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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.25 2007/10/18 18:20:10 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.26 2008/05/23 19:40:35 swift Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/xorg-config.xml">
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10</author> 10</author>
11 11
12<abstract> 12<abstract>
13Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 13Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
14environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 14environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
15install it and what the various configuration options are. 15install it and what the various configuration options are.
16</abstract> 16</abstract>
17 17
18<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 18<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 19<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
20<license/> 20<license/>
21 21
22<version>1.17</version> 22<version>1.17</version>
23<date>2007-06-20</date> 23<date>2007-06-20</date>
24 24
25<chapter> 25<chapter>
26<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 26<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
27<section> 27<section>
28<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 28<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
29<body> 29<body>
30 30
31<p> 31<p>
32The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 32The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
33Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 33Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
34by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 34by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
35do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 35do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
36environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 36environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
37</p> 37</p>
38 38
39<p> 39<p>
40This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 40This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
41interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is 41interface is nothing more than an application which runs on your system. It is
42<e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is 42<e>not</e> part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. It is
43a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 43a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
44</p> 44</p>
45 45
46<p> 46<p>
47As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 47As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
48screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet 48screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
49important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 49important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
50commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 50commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
51and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 51and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
52</p> 52</p>
53 53
54<p> 54<p>
55The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 55The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
56user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 56user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
57the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 57the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
58compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 58compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
59The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 59The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
60</p> 60</p>
61 61
62</body> 62</body>
63</section> 63</section>
64<section> 64<section>
65<title>The X.org Project</title> 65<title>The X.org Project</title>
66<body> 66<body>
67 67
68<p> 68<p>
69The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 69The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
70maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11 70maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
71system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 71system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
72</p> 72</p>
73 73
74<p> 74<p>
75Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 75Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
76you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 76you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
77are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 77are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
78one. 78one.
79</p> 79</p>
80 80
81</body> 81</body>
82</section> 82</section>
83</chapter> 83</chapter>
84 84
85<chapter> 85<chapter>
86<title>Installing Xorg</title> 86<title>Installing Xorg</title>
87<section> 87<section>
88<title>Using emerge</title> 88<title>Using emerge</title>
89<body> 89<body>
90 90
91<p> 91<p>
92Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 92Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just
93need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 93need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while
94though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 94though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting.
95</p> 95</p>
96 96
97<p> 97<p>
98Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the 98Before installing Xorg you have to configure two important variables in the
99<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 99<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
100</p> 100</p>
101 101
102<p> 102<p>
103The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that 103The first one is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers that
104you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have. 104you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you have.
105The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for 105The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or <c>fglrx</c> for
106ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI 106ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia and ATI
107respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c> 107respectively. If you would like to use the open source versions, use <c>nv</c>
108rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this 108rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that using this
204# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 204# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
205</pre> 205</pre>
206 206
207<p> 207<p>
208Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue 208Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
209with checking out how we can create the file automatically. 209with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
210</p> 210</p>
211 211
212</body> 212</body>
213</section> 213</section>
214<section> 214<section>
215<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 215<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
216<body> 216<body>
217 217
218<p> 218<p>
219Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 219Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
220will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 220will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
221running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 221running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
222resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 222resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
223working) Xorg configuration file. 223working) Xorg configuration file.
224</p> 224</p>
225 225
226<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 226<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
227# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 227# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
228</pre> 228</pre>
229 229
230<p> 230<p>
231Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 231Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
232probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 232probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
233manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 233manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
234will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 234will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
235for you to test. So let's test. :) 235for you to test. So let's test. :)
236</p> 236</p>
237 237
238<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 238<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
417 Option "XkbModel" "pc105" 417 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
418 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i> 418 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
419EndSection 419EndSection
420</pre> 420</pre>
421 421
422</body> 422</body>
423</section> 423</section>
424<section> 424<section>
425<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 425<title>Configuring your Mouse</title>
426<body> 426<body>
427 427
428<p> 428<p>
429If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected 429If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
430by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as 430by the kernel at all. Mice are (device-wise) seen as
431<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to 431<path>/dev/input/mouse0</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path> if you want to
432use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either 432use several mice). In some cases <path>/dev/psaux</path> is used. In either
433case you can check if the devices do represent 433case you can check if the devices do represent
434your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You 434your mouse by checking the output of those files when you move your mouse. You
435will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press 435will usually see some junk on your screen. To end the session press
436<c>Ctrl-C</c>. 436<c>Ctrl-C</c>.
437</p> 437</p>
438 438
439<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 439<pre caption="Checking the device files">
440# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i> 440# <i>cat /dev/input/mouse0</i>
441<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 441<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
442</pre> 442</pre>
443 443
444<p> 444<p>
445If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded. 445If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
446</p> 446</p>
447 447
448<p> 448<p>
449If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 449If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
450<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other 450<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
451options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most 451options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used -- most
452users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the 452users will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
453mousewheel (if applicable) to be used). 453mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
454</p> 454</p>
455 455
456<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg"> 456<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
457Section "InputDevice" 457Section "InputDevice"
458 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 458 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
459 Driver "mouse" 459 Driver "mouse"
460 Option "CorePointer" 460 Option "CorePointer"
461 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i> 461 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/input/mouse0"</i>
462 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i> 462 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
463 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i> 463 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
464EndSection 464EndSection

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