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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.47 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.46 2011/08/23 14:43:41 swift Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 swift 1.47 <version>9</version>
26 swift 1.46 <date>2011-08-23</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 nightmorph 1.40 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38     do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.40 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94     Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95     we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96     prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97     are built and installed.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101     </section>
102     <section>
103     <title>Input driver support</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 nightmorph 1.40 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110     Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114     Device Drivers ---&gt;
115     Input device support ---&gt;
116     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117     </pre>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122 nightmorph 1.40 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127     an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128     built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129     other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130     <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135     Xorg video driver you're using.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139     Device Drivers ---&gt;
140     Graphics support ---&gt;
141     Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142     <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143    
144     <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145     Console display driver support ---&gt;
146     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 nightmorph 1.45 Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 nightmorph 1.40 your card below.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     For Intel cards:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Intel settings">
160     Device Drivers ---&gt;
161     Graphics support ---&gt;
162     /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163     &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164     Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165     &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166     i915 driver
167     [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     For nVidia cards:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175     <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179    
180     <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181     Device Drivers ---&gt;
182     Staging drivers ---&gt;
183     [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184     &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188 nightmorph 1.45 For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 swift 1.46 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190     <c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191     configure your kernel as shown:
192 nightmorph 1.40 </p>
193    
194 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196     Device Drivers ---&gt;
197     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198     [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199     <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200     (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201     <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202     (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203     radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204     radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205     radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206     radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 swift 1.46 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208     (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin SUMO2_me.bin SUMO2_pfp.bin
209     SUMO_me.bin SUMO_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
210 nightmorph 1.43 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
211     (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
212     radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
213 swift 1.46 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin CAYMAN_mc.bin
214     CAYMAN_me.bin CAYMAN_pfp.bin CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
215     radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
216 nightmorph 1.40 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
217    
218     <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
219     Device Drivers ---&gt;
220     Graphics support ---&gt;
221     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
222     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
223     [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
224     </pre>
225    
226     <note>
227     Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
228     package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
229     and ATI Radeon modesetting.
230     </note>
231    
232     <p>
233     Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
234     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
235     </p>
236    
237     </body>
238     </section>
239     <section>
240 nightmorph 1.32 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
241     <body>
242    
243     <p>
244 nightmorph 1.40 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
245     in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
246 rane 1.18 </p>
247    
248     <p>
249 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
250 nightmorph 1.40 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
251     The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
252     for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
253     drivers.
254 rane 1.18 </p>
255    
256 nightmorph 1.40 <note>
257 nightmorph 1.45 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
258     and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
259 nightmorph 1.40 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
260     link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
261     link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
262     drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
263     </note>
264    
265     <p>
266     The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
267     integrated graphics chipsets.
268     </p>
269    
270     <note>
271     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
272     space.
273     </note>
274    
275 rane 1.18 <p>
276     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
277     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
278 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
279 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
280     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
281 rane 1.18 </p>
282    
283     <p>
284     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
285     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
286     </p>
287    
288     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
289 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
290     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
291 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
292     VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
293 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
294 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
295 rane 1.18 </pre>
296    
297 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
298 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
299 nightmorph 1.40 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
300 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
301     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
302     </p>
303 rane 1.18
304     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
305 nightmorph 1.40 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
306 rane 1.18
307     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
308    
309     Calculating dependencies... done!
310 nightmorph 1.42 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
311 nightmorph 1.40 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
312     -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
313 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
314 nightmorph 1.40 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
315 nightmorph 1.42 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
316     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
317     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
318     0 kB
319 rane 1.18 </pre>
320    
321     <p>
322     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
323     </p>
324    
325 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
326 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
327     # <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
328     <comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
329 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
330 swift 1.1 </pre>
331    
332 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
333     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
334 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
335     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
336     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
337     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
338 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
339    
340 swift 1.1 <p>
341 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
342 nightmorph 1.45 environment variables before you continue:
343 swift 1.1 </p>
344    
345 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
346 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
347     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
348     </pre>
349    
350     </body>
351     </section>
352     </chapter>
353 nightmorph 1.32
354 swift 1.1 <chapter>
355     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
356 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
357 nightmorph 1.32 <body>
358    
359     <p>
360 nightmorph 1.40 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
361 nightmorph 1.45 Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
362     displays, keyboards, and mice.
363 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
364    
365     <p>
366 nightmorph 1.45 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
367     any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
368     then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
369 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
370    
371     </body>
372     </section>
373     <section>
374 nightmorph 1.45 <title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
375 swift 1.1 <body>
376    
377 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
378 nightmorph 1.45 Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
379     option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
380     possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
381 nightmorph 1.32 </note>
382    
383 swift 1.1 <p>
384 nightmorph 1.45 The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
385     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
386     <path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
387     the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
388     <path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
389     numbers, but it may help you organize them.
390 swift 1.1 </p>
391    
392 nightmorph 1.45 <note>
393     Xorg provides example configurations in
394     <path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
395     can use these to create your own configuration files in
396     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
397     you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
398     xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
399     link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
400     </note>
401 swift 1.1
402 swift 1.9 </body>
403     </section>
404     <section id="using_startx">
405     <title>Using startx</title>
406     <body>
407    
408 swift 1.1 <p>
409 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
410 nightmorph 1.45 that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
411 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
412 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
413 swift 1.1 </p>
414    
415 swift 1.9 <ul>
416     <li>
417     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
418     execute the commands listed there.
419     </li>
420     <li>
421     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
422     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
423 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
424 nightmorph 1.40 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
425     on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
426 nightmorph 1.31 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
427 nightmorph 1.40 and set the default X session to <uri
428 nightmorph 1.44 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
429     after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
430 swift 1.9 </li>
431     </ul>
432    
433 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
434 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
435 swift 1.1 </pre>
436    
437 swift 1.9 <p>
438 nightmorph 1.37 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
439     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
440     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
441     </p>
442    
443     <p>
444 nightmorph 1.45 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
445     <c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
446     correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
447     xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
448     you've setup a proper desktop environment.
449 swift 1.9 </p>
450    
451 swift 1.1 </body>
452     </section>
453 swift 1.9 </chapter>
454 nightmorph 1.32
455 swift 1.9 <chapter>
456 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
457 swift 1.1 <section>
458     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
463 nightmorph 1.45 sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
464     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
465     run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
466     Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
467     section, <e>Monitor</e>.
468 swift 1.1 </p>
469    
470     <p>
471 nightmorph 1.40 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
472 nightmorph 1.45 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
473     <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
474     The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
475 nightmorph 1.40 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
476     need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
477     argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
478     <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
479     </p>
480    
481 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
482     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
483    
484 nightmorph 1.40 Section "Device"
485     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
486     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
487     EndSection
488     Section "Monitor"
489     Identifier "DVI screen"
490     Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
491 swift 1.1 EndSection
492     </pre>
493    
494     <p>
495 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
496 swift 1.1 </p>
497    
498     </body>
499     </section>
500     <section>
501 nightmorph 1.41 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
502     <body>
503    
504     <p>
505 nightmorph 1.45 You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
506     All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
507 nightmorph 1.41 position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
508     shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
509     right-hand screen:
510     </p>
511    
512 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
513     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
514    
515 nightmorph 1.41 Section "Device"
516     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
517     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
518     Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
519     EndSection
520     Section "Monitor"
521     Identifier "DVI screen"
522     EndSection
523     Section "Monitor"
524     Identifier "VGA screen"
525     Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
526     EndSection
527     </pre>
528    
529     </body>
530     </section>
531     <section>
532 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
533 swift 1.1 <body>
534    
535     <p>
536 nightmorph 1.45 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
537     appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
538     features a Czech keyboard layout:
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
542     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
543    
544     Section "InputClass"
545     Identifier "keyboard-all"
546     Driver "evdev"
547     Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
548     Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
549     Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
550     Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
551     Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
552     MatchIsKeyboard "on"
553     EndSection
554 swift 1.1 </pre>
555    
556     <p>
557 nightmorph 1.45 The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
558     session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
559     make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
560     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
561     configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
562     desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
563     end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
564 swift 1.1 </p>
565    
566 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
567     </section>
568     <section>
569     <title>Finishing up</title>
570     <body>
571 swift 1.1
572     <p>
573 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
574 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
575 nightmorph 1.45 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
576     that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
577     environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
578     Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
579 swift 1.1 </p>
580    
581     </body>
582     </section>
583     </chapter>
584 nightmorph 1.32
585 nightmorph 1.45 <chapter id="resources">
586 swift 1.1 <title>Resources</title>
587     <section>
588 nightmorph 1.45 <title>Creating and editing config files</title>
589 swift 1.1 <body>
590    
591     <p>
592 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
593     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
594 nightmorph 1.45 to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
595 nightmorph 1.27 </p>
596    
597     <p>
598 nightmorph 1.45 There are also many online resources on editing config files in
599     <path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
600     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
601 swift 1.1 </p>
602    
603     </body>
604     </section>
605 rane 1.18 <section>
606     <title>Other resources</title>
607     <body>
608    
609     <p>
610 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
611     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
612     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
613     section of our documentation.
614 rane 1.18 </p>
615    
616 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
617 nightmorph 1.45 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
618 nightmorph 1.40 sure to read the <uri
619 nightmorph 1.45 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
620 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
621     </p>
622    
623 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
624     X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
625     website, in addition to their other documentation.
626     </p>
627    
628 rane 1.18 </body>
629     </section>
630 swift 1.1 </chapter>
631     </guide>

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