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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.48 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.47 2011/08/23 15:04:51 swift Exp $ -->
4 swift 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.32 <guide>
6 swift 1.1 <title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.36 <mail link="swift"/>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Author">
12 nightmorph 1.27 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17 swift 1.26 environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18 swift 1.1 install it and what the various configuration options are.
19     </abstract>
20    
21     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 fox2mike 1.17 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 swift 1.1 <license/>
24    
25 swift 1.48 <version>10</version>
26     <date>2011-09-02</date>
27 swift 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30     <section>
31     <title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36     Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37 nightmorph 1.40 by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38     do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39 swift 1.1 environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40     </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44     interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45     <e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46     a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47     </p>
48    
49     <p>
50     As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51 fox2mike 1.16 screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52 swift 1.1 important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53     commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54     and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58 swift 1.26 The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59 swift 1.1 user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60     the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61 swift 1.26 compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62 swift 1.8 The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63 swift 1.1 </p>
64    
65     </body>
66     </section>
67     <section>
68     <title>The X.org Project</title>
69     <body>
70    
71     <p>
72     The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73 fox2mike 1.16 maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74 swift 1.26 system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75 swift 1.1 </p>
76    
77     <p>
78     Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79     you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80     are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81 swift 1.26 one.
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     </body>
85     </section>
86     </chapter>
87 fox2mike 1.16
88 swift 1.1 <chapter>
89     <title>Installing Xorg</title>
90     <section>
91 nightmorph 1.40 <body>
92    
93     <p>
94     Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95     we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96     prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97     are built and installed.
98     </p>
99    
100     </body>
101     </section>
102     <section>
103     <title>Input driver support</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 nightmorph 1.32 By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108     activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109 nightmorph 1.40 configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110     Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
111 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
114     Device Drivers ---&gt;
115     Input device support ---&gt;
116     &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117     </pre>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122 nightmorph 1.40 <title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127     an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128     built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129     other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130     <b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135     Xorg video driver you're using.
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139     Device Drivers ---&gt;
140     Graphics support ---&gt;
141     Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142     <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143    
144     <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145     Console display driver support ---&gt;
146     &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147     </pre>
148    
149     <p>
150     Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151 nightmorph 1.45 Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152 nightmorph 1.40 your card below.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     For Intel cards:
157     </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Intel settings">
160     Device Drivers ---&gt;
161     Graphics support ---&gt;
162     /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163     &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164     Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165     &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166     i915 driver
167     [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171     For nVidia cards:
172     </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="nVidia settings">
175     <comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179    
180     <comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181     Device Drivers ---&gt;
182     Staging drivers ---&gt;
183     [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184     &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188 nightmorph 1.45 For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189 swift 1.46 up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190     <c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191     configure your kernel as shown:
192 nightmorph 1.40 </p>
193    
194 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196     Device Drivers ---&gt;
197     Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198     [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199     <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200     (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201     <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202     (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203     radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204     radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205     radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206     radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 swift 1.46 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 swift 1.48 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO2_me.bin
209     radeon/SUMO2_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_me.bin radeon/SUMO_pfp.bin
210     radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
211 nightmorph 1.43 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
212     (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
213     radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
214 swift 1.48 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_mc.bin radeon/CAYMAN_me.bin
215     radeon/CAYMAN_pfp.bin radeon/CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
216 swift 1.46 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
217 nightmorph 1.40 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
218    
219     <comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
220     Device Drivers ---&gt;
221     Graphics support ---&gt;
222     &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
223     &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
224     [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
225     </pre>
226    
227     <note>
228     Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
229     package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
230     and ATI Radeon modesetting.
231     </note>
232    
233     <p>
234     Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
235     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
236     </p>
237    
238     </body>
239     </section>
240     <section>
241 nightmorph 1.32 <title>make.conf configuration</title>
242     <body>
243    
244     <p>
245 nightmorph 1.40 Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
246     in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
247 rane 1.18 </p>
248    
249     <p>
250 nightmorph 1.32 The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
251 nightmorph 1.40 that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
252     The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
253     for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
254     drivers.
255 rane 1.18 </p>
256    
257 nightmorph 1.40 <note>
258 nightmorph 1.45 You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
259     and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
260 nightmorph 1.40 beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
261     link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
262     link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
263     drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
264     </note>
265    
266     <p>
267     The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
268     integrated graphics chipsets.
269     </p>
270    
271     <note>
272     <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
273     space.
274     </note>
275    
276 rane 1.18 <p>
277     The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
278     drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
279 nightmorph 1.32 <c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
280 nightmorph 1.27 devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
281     <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
282 rane 1.18 </p>
283    
284     <p>
285     Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
286     the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
287     </p>
288    
289     <pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
290 nightmorph 1.32 <comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
291     INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
292 nightmorph 1.40 <comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
293     VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
294 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
295 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
296 rane 1.18 </pre>
297    
298 nightmorph 1.32 <p>
299 rane 1.18 If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
300 nightmorph 1.40 xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
301 nightmorph 1.32 your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
302     touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
303     </p>
304 rane 1.18
305     <pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
306 nightmorph 1.40 # <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
307 rane 1.18
308     These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
309    
310     Calculating dependencies... done!
311 nightmorph 1.42 [ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
312 nightmorph 1.40 -acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
313     -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
314 nightmorph 1.32 VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
315 nightmorph 1.40 (-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
316 nightmorph 1.42 -nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
317     -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
318     -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
319     0 kB
320 rane 1.18 </pre>
321    
322     <p>
323     After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
324     </p>
325    
326 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Installing Xorg">
327 nightmorph 1.45 <comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
328     # <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
329     <comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
330 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
331 swift 1.1 </pre>
332    
333 nightmorph 1.30 <note>
334     You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
335 nightmorph 1.32 lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
336     <c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
337     packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
338     many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
339 nightmorph 1.30 </note>
340    
341 swift 1.1 <p>
342 nightmorph 1.32 When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
343 nightmorph 1.45 environment variables before you continue:
344 swift 1.1 </p>
345    
346 rane 1.18 <pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
347 swift 1.1 # <i>env-update</i>
348     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
349     </pre>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353     </chapter>
354 nightmorph 1.32
355 swift 1.1 <chapter>
356     <title>Configuring Xorg</title>
357 nightmorph 1.45 <section>
358 nightmorph 1.32 <body>
359    
360     <p>
361 nightmorph 1.40 The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
362 nightmorph 1.45 Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
363     displays, keyboards, and mice.
364 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
365    
366     <p>
367 nightmorph 1.45 You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
368     any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
369     then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
370 nightmorph 1.32 </p>
371    
372     </body>
373     </section>
374     <section>
375 nightmorph 1.45 <title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
376 swift 1.1 <body>
377    
378 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
379 nightmorph 1.45 Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
380     option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
381     possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
382 nightmorph 1.32 </note>
383    
384 swift 1.1 <p>
385 nightmorph 1.45 The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
386     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
387     <path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
388     the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
389     <path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
390     numbers, but it may help you organize them.
391 swift 1.1 </p>
392    
393 nightmorph 1.45 <note>
394     Xorg provides example configurations in
395     <path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
396     can use these to create your own configuration files in
397     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
398     you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
399     xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
400     link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
401     </note>
402 swift 1.1
403 swift 1.9 </body>
404     </section>
405     <section id="using_startx">
406     <title>Using startx</title>
407     <body>
408    
409 swift 1.1 <p>
410 nightmorph 1.32 Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
411 nightmorph 1.45 that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
412 nightmorph 1.32 graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
413 swift 1.9 using the following logic:
414 swift 1.1 </p>
415    
416 swift 1.9 <ul>
417     <li>
418     If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
419     execute the commands listed there.
420     </li>
421     <li>
422     Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
423     one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
424 nightmorph 1.31 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
425 nightmorph 1.40 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
426     on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
427 nightmorph 1.31 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
428 nightmorph 1.40 and set the default X session to <uri
429 nightmorph 1.44 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
430     after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
431 swift 1.9 </li>
432     </ul>
433    
434 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Starting X">
435 nightmorph 1.37 $ <i>startx</i>
436 swift 1.1 </pre>
437    
438 swift 1.9 <p>
439 nightmorph 1.37 If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
440     Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
441     <c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
442     </p>
443    
444     <p>
445 nightmorph 1.45 Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
446     <c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
447     correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
448     xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
449     you've setup a proper desktop environment.
450 swift 1.9 </p>
451    
452 swift 1.1 </body>
453     </section>
454 swift 1.9 </chapter>
455 nightmorph 1.32
456 swift 1.9 <chapter>
457 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Tweaking X settings</title>
458 swift 1.1 <section>
459     <title>Setting your Resolution</title>
460     <body>
461    
462     <p>
463     If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
464 nightmorph 1.45 sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
465     the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
466     run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
467     Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
468     section, <e>Monitor</e>.
469 swift 1.1 </p>
470    
471     <p>
472 nightmorph 1.40 Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
473 nightmorph 1.45 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
474     <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
475     The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
476 nightmorph 1.40 monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
477     need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
478     argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
479     <c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
480     </p>
481    
482 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
483     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
484    
485 nightmorph 1.40 Section "Device"
486     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
487     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
488     EndSection
489     Section "Monitor"
490     Identifier "DVI screen"
491     Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
492 swift 1.1 EndSection
493     </pre>
494    
495     <p>
496 nightmorph 1.37 Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
497 swift 1.1 </p>
498    
499     </body>
500     </section>
501     <section>
502 nightmorph 1.41 <title>Multiple monitors</title>
503     <body>
504    
505     <p>
506 nightmorph 1.45 You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
507     All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
508 nightmorph 1.41 position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
509     shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
510     right-hand screen:
511     </p>
512    
513 nightmorph 1.45 <pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
514     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
515    
516 nightmorph 1.41 Section "Device"
517     Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
518     Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
519     Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
520     EndSection
521     Section "Monitor"
522     Identifier "DVI screen"
523     EndSection
524     Section "Monitor"
525     Identifier "VGA screen"
526     Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
527     EndSection
528     </pre>
529    
530     </body>
531     </section>
532     <section>
533 nightmorph 1.32 <title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
534 swift 1.1 <body>
535    
536     <p>
537 nightmorph 1.45 To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
538     appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
539     features a Czech keyboard layout:
540     </p>
541    
542     <pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
543     # <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
544    
545     Section "InputClass"
546     Identifier "keyboard-all"
547     Driver "evdev"
548     Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
549     Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
550     Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
551     Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
552     Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
553     MatchIsKeyboard "on"
554     EndSection
555 swift 1.1 </pre>
556    
557     <p>
558 nightmorph 1.45 The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
559     session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
560     make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
561     useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
562     configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
563     desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
564     end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
565 swift 1.1 </p>
566    
567 nightmorph 1.32 </body>
568     </section>
569     <section>
570     <title>Finishing up</title>
571     <body>
572 swift 1.1
573     <p>
574 nightmorph 1.32 Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
575 nightmorph 1.34 (hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
576 nightmorph 1.45 useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
577     that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
578     environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
579     Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
580 swift 1.1 </p>
581    
582     </body>
583     </section>
584     </chapter>
585 nightmorph 1.32
586 nightmorph 1.45 <chapter id="resources">
587 swift 1.1 <title>Resources</title>
588     <section>
589 nightmorph 1.45 <title>Creating and editing config files</title>
590 swift 1.1 <body>
591    
592     <p>
593 nightmorph 1.32 First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
594     complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
595 nightmorph 1.45 to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
596 nightmorph 1.27 </p>
597    
598     <p>
599 nightmorph 1.45 There are also many online resources on editing config files in
600     <path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
601     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
602 swift 1.1 </p>
603    
604     </body>
605     </section>
606 rane 1.18 <section>
607     <title>Other resources</title>
608     <body>
609    
610     <p>
611 nightmorph 1.27 More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
612     environments and applications can be found in the <uri
613     link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
614     section of our documentation.
615 rane 1.18 </p>
616    
617 nightmorph 1.29 <p>
618 nightmorph 1.45 If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
619 nightmorph 1.40 sure to read the <uri
620 nightmorph 1.45 link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
621 nightmorph 1.29 guide</uri>.
622     </p>
623    
624 nightmorph 1.45 <p>
625     X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
626     website, in addition to their other documentation.
627     </p>
628    
629 rane 1.18 </body>
630     </section>
631 swift 1.1 </chapter>
632     </guide>

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