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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.44 2011/03/02 08:16:43 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.45 2011/03/23 09:03:51 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift"/> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/> 12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>6</version> 25<version>7</version>
26<date>2011-03-02</date> 26<date>2011-03-23</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
136</p> 136</p>
137 137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers"> 138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt; 139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt; 140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt; 141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment> 142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143 143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment> 144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt; 145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support 146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre> 147</pre>
148 148
149<p> 149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card. 150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for 151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below. 152your card below.
153</p> 153</p>
154 154
155<p> 155<p>
156For Intel cards: 156For Intel cards:
157</p> 157</p>
158 158
159<pre caption="Intel settings"> 159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt; 160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt; 161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt; 162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support 163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt; 164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver) 165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver 166 i915 driver
173 173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings"> 174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment> 175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt; 176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt; 177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt; 178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179 179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment> 180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt; 181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt; 182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built 183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards 184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre> 185</pre>
186 186
187<p> 187<p>
188For newer ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and 188For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed 189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c>. Once you have installed
190<c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown: 190<c>radeon-ucode</c>, configure your kernel as shown:
191</p> 191</p>
192 192
193<pre caption="ATI settings"> 193<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
194<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment> 194<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
195Device Drivers ---&gt; 195Device Drivers ---&gt;
196 Generic Driver Options ---&gt; 196 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
197 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary 197 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
198 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment> 198 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
199 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs 199 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
200 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment> 200 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
201 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin 201 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
202 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin 202 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
203 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin 203 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
204 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin 204 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs 205 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
206 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment> 206 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
207 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External 207 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
208 firmware blobs 208 firmware blobs
240 240
241<p> 241<p>
242Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables 242Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
243in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg. 243in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
244</p> 244</p>
245 245
246<p> 246<p>
247The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers 247The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
248that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have. 248that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
249The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c> 249The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
250for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source 250for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
251drivers. 251drivers.
252</p> 252</p>
253 253
254<note> 254<note>
255You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and ATI, <c>nvidia</c> and 255You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
256<c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is 256and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
257beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri 257beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
258link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri 258link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
259link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which 259link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
260drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information. 260drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
261</note> 261</note>
262 262
263<p> 263<p>
264The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel 264The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
265integrated graphics chipsets. 265integrated graphics chipsets.
266</p> 266</p>
267 267
268<note> 268<note>
269<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a 269<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
270space. 270space.
271</note> 271</note>
276<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input 276<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
277devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to 277devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
278<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>. 278<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
279</p> 279</p>
280 280
281<p> 281<p>
282Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to 282Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
283the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file: 283the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
284</p> 284</p>
285 285
286<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 286<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
287<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment> 287<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
288INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics" 288INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
289<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment> 289<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
290VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau" 290VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
291<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 291<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
292VIDEO_CARDS="radeon" 292VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
293</pre> 293</pre>
294 294
295<p> 295<p>
296If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 296If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
297xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to 297xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
298your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics 298your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
299touchpad, and a Radeon video card. 299touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
300</p> 300</p>
301 301
302<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 302<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
303# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i> 303# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
304 304
305These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 305These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
306 306
309-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib 309-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
310-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom" 310-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
311VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx 311VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
312(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport) 312(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
313-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis 313-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
314-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx) 314-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
315-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 315-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3160 kB 3160 kB
317</pre> 317</pre>
318 318
319<p> 319<p>
320After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 320After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
321</p> 321</p>
322 322
323<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 323<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
324<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
325# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
326<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
324# <i>emerge xorg-server</i> 327# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
325</pre> 328</pre>
326 329
327<note> 330<note>
328You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more 331You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
329lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and 332lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
330<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more 333<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
331packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in 334packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
332many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop. 335many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
333</note> 336</note>
334 337
335<p> 338<p>
336When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some 339When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
337environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 340environment variables before you continue:
338by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
339</p> 341</p>
340 342
341<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 343<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
342# <i>env-update</i> 344# <i>env-update</i>
343# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 345# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
344</pre> 346</pre>
345 347
346<p>
347Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
348automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
349environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
350just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
351link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
352</p>
353
354<pre caption="Starting HAL">
355# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
356# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
357</pre>
358
359</body> 348</body>
360</section> 349</section>
361</chapter> 350</chapter>
362 351
363<chapter> 352<chapter>
364<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 353<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
365<section id="using_hal"> 354<section>
366<title>Using HAL</title>
367<body> 355<body>
368 356
369<p> 357<p>
370The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit 358The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
371Xorg's configuration files. 359Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
372</p> 360displays, keyboards, and mice.
373
374<p> 361</p>
362
363<p>
375You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating 364You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
376<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. 365any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
377</p> 366then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
378
379<p> 367</p>
380If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
381keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
382configuration files.
383</p>
384 368
385<p>
386By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
387devices such as keyboards and mice.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
392files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
393that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
394<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
395</p>
396
397<impo>
398Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
399you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
400location.
401</impo>
402
403<p>
404For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
405the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
406</p>
407
408<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
409# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
410# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
415may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
416management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
417<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
418</p>
419
420<impo>
421Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
422need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
423</impo>
424
425<p>
426You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
427liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
428functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
429</p>
430
431<p>
432One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
433Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
434etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
435</p>
436
437<p>
438Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
439can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
440<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
441line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
442</p>
443
444<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
445<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
446# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
447<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
448&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
449<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
450&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
451 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
452 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
453 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
454 string="Linux"&gt;
455 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
456 &lt;/match&gt;
457 &lt;/match&gt;
458</pre>
459
460<p>
461Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
462changes.
463</p>
464
465<p>
466There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
467useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
468tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
469key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
470way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
471</p>
472
473<p>
474Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
475If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
476manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
477</p>
478
479</body> 369</body>
480</section>
481<section> 370</section>
371<section>
482<title>The xorg.conf file</title> 372<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
483<body> 373<body>
484 374
485<note> 375<note>
486Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It 376Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
487really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your 377option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
488configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working 378possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
489configuration, then read on.
490</note> 379</note>
491 380
492<p> 381<p>
493The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides 382The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
494in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as 383<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
495<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own 384<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
496configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more 385the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
497documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 386<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
498</p> 387numbers, but it may help you organize them.
499
500<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
501$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
502</pre>
503
504</body>
505</section>
506<section>
507<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
508<body>
509
510<p> 388</p>
511Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
512will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
513running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
514resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
515working) Xorg configuration file.
516</p>
517 389
518<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 390<note>
519# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 391Xorg provides example configurations in
520</pre> 392<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
521 393can use these to create your own configuration files in
522<p> 394<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
523Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 395you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
524probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 396xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
525manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 397link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
526will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 398</note>
527for you to test. So let's test. :)
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
531# <i>X -retro -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
532</pre>
533
534<p>
535If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
536your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
537to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
538You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
539</p>
540
541</body>
542</section>
543<section>
544<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
545<body>
546
547<p>
548Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
549<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
550<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
554# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
555</pre>
556 399
557</body> 400</body>
558</section> 401</section>
559<section id="using_startx"> 402<section id="using_startx">
560<title>Using startx</title> 403<title>Using startx</title>
561<body> 404<body>
562 405
563<p> 406<p>
564Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 407Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
565that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X server and some 408that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
566graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 409graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
567using the following logic: 410using the following logic:
568</p> 411</p>
569 412
570<ul> 413<ul>
571 <li> 414 <li>
572 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will 415 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
573 execute the commands listed there. 416 execute the commands listed there.
574 </li> 417 </li>
575 <li> 418 <li>
576 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 419 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
577 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 420 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
578 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in 421 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
579 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users 422 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
580 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" > 423 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
581 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file 424 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
582 and set the default X session to <uri 425 and set the default X session to <uri
583 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c> 426 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
584 after changing <path>90xsession</path>. 427 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
585 </li> 428 </li>
586</ul> 429</ul>
587 430
588<pre caption="Starting X"> 431<pre caption="Starting X">
589$ <i>startx</i> 432$ <i>startx</i>
590</pre> 433</pre>
591 434
592<p> 435<p>
593You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This
594will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
595want.
596</p>
597
598<p>
599If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen. 436If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
600Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge 437Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
601<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>. 438<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
602</p> 439</p>
603 440
604<p> 441<p>
605Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm 442Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
606windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly. 443<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
607Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as 444correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
608root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a 445xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
609proper desktop environment. 446you've setup a proper desktop environment.
610</p> 447</p>
611 448
612</body> 449</body>
613</section> 450</section>
614</chapter> 451</chapter>
615 452
616<chapter> 453<chapter>
617<title>Tweaking X settings</title> 454<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
618<section> 455<section>
619<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 456<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
620<body> 457<body>
621 458
622<p> 459<p>
623If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 460If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
624sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have 461sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
625the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server 462the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
626will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If 463run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
627this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in 464Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
628the second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 465section, <e>Monitor</e>.
629</p>
630
631<p> 466</p>
632What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
633<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
634For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
635section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
636look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
637</p>
638
639<warn>
640Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
641without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
642incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
643worst.
644</warn>
645 467
646<p> 468<p>
647Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from 469Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
648<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our 470<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
649X server starts at 1440x900 by default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are 471<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
650examples and will most likely differ from the settings on your system. However,
651the <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your 472The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
652monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll 473monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
653need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The 474need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
654argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the 475argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
655<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section. 476<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
656</p> 477</p>
657 478
658<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 479<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
480# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
481
659Section "Device" 482Section "Device"
660 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550" 483 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
661 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen" 484 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
662EndSection 485EndSection
663Section "Monitor" 486Section "Monitor"
664 Identifier "DVI screen" 487 Identifier "DVI screen"
665 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900" 488 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
666EndSection 489EndSection
667</pre> 490</pre>
668 491
669<p> 492<p>
670Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. 493Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
671</p> 494</p>
672 495
673</body> 496</body>
674</section> 497</section>
675<section> 498<section>
676<title>Multiple monitors</title> 499<title>Multiple monitors</title>
677<body> 500<body>
678 501
679<p> 502<p>
680You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. All 503You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
681you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical 504All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
682position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example 505position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
683shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the 506shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
684right-hand screen: 507right-hand screen:
685</p> 508</p>
686 509
687<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors in xorg.conf"> 510<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
511# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
512
688Section "Device" 513Section "Device"
689 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550" 514 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
690 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen" 515 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
691 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen" 516 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
692EndSection 517EndSection
693
694Section "Monitor" 518Section "Monitor"
695 Identifier "DVI screen" 519 Identifier "DVI screen"
696EndSection 520EndSection
697
698Section "Monitor" 521Section "Monitor"
699 Identifier "VGA screen" 522 Identifier "VGA screen"
700 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen" 523 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
701EndSection 524EndSection
702</pre> 525</pre>
703 526
704</body> 527</body>
705</section> 528</section>
706<section> 529<section>
707<title>Configuring your keyboard</title> 530<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
708<body> 531<body>
709 532
710<p> 533<p>
711To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of 534To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
712<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to 535appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
713<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>: 536features a Czech keyboard layout:
714</p>
715
716<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
717# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
718</pre>
719
720<p> 537</p>
721Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the 538
722Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain 539<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
723(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>). 540# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
541
542Section "InputClass"
543 Identifier "keyboard-all"
544 Driver "evdev"
545 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
546 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
547 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
548 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
549 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
550 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
551EndSection
552</pre>
553
724</p> 554<p>
725 555The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
726<p> 556session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
727When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure 557make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
728that HAL picks up your configuration file changes. 558useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
559configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
560desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
561end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
729</p> 562</p>
730 563
731</body> 564</body>
732</section> 565</section>
733<section> 566<section>
734<title>Finishing up</title> 567<title>Finishing up</title>
735<body> 568<body>
736 569
737<p> 570<p>
738Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now 571Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
739(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a 572(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
740useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or 573useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
741Xfce, but that's not part of this guide. 574that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
575environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
576Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
742</p> 577</p>
743 578
744</body> 579</body>
745</section> 580</section>
746</chapter> 581</chapter>
747 582
748<chapter> 583<chapter id="resources">
749<title>Resources</title> 584<title>Resources</title>
750<section> 585<section>
751<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 586<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
752<body> 587<body>
753 588
754<p> 589<p>
755First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet 590First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
756complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure 591complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
757to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration 592to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
758files!
759</p>
760
761<p> 593</p>
762Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish 594
763to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
764<path>xorg.conf</path>.
765</p> 595<p>
766
767<p>
768You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
769on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
770</p>
771
772<p>
773There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 596There are also many online resources on editing config files in
774list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 597<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
775for more. 598link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
776</p> 599</p>
777 600
778</body> 601</body>
779</section> 602</section>
780<section> 603<section>
781<title>Other resources</title> 604<title>Other resources</title>
782<body> 605<body>
783 606
784<p> 607<p>
785More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop 608More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
786environments and applications can be found in the <uri 609environments and applications can be found in the <uri
787link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri> 610link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
788section of our documentation. 611section of our documentation.
789</p> 612</p>
790 613
791<p> 614<p>
792If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.8 from an earlier version, then be 615If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
793sure to read the <uri 616sure to read the <uri
794link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.8-upgrade-guide.xml">migration 617link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
795guide</uri>. 618guide</uri>.
619</p>
620
621<p>
622X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
623website, in addition to their other documentation.
796</p> 624</p>
797 625
798</body> 626</body>
799</section> 627</section>
800</chapter> 628</chapter>
801</guide> 629</guide>

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