
490     EndSection
491     Section "Monitor"
492     Identifier "DVI screen"
493     Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
494 swift 1.1 EndSection
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
499 swift 1.1 </p>
500    
501     </body>
502     </section>
503     <section>
504 nightmorph 1.41 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
505     <body>
506    
507     <p>
508 nightmorph 1.45 You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
509     All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
510 nightmorph 1.41 position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
511     shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
512     right-hand screen:
513     </p>
514    
515 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
516     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
517    
518 nightmorph 1.41 Section "Device"
519     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
520     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
521     Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
522     EndSection
523     Section "Monitor"
524     Identifier "DVI screen"
525     EndSection
526     Section "Monitor"
527     Identifier "VGA screen"
528     Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
529     EndSection
530     </pre>
531    
532     </body>
533     </section>
534     <section>
535 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
536 swift 1.1 <body>
537    
538     <p>
539 nightmorph 1.45 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
540     appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
541     features a Czech keyboard layout:
542     </p>
543    
544     <pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
545     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
546    
547     Section "InputClass"
548     Identifier "keyboard-all"
549     Driver "evdev"
550     Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
551     Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
552     Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
553     Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
554     Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
555     MatchIsKeyboard "on"
556     EndSection
557 swift 1.1 </pre>
558    
559     <p>
560 nightmorph 1.45 The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
561     session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
562     make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
563     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
564     configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
565     desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
566     end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
567 swift 1.1 </p>
568    
569 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
570     </section>
571     <section>
572     <title>Finishing up</title>
573     <body>
574 swift 1.1
575     <p>
576 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
577 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
578 nightmorph 1.45 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
579     that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
580     environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
581     Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
582 swift 1.1 </p>
583    
584     </body>
585     </section>
586     </chapter>
587 nightmorph 1.32
588 nightmorph 1.45 <chapter id="resources">
589 swift 1.1 <title>Resources</title>
590     <section>
591 nightmorph 1.45 <title>Creating and editing config files</title>
592 swift 1.1 <body>
593    
594     <p>
595 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
596     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
597 nightmorph 1.45 to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
598 nightmorph 1.27 </p>
599    
600     <p>
601 nightmorph 1.45 There are also many online resources on editing config files in
602     <path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
603     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
604 swift 1.1 </p>
605    
606     </body>
607     </section>
608 rane 1.18 <section>
609     <title>Other resources</title>
610     <body>
611    
612     <p>
613 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
614     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
615     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
616     section of our documentation.
617 rane 1.18 </p>
618    
619 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
620 nightmorph 1.45 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
621 nightmorph 1.40 sure to read the <uri
622 nightmorph 1.45 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
623 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
624     </p>
625    
626 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
627     X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
628     website, in addition to their other documentation.
629     </p>
630    
631 rane 1.18 </body>
632     </section>
633 swift 1.1 </chapter>
634     </guide>

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