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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.36 2010/01/02 03:02:40 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.37 2010/03/16 20:07:43 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift"/> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/> 12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.26</version> 25<version>1.27</version>
26<date>2010-01-01</date> 26<date>2010-03-16</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
386</p> 386</p>
387 387
388<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 388<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
389# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 389# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
390</pre> 390</pre>
391 391
392<p> 392<p>
393Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 393Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
394probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 394probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
395manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 395manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
396will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 396will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
397for you to test. So let's test. :) 397for you to test. So let's test. :)
398</p> 398</p>
399 399
400<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 400<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
401# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 401# <i>X -config -retro /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
402</pre> 402</pre>
403 403
404<p> 404<p>
405If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 405If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
406your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able 406your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
407to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. 407to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
408You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 408You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
409</p> 409</p>
410 410
411</body> 411</body>
412</section> 412</section>
413<section> 413<section>
414<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 414<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
415<body> 415<body>
416 416
442 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will 442 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
443 execute the commands listed there. 443 execute the commands listed there.
444 </li> 444 </li>
445 <li> 445 <li>
446 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 446 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
447 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 447 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
448 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in 448 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
449 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on 449 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on
450 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" > 450 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
451 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file 451 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
452 and set the default X session to Xfce4. 452 and set the default X session to Xfce4.
453 </li> 453 </li>
454</ul> 454</ul>
455 455
456<pre caption="Starting X"> 456<pre caption="Starting X">
457# <i>startx</i> 457$ <i>startx</i>
458</pre> 458</pre>
459 459
460<p> 460<p>
461You can kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will 461You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This
462however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. 462will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
463want.
464</p>
465
466<p>
467If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
468Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
469<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
470</p>
471
472<p>
473Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm
474windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly.
475Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as
476root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a
477proper desktop environment.
463</p> 478</p>
464 479
465</body> 480</body>
466</section> 481</section>
467</chapter> 482</chapter>
468 483
469<chapter> 484<chapter>
470<title>Tweaking X settings</title> 485<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
471<section> 486<section>
472<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 487<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
473<body> 488<body>
474 489
475<p> 490<p>
476If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 491If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
477sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have 492sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
507<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 522<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
508Section "Screen" 523Section "Screen"
509 Identifier "Default Screen" 524 Identifier "Default Screen"
510 Device "RadeonHD 4550" 525 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
511 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 526 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
512 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 527 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
513 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 528 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
514 SubSection "Display" 529 SubSection "Display"
515 Depth 24 530 Depth 24
516 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i> 531 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
517 EndSubSection 532 EndSubSection
518EndSection 533EndSection
519</pre> 534</pre>
520 535
521<p> 536<p>
522Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :) 537Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
523</p> 538</p>
524 539
525</body> 540</body>
526</section> 541</section>
527<section> 542<section>
528<title>Configuring your keyboard</title> 543<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
529<body> 544<body>
530 545
531<p> 546<p>
532To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of 547To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
533<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to 548<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
534<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>: 549<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
535</p> 550</p>
536 551
537<pre caption="Using an existing config file"> 552<pre caption="Using an existing config file">

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