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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.8 2005/02/14 09:26:19 swift Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.9 2005/03/25 15:55:32 swift Exp $ -->
4 4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 6
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 7<guide link="xorg-config.xml">
8 8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 10
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.7</version> 25<version>1.8</version>
26<date>2005-02-07</date> 26<date>2005-03-25</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
157</pre> 157</pre>
158 158
159<p> 159<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :) 164for you to test. So let's test :)
165</p> 165</p>
166 166
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 169</pre>
170 170
171<p> 171<p>
172If all goes well, you should see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed 172If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173window manager called <c>twm</c>, probably the smallest window manager 173your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
174available. Try moving your mouse and see if your keyboard and such is working. 174to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
175In the next section we will optimize our <path>xorg.conf</path> so it fits your 175You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176hardware. Now go into one of the terminals you see on your screen and type in
177<c>exit</c> (or press Ctrl-D) until Xorg shuts down. If you are unable to
178use your mouse to focus the terminals, you can also press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to
179kill the X server.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183If <c>twm</c> doesn't load, don't worry - it will once you'll start the X server
184through the regular <c>startx</c> command. Verify if your mouse works correctly
185and if the resolution is good. You might not be able to deduce the exact
186resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. You can exit any time
187by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
188</p> 176</p>
189 177
190</body> 178</body>
191</section> 179</section>
192<section> 180<section>
193<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 181<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
194<body> 182<body>
195 183
196<p> 184<p>
197Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various 185Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
198information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on 186information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
199your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file. 187your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
200</p> 188</p>
201 189
202<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf"> 190<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
203# <i>xorgconfig</i> 191# <i>xorgconfig</i>
204</pre> 192</pre>
205 193
206</body> 194</body>
207</section> 195</section>
196<section>
197<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
198<body>
199
200<p>
201Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
202<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
203<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
204</p>
205
206<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
207# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
208</pre>
209
210</body>
211</section>
212<section id="using_startx">
213<title>Using startx</title>
214<body>
215
216<p>
217Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
218that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
219graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
220using the following logic:
221</p>
222
223<ul>
224 <li>
225 If a file named <path>.xinitrc</path> exists in the home directory, it will
226 execute the commands listed there.
227 </li>
228 <li>
229 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
230 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
231 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
232 to make it a default for all the users on the system).
233 </li>
234<li>
235 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager,
236 usually <c>twm</c>.
237 </li>
238</ul>
239
240<pre caption="Starting X">
241# <i>startx</i>
242</pre>
243
244<p>
245If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's
246<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the
247upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
248combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - something that you
249might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
250</p>
251
252</body>
253</section>
208</chapter> 254</chapter>
209<chapter> 255<chapter>
210<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 256<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
211<section>
212<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
213<body>
214
215<p>
216Let us first copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
217<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> so we won't have to continuously run <c>Xorg
218-config</c> -- typing <c>startx</c> is far more easy :)
219</p>
220
221<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
222# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
223</pre>
224
225<p>
226Now run <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. It will use the freshly copied
227file as its configuration file. To finish the X session, type in <c>exit</c> or
228Ctrl-D in the upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the
229Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully -
230something that you might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
231</p>
232
233<pre caption="Starting X">
234# <i>startx</i>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section> 257<section>
240<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 258<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
241<body> 259<body>
242 260
243<p> 261<p>
244If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 262If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
245sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 263sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section
246which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 264which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By
247default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 265default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the
248case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 266case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the
249second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 267second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
250</p> 268</p>
251 269
252<p> 270<p>
253What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 271What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and

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