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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.15 2005/07/13 21:21:05 yoswink Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.16 2005/09/09 05:57:43 fox2mike Exp $ -->
4 4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 6
7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 7<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
8 8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 10
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.12</version> 25<version>1.12</version>
26<date>2005-05-23</date> 26<date>2005-09-09</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
44interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is 44interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
45<e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is 45<e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
67<section> 67<section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Using emerge</title>
91<body> 92<body>
92 93
93<p> 94<p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 95Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 96need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 97though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
97</p> 98</p>
98 99
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 100<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 101# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i>
101</pre> 102</pre>
181<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 182<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
182<body> 183<body>
183 184
184<p> 185<p>
185Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various 186Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
186information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on 187information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
187your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file. 188your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
188</p> 189</p>
189 190
190<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf"> 191<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
191# <i>xorgconfig</i> 192# <i>xorgconfig</i>
192</pre> 193</pre>
193 194
194<p> 195<p>
195Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first 196Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
196attempts to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more 197attempt to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
197final tweaking. 198final tweaking.
198</p> 199</p>
199 200
200<pre caption="Using xorgcfg"> 201<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
201# <i>xorgcfg</i> 202# <i>xorgcfg</i>
202<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment> 203<comment>(In case X crashes or the configuration fails, try:)</comment>
203# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i> 204# <i>xorgcfg -textmode</i>
204</pre> 205</pre>
205 206
206</body> 207</body>
207</section> 208</section>
208<section> 209<section>
209<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 210<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
210<body> 211<body>
211 212
245 </li> 246 </li>
246<li> 247<li>
247 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 248 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
248 usually <c>twm</c>. 249 usually <c>twm</c>.
249 </li> 250 </li>
250</ul> 251</ul>
251 252
252<pre caption="Starting X"> 253<pre caption="Starting X">
253# <i>startx</i> 254# <i>startx</i>
254</pre> 255</pre>
255 256
256<p> 257<p>
257If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 258If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
258<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 259<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
259upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 260upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
260combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - something that you 261combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you
261might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 262might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
262</p> 263</p>
263 264
264</body> 265</body>
265</section> 266</section>
266</chapter> 267</chapter>
267<chapter> 268<chapter>
268<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 269<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
269<section> 270<section>
270<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 271<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
271<body> 272<body>
272 273
273<p> 274<p>
274If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 275If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
275sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 276sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
276which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 277which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server will run at. By
277default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 278default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
278case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 279case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
279second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 280second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
280</p> 281</p>
281 282
282<p> 283<p>
283What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 284What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
284<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 285<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
285For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 286For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
286section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 287section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
287look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 288look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
288use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as 289use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
289<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>. 290<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
290</p> 291</p>
291 292
292<warn> 293<warn>
293Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 294Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
294without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 295without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
295incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 296incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
296worst. 297worst.
297</warn> 298</warn>
298 299
299<p> 300<p>
300Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 301Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
301<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 302<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
302<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 303<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by
303default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 304default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
304differ from the settings on your system. 305differ from the settings on your system.
305</p> 306</p>
306 307
307<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 308<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
308Section "Screen" 309Section "Screen"
309 Identifier "Default Screen" 310 Identifier "Default Screen"
310 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 311 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]"
311 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 312 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
312 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 313 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
313 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 314 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
314 SubSection "Display" 315 SubSection "Display"
315 Depth 24 316 Depth 24
316 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i> 317 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
317 EndSubSection 318 EndSubSection
318EndSection 319EndSection
362end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>. 363end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
363</p> 364</p>
364 365
365<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 366<pre caption="Checking the device files">
366# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i> 367# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
367<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 368<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
368</pre> 369</pre>
369 370
370<p> 371<p>
371If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 372If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
372</p> 373</p>
373 374
374<p> 375<p>
375If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 376If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
376<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 377<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
377options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users 378options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
378will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 379users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
379mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 380mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
380</p> 381</p>
381 382
382<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg"> 383<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
383Section "InputDevice" 384Section "InputDevice"
384 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 385 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
385 Driver "mouse" 386 Driver "mouse"
386 Option "CorePointer" 387 Option "CorePointer"
387 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i> 388 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
388 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i> 389 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
389 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 390 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
390EndSection 391EndSection
391</pre> 392</pre>
392 393
393<p> 394<p>

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